Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta

Prince Aimone, 4th Duke of Aosta (Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino; 9 March 1900 – 29 January 1948) was a prince of Italy's reigning House of Savoy and an officer of the Royal Italian Navy. The second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta he was granted the title Duke of Spoleto on 22 September 1904. He inherited the title Duke of Aosta on 3 March 1942 following the death of his brother Prince Amedeo, in a British prisoner of war camp in Nairobi.

From 18 May 1941 to 31 July 1943 he was designated king of the Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH) though he never ruled there.[2] He formally accepted the position and took the name Tomislav II (Croatian pronunciation: [tǒmislaʋ drûɡiː]), after the first Croatian king.[3][4] Later however he refused to assume the kingship in protest at the Italian annexation of the Dalmatia region,[5] and is therefore referred to in some sources as king designate.[6][7][8][9] Regardless, many sources refer to him as Tomislav II King of Croatia and the nominal head of the NDH during its first two years (1941–1943).[10][11][12][13][14] After the dismissal of Mussolini on 25 July 1943, the prince abdicated on 31 July as king on the orders of Victor Emmanuel III.

Prince Aimone
Duke of Aosta;
Duke of Spoleto;
King of Croatia
Prince Aimone of Savoy - restored
King of Croatia
Nominal reign18 May 1941 – 31 July 1943
Prime MinisterAnte Pavelić
Born9 March 1900
Turin, Kingdom of Italy
Died29 January 1948 (aged 47)
Buenos Aires, Argentina
Burial31 January 1948
SpouseIrene of Greece and Denmark
IssuePrince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta
Full name
Italian: Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino of Savoy-Aosta
FatherEmanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
MotherHélène of Orléans
ReligionRoman Catholicism

Early life

Prince Aimone Roberto Margherita Maria Giuseppe Torino of Savoy-Aosta was born in Turin the second son of Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta (eldest son of Prince Amedeo, 1st Duke of Aosta (and sometime "King Amadeo I of Spain") by his wife, née Vittoria dal Pozzo, Principessa della Cisterna) and Princess Hélène of Orléans (daughter of Philippe, comte de Paris and Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans). As his patrilinal great-grandfather was King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, he was a member of the House of Savoy.

On 22 September 1904, he was given the title Duke of Spoleto for life.[15] With his brother Amedeo, he was educated at St David's College, Reigate, Surrey, England, and Aimone later went to study at the naval academy in Livorno.[16] On 1 April 1921, Prince Aimone became a member of the Italian Senate. Princes of the House of Savoy became members of the Senate at age 21, obtaining the right to vote at age 25.[17]

In 1929, twenty years after his uncle Prince Luigi Amedeo, Duke of the Abruzzi had attempted to climb K2 in Karakoram, Prince Aimone led an expedition to Karakorum. A member of the expedition was Ardito Desio. Due to the failure to climb K2 twenty years earlier, Prince Aimone's expedition concentrated solely on scientific work.[18][19] He was afterwards awarded the 1932 Royal Geographical Society's Patron's Gold Medal for his work.[20]

After being romantically linked with Infanta Beatriz of Spain the daughter of King Alfonso XIII,[21] he married, on 1 July 1939 in Florence, Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark the daughter of King Constantine I and Princess Sophie of Prussia. They had one son Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (b. 1943).

War years

Croatian throne

Designacija Aimone Tomislava II. 18.05.1941
Designation of Aimone as King of Croatia on 18 May 1941. In front of him poglavnik Pavelić with the Croatian delegation

On 18 May 1941, in a ceremony at the Quirinal Palace, to which Ante Pavelić, the leader of the fascist Ustaše movement that had assumed power in Croatia in April 1941 after the invasion of Yugoslavia, led a delegation of Croats requesting that Italy's King Victor Emmanuel III name a member of the House of Savoy as King of Croatia. The Independent State of Croatia was a fascist puppet state that was partly under Italian and German control, covering most of present-day states of Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, but its leaders tried to assert their legitimacy by instating a monarchy that would resemble the medieval Croatian state.

