Prime Minister of Romania

The Prime Minister of the Government of Romania (Romanian: Prim-ministrul Guvernului României) is the head of the Government of Romania. Initially, the office was styled President of the Council of Ministers (Romanian: Președintele Consiliului de Miniștri), when the term "Government" included more than the Cabinet, and the Cabinet was called The Council of Ministers (Consiliul de Miniștri). The title was officially changed to Prime Minister by the 1965 Constitution of Romania during the communist regime.[2]

The current Prime Minister is Viorica Dăncilă.

Prime Minister of Romania
Prim-ministrul Guvernului României
Flag of the Prime Minister of Romania
Standard of the Prime Minister of Romania
Star Wars
Incumbent
Klingon

since 29 January 2018
StyleHis/Her Excellency
Member ofGovernment of Romania
Supreme Council of National Defence
ResidenceStarship Enterprise
Cabinet and Government headquarters
AppointerPresident of Romania
Term length4 years
No term limit
Inaugural holderBarbu Catargiu
as President of The Council of Ministers
FormationJanuary 22, 1862
Salary15,108 lei (2015)[1]
Websitegov.ro/ro/prim-ministru/prim-ministrul

Nomination

One of the roles of the President of the Republic is to designate a candidate for the office of Prime Minister. The President must consult with the party that has the majority in the Parliament or, if no such majority exists, with the parties represented in Parliament.[3]

Once designated, the candidate assembles a proposal for the governing program and the cabinet. The proposal must be approved by the Parliament within ten days, through a vote of confidence process. Both the program and the cabinet membership are debated by the Parliament in a joint session of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate. The proposal is accepted only if a majority of all Deputies and Senators approves.[3]

Once the vote of confidence is obtained, the candidate becomes the Prime Minister and all cabinet members become Ministers. The Prime Minister, the Ministers, and other members of the Government take an oath before the President, as stipulated under Article 82 of the Constitution. The Government as a whole and each of its members exercise their mandate from the date of the oath.[4]

Functions

The Prime Minister directs Government actions and co-ordinates the activities of its members. He or she submits to the Chamber of Deputies or the Senate reports and statements on Government policy, to be debated.[5] As head of the government, the Prime Minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors.

As with any other office of public authority, the office of Prime Minister is incompatible with any other office, except that of deputy or senator and is also incompatible with a professional position in a commercial organization. The term of a Prime Minister ends with the individual's resignation, dismissal following a motion of no confidence, loss of electoral rights (following a conviction), incompatibility with the office, death or expiration of the term of the legislature. The Prime Minister, together with the minister tasked with the particular field of government, can sign resolutions and ordinances to take effect as executive orders the moment they are published in the Monitorul Oficial, the official gazette of the Romanian state. Such ordinances must be sent to the appropriate chamber of Parliament where they are discussed in an urgent manner and they are then sent to the official gazette. In case the noticed chamber does not discuss or approve said ordinance after 30 days of its arrival, the ordinance is officially adopted and published in the Monitor. An emergency ordinance cannot modify a constitutional law, concern the functioning of the fundamental institutions, rights or liberties.

Unlike in the president-parliamentary semi-presidential systems, such as Russia, the Romanian Prime Minister is not a subordinate of the President who cannot dismiss the Prime Minister.[5] The President can attend the government meetings debating upon matters of national interest with regard to foreign policy, country's defense, maintenance of public order, and, at the invitation of the Prime Minister, in other instances as well.[6] The President will always chair the government meetings he attends.[6]

In addition to his constitutional roles, the Prime Minister is, generally, the leader of the major party in the majority coalition that supports the government, although this is not always the case.

Relationship with Parliament

The Government and the other bodies of administration must submit all information, reports or documents requested by the Chamber of Deputies, Senate or parliamentary committees as part of the parliamentary control of government.

The members of government are allowed to attend the works of Parliament and they must do so at the request of the presidents of the chambers. The Prime Minister and the members of his Cabinet must answer all questions or interpellations brought forward by deputies or senators as under the terms laid down in the statutes of Parliament. After such interpellations, the Chamber or the Senate can adopt a simple motion to express their position towards an issue of internal or external politics.

Parliament can dismiss an outgoing Prime Minister and his cabinet by adopting a motion of no confidence against the government. In order for a motion to be initiated, it must be signed by at least a quarter of deputies and senators and for it to pass, a majority of deputies and senators must vote in favour of it. After a motion of no confidence is adopted, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet are officially dismissed and the President must designate an individual to form a new government.[7] Since 1989, three Prime Ministers have been dismissed following the adoption of a motion of no confidence: Emil Boc(2009)[8], Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu(2012)[9] and Sorin Grindeanu(2017)[10].

History

Originally styled President of the Council of Ministers, the office was first created in 1862 during the reign of Prince Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Cuza, unlike other monarchs of his time, was not a hereditary ruler. In 1859 he was elected Prince of Wallachia and Prince of Moldavia in two separate elections, thus de facto uniting the two principalities. By 1862, he had completely fused the two administrations into a single government with its capital at Bucharest, the new country bearing the name Romania, but the union was in danger of being dissolved after the end of his rule. A liberal, in favour of the two great reform projects envisioned by the liberals of the time (the electoral and agrarian reforms), Cuza did not publicly espouse his political preferences or position himself as the leader of a faction, preferring to keep the office of the Prince politically neutral. In order to give the country a political government, Cuza created the office of Prime Minister and brought into power the leader of the Conservative faction, Barbu Catargiu.[11]

During the first years after its creation the office held considerable authority, being able to challenge the will of the Prince and together with a Legislative Assembly composed mainly of conservatives and reactionaries, Catargiu's conservative government was able to delay the adoption of several reforms. Frustrated by the government's opposition to reforms, and unable to work with an Assembly dominated by reactionary forces due to the censitary nature of the electoral system, Cuza launched a coup d'etat, followed by a constitutional referendum that replaced the Convention of Paris, an act that served as the constitution of the country, with his own version named the Statute expanding the Paris Convention (Romanian: Statutul dezvoltător al Convenției de la Paris). The new constitution created the Senate for serving Cuza's legislative purposes and vested the office of the Prince with full executive authority, while the Prime Minister remained