Aimone was then officially named King by his cousin Victor Emmanuel III.[22] On assuming the Crown of Zvonimir he took the regnal name Tomislav II in memory of Tomislav, the first Croatian king.[23] Originally on learning that he had been named King of Croatia he told close colleagues that he thought his nomination was a bad joke by his cousin King Victor Emmanuel III, though he accepted the crown out of a sense of duty.[24] The Italian Foreign Minister and Benito Mussolini's son in law Count Ciano's informants said of Aimone "The Duke doesn't give a damn about Croatia and wants only money, money and more money."[25] Ciano's diary noted a conversation between Aimone and himself, where Aimone was "proud of having been chosen King of Croatia, but has no exact idea of what he is supposed to do and is vaguely uneasy about it".[26]

He was due to be crowned in Duvno (Tomislavgrad), in modern-day Bosnia and Herzegovina, but he refused to go to Croatia due to the "Dalmatian question" which arose due to Italy taking some of Dalmatia's coastal territory. Aimone felt that Dalmatia "was a land that could never be Italianized" and was an obstacle to Italian-Croatian reconciliation.[27] Other reasons why he never went to Croatia were because of an ongoing insurgency, and that his safety could not be guaranteed.[25] Because of this he exercised what little power he had from Italy and Hungary,[28] however he never held any real authority throughout his reign as the Ustaše government had deprived the monarchy of most powers and reduced the status of the king to that of a figurehead.[24] In spite of this he did have some symbolic powers such as the ability to grant noble titles.[29] Count Gyula István Cseszneky de Milvány et Csesznek was the counselor to the King for Croatian affairs. Prince Aimone also established a Croatian office in Rome where he received confidential reports, official documents, and military, political and economic information from Croatia.[30]

After the fall of the Fascist regime in Italy, Aimone abdicated as king of Croatia on 31 July 1943 on the orders of Victor Emmanuel III.[28][31][32][33]

Prince Aimone succeeded to the title Duke of Aosta on 3 March 1942, following the death of his elder brother Prince Amedeo, 3rd Duke of Aosta, in a British Prisoner of War camp in Kenya.

In the Autumn of 1942, Aimone contacted Allied forces via his courier, the consul general Alessandro Marieni, about the possibility of a peace settlement between Italy and allied forces.[34] Secret talks would continue into 1943, motivated in part by the aim of preserving the royal dynasty of Savoy.[34]


In the latter months of World War II, he became the commander of the Italian Naval Base of Taranto but he was dismissed from his post for his criticism of the judges that had found General Mario Roatta guilty of war crimes.[35] During his naval career he reached the rank of Squadron Admiral.


In 1947 following the birth of the Italian Republic the previous year, Prince Aimone left Italy for South America.[36] Just a year after his arrival, he suddenly died on 29 January 1948 in his temporary residence a private suite at the Alvear Palace Hotel in the French Borough of Recoleta in Buenos Aires, while his entourage was arranging his permanent residency documents and the purchase of his new home in Argentina.[37] His son Prince Amedeo succeeded him as Duke of Aosta.

Titles, styles, honours, and arms

  • 9 March 1900 – 21 September 1904: His Serene Highness Prince Aimone of Savoy-Aosta
  • 22 September 1904 – 17 May 1941: His Royal Highness The Duke of Spoleto
  • 18 May 1941 – 2 March 1942: His Majesty The King of Croatia, Duke of Spoleto
  • 3 March 1942 – 31 July 1943: His Majesty The King of Croatia, Duke of Aosta
  • 31 July 1943 – 30 January 1948: His Royal Highness The Duke of Aosta[38]


National honours

Foreign honours


  • Hanson, Edward (2017). The Wandering Princess: Princess Helene of France, Duchess of Aosta (1871–1951). Fonthill. ISBN 978-1-78155-592-7.
  1. ^ Royalty Guide: Savoy-Aosta
  2. ^ Lemkin, Raphael (2008). Independent State of Croatia. The Lawbook Exchange, Ltd. pp. 252–56. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  3. ^ dr. Marijan Rogić, Pod Zvonimirovom krunom (Under the crown of Zvonimir) Munchen 2008.
  4. ^ Hrvoje Matković, Designirani hrvatski kralj Tomislav II. vojvoda od Spoleta. Povijest hrvatskotalijanskih odnosa u prvoj polovici (Designated Croatian king Tomislav II, Duke of Spoleto. History of Croatian-Italian relationships in first half of the 20th century), Zagreb 2007.
  5. ^ Rodogno, Davide; Fascism's European empire: Italian occupation during the Second World War; p.95; Cambridge University Press, 2006 ISBN 0-521-84515-7
    "Devoid of political experience and ignorant of the Italian government's exact intentions, he [the Duke Aimone] refused to leave for Croatia, saying so in letters to Victor Emmanuel and Mussolini, in which he told them that the question of Dalmatia, 'a land that could never be Italianized', was an obstacle against any reconciliation with the Croats. Never, he declared, would he agree to be a king of a nation amputated from Italy." [1].
  6. ^ Pavlowitch, Stevan K.; Hitler's new disorder: the Second World War in Yugoslavia; p.289; Columbia University Press, 2008 0-231-70050-4 [2]
  7. ^ Massock, Richard G.; Italy from Within; p.306; READ BOOKS, 2007 ISBN 1-4067-2097-6 [3]
  8. ^ Burgwyn, H. James; Empire on the Adriatic: Mussolini's conquest of Yugoslavia 1941-1943; p.39; Enigma, 2005 ISBN 1-929631-35-9
  9. ^ Royal Institute of International Affairs; Enemy Countries, Axis-Controlled Europe; Kraus International Publications, 1945 ISBN 3-601-00016-4 [4]
  10. ^ Rezun, Miron (30 May 1995). Europe and war in the Balkans: toward a new Yugoslav identity. Greenwood Press. p. 62. ISBN 027595238X. The duke agreed to accept the throne and became King Tomislav II of Croatia
  11. ^ Friedman, Francine (22 January 2004). Bosnia and Herzegovina: a polity on the brink. Routledge. p. 130. ISBN 0415274354. ...nominally Croatia was ruled by the Italian Duke of Spoleto styled as King Tomislav II...
  12. ^ Dedijer, Vladimir (1979). History of Yugoslavia. p. 573. ...The new king was given the title of Tomislav II...
  13. ^ Romano, Sergio (1 March 1999). An outline of European history from 1789 to 1989. Berghahn Books. p. 130. ISBN 1571810765. ...the Duke of Spoleto, became king, with the name of Tomislav II...
  14. ^ Salmaggi, Cesare; Pallavisini, Alfredo (1 May 1984). 2194 days of war. E Mayflower Books. p. 149. ISBN 0831789417. ...Croatia is constituted an independent nation under Tomislav II...
  15. ^ The Peerage
  16. ^ Hanson, The Wandering Princess, 161, 187. The English school is usually mis-identified as St Andrew's College.
  17. ^ "Prince is Italian Senator". New York Times. 2 April 1921. p. 10.
  18. ^ K2 - The Savage Mountain Archived 2007-06-28 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ K2 2004 - 50 years later Archived 2007-09-27 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ "List of Past Gold Medal Winners" (PDF). Royal Geographical Society. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  21. ^ "Milestones". Time Magazine. April 21, 1930.
  22. ^ Packard, Reynolds (2005). Balcony Empire: Fascist Italy at War. Kessinger Publishing. p. 190. ISBN 1417985283.
  23. ^ Worldstatesmen
  24. ^ a b Petacco, Arrigo (2005). A Tragedy Revealed: The Story of the Italian Population of Istria, Dalmatia, and Venezia Giulia. University of Toronto Press. pp. 26, 27. ISBN 0802039219.
  25. ^ a b Tomasevich, Jozo (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press. p. 138. ISBN 0804736154.
  26. ^ Ciano, Galeazzo (1947). Ciano's diary, 1939-1943. p. 343.
  27. ^ Rodogno, Davide (2006). Fascism's European Empire: Italian Occupation During the Second World War. Cambridge University Press. p. 95. ISBN 0521845157.
  28. ^ a b "Duke gives up puppet throne". St. Petersburg Times. 21 August 1943. p. 10.
  29. ^ Balkan royalty
  30. ^ Avramov, Smilja (1995). Genocide in Yugoslavia. p. 238.
  31. ^ Lemkin, Raphael; Power, Samantha (2005). Axis Rule In Occupied Europe: Laws Of Occupation, Analysis Of Government, Proposals For Redress. Lawbook Exchange. p. 253. ISBN 1584775769.
  32. ^ "Foreign News: Hotel Balkania". Time Magazine. 9 August 1943. Retrieved 4 December 2009.
  33. ^ B. Krizman, NDH između Hitlera i Mussolinija (Independent State of Croatia between Hitler and Mussolini,)p.102
  34. ^ a b Corvaja, Santi; Miller, Robert (2013). Hitler & Mussolini: The Secret Meetings. Enigma Books. p. 259.
  35. ^ "A Duke Departs". Time Magazine. April 23, 1945.
  36. ^ "Obituaries". Keesing's Record of World Events. April 1948. p. 9212.
  37. ^ "Death of Duke of Aosta". Canberra Times. 31 January 1948. p. 1.
  38. ^ Enache, Nicolas. La Descendance de Marie-Therese de Habsburg. ICC, Paris, 1996. pp. 206, 214. French.
  39. ^
  40. ^ a b c, Aimone wearing the Greek Italian and Romanian orders
  41. ^ Live Journal

External links

Media related to Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta at Wikimedia Commons

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
Born: 9 March 1900 Died: 29 January 1948
Italian nobility
Preceded by
Duke of Aosta
Succeeded by
Regnal titles
Title last held by
Charles IV
as undisputed king
King of Croatia

Aimone may refer to:

Florencia Aimone (born 1990), team handball player from Argentina

Aimone Alletti (born 1988), Italian male volleyball player

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (1900–1948), Italian prince, officer of the Royal Italian Navy

Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia (born 1967), first son of Prince Amedeo, 5th Duke of Aosta

Aimone Duce, Italian painter for the court of Savoy-Acaia, active during 1417 and 1444

Aimone Taparelli (1395–1495), Italian Roman Catholic priest, professed member from the Order of Preachers

Duke Aimone

Duke Aimone can refer to:

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta, Italian nobleman and naval officer

Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia, Italian nobleman, current heir apparent to the disputed headship of the House of Savoy

House of Savoy

The House of Savoy (Italian: Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps north-west of Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.

Independent State of Croatia

The Independent State of Croatia (Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH; German: Unabhängiger Staat Kroatien; Italian: Stato Indipendente di Croazia) was a World War II fascist puppet state of Germany and Italy. It was established in parts of occupied Yugoslavia on 10 April 1941, after the invasion by the Axis powers. Its territory consisted of most of modern-day Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as some parts of modern-day Serbia and Slovenia, but also excluded many Croat-populated areas in Dalmatia (until late 1943), Istria, and Međimurje regions (which today are part of Croatia).

During its entire existence, the NDH was governed as a one-party state by the fascist Ustaša organization. The Ustaše was led by the Poglavnik, Ante Pavelić. The regime targeted Serbs, Jews and Roma as part of a large-scale campaign of genocide, as well as anti-fascist or dissident Croats and Muslims.Between 1941–45, 22 concentration camps existed inside the territory controlled by the Independent State of Croatia, two of which (Jastrebarsko and Sisak) housed only children and the largest of which was Jasenovac.The state was officially a monarchy after the signing of the Laws of the Crown of Zvonimir on 15 May 1941. Appointed by Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta initially refused to assume the crown in opposition to the Italian annexation of the Croat-majority populated region of Dalmatia, annexed as part of the Italian irredentist agenda of creating a Mare Nostrum ("Our Sea"). He later briefly accepted the throne due to pressure from Victor Emmanuel III and was titled Tomislav II of Croatia, but never moved from Italy to reside in Croatia.From the signing of the Treaties of Rome on 18 May 1941 until the Italian capitulation on 8 September 1943, the state was a territorial condominium of Germany and Italy. In its judgement in the Hostages Trial, the Nuremberg Military Tribunal concluded that NDH was not a sovereign state. According to the Tribunal, "Croatia was at all times here involved an occupied country".In 1942, Germany suggested Italy take military control of all of Croatia out of a desire to redirect German troops from Croatia to the Eastern Front. Italy however rejected the offer as it did not believe that it could handle the unstable situation in the Balkans alone. After the ousting of Mussolini and the Kingdom of Italy's armistice with the Allies, the NDH on 10 September 1943 declared that the Treaties of Rome were null and void and annexed the portion of Dalmatia that had been ceded to Italy. The NDH attempted to annex Zara, which had been a recognized territory of Italy since 1919 but long an object of Croatian irredentism, but Germany did not allow it.

January 29

January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. 336 days remain until the end of the year (337 in leap years).

Line of succession to the former Italian throne

The Italian monarchy was abolished in June 1946 following a referendum which established a republic.

The present pretender is in dispute between Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples and Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta.

List of heirs to the Italian throne

The list includes all individuals who were first in line to the throne of Italy, either as heir apparent or as heir presumptive, since 1861. Those who actually succeeded to the throne are shown in bold.

List of members of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg

This is a list of members of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, a cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg. It includes men and women who are members of the male-line descent from King Christian IX of Denmark and therefore bore the title of Prince of Denmark (unless giving it up).

Christian IX of Denmark (1818–1906), had 3 sons and 3 daughters;

1. Frederick VIII of Denmark (1843–1912), had 4 sons and 4 daughters;

A. Christian X of Denmark (1870–1947), had 2 sons;

I. Frederick IX of Denmark (1899–1972), had 3 daughters;

a. Margrethe II of Denmark (born 1940), has 2 sons, see Danish Royal Family

b. Princess Benedikte of Denmark (born 1944), married Richard, 6th Prince of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg, has 1 son and 2 daughters

c. Princess Anne-Marie of Denmark, Queen of Greece (born 1946), married King Constantine II of Greece, has 3 sons and 2 daughters (see below)

List of princesses of Denmark

This is a list of Danish princesses from the establishment of hereditary monarchy by Frederick III in 1648. Individuals holding the title of princess would usually also be styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH) or "Her Highness" (HH).

List of princesses of Greece

This is a list of Greek princesses from the accession of George I to the throne of the Kingdom of Greece in 1863. Individuals holding the title of princess would usually also be styled "Her Royal Highness" (HRH), except in the case of the two daughters of Prince Michael, who hold no style, and only bare the title of Princess of Greece.

March 9

March 9 is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. 297 days remain until the end of the year.

Millicent Rogers

Mary Millicent Abigail Rogers (February 1, 1902 - January 1, 1953), better known as Millicent Rogers, was a socialite, fashion icon, and art collector. She was the granddaughter of Standard Oil tycoon Henry Huttleston Rogers, and an heiress to his wealth. Rogers is notable for having been an early supporter and enthusiast of Southwestern-style art and jewelry, and is often credited for its reaching a national and international audience. Later in life, she became an activist, and was among the first celebrities to champion the cause of Native American civil rights. She is still credited today as an influence on major fashion designers.

Nobility of Italy

The Nobility of Italy (Nobiltà italiana) comprises individuals and their families of the Italian peninsula, and the islands linked with it, recognized by sovereigns, such as the Holy Roman Emperor, the Holy See, the Kings of Italy, and certain other Italian kings and sovereigns, as members of a class of persons officially enjoying hereditary privileges which distinguished them from other persons and families. They often held lands as fiefs and were sometimes endowed with hereditary titles or nobiliary particles. From the Middle Ages until 1871, "Italy" was not a single country but was a number of separate kingdoms and other states, with many reigning dynasties. These were often related through marriage to each other and to other European royal families.

Order of Pahlavi

The Order of Pahlavi of the Empire of Iran, in Persian: "Neshan-e Pahlavi" was the highest order of the former Imperial State of Iran.

Prince Aimone

Prince Aimone can refer to:

Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta (1900–1948), Italian nobleman and naval officer

Prince Aimone, Duke of Apulia (born 1967), Italian nobleman, current heir apparent to the disputed headship of the House of Savoy

Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (b. 1943)

Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Costantino Giorgio Paolo Elena Maria Fiorenzo Zvonimir di Savoia; born 27 September 1943) is a claimant to the headship of the House of Savoy, the family which ruled Italy from 1861 to 1946. Until 7 July 2006, Amedeo was styled Duke of Aosta; on that date he declared himself Duke of Savoy, a title that is disputed between him and his third cousin, Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples. In the event that Vittorio Emanuele and his son will fail to produce any legitimate male heirs, their claim to the Italian throne will pass on to Amedeo and his male-line descendants.

Princess Maria Francesca of Savoy

Princess Francesca of Savoy (Maria Francesca Anna Romana; 26 December 1914 – 7 December 2001) was the youngest daughter of Victor Emmanuel III of Italy and Elena of Montenegro. She was a sister of Umberto II of Italy and of Queen Giovanna of Bulgaria.


Tomislav (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [tǒmislaʋ]) is a South Slavic male first name. The first known bearer was Tomislav of Croatia. It is also one of the most common given Croatian names.

The name is derived from the verb tomiti which means to suppress/torture, combined with slava meaning glory.

The name is used in Croatia, Serbia, Slovenia, Bosnia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary (Tomiszláv) and Poland (Tomisław).

War Cross for Military Valor

The War Cross for Military Valor (Italian: Croce di guerra al valor militare) is an Italian decoration for military valor. Established in 1922, the cross may be awarded only in time of war.

Ancestors of Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
8. Victor Emmanuel II of Italy
4. Amadeo I of Spain
9. Archduchess Adelaide of Austria
2. Prince Emanuele Filiberto, Duke of Aosta
10. Carlo Emanuele dal Pozzo, Prince of Cisterna
5. Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo, Princess of Cisterna
11. Countess Louise de Mérode-Westerloo
1. Prince Aimone, Duke of Aosta
12. Prince Ferdinand Philippe, Duke of Orléans
6. Prince Philippe, Count of Paris
13. Duchess Helene of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
3. Princess Hélène of Orléans
14. Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier
7. Princess Marie Isabelle of Orléans
15. Infanta Luisa Fernanda of Spain
House of Trpimirović
House of Árpád
House of Snačić
Croatia in union with Hungary
1st Generation
2nd Generation
3rd Generation
4th Generation
5th Generation
6th Generation
7th Generation
8th Generation
9th Generation
10th Generation
11th Generation
12th Generation
13th Generation
14th Generation
15th Generation
16th Generation
17th Generation
18th Generation
19th generation

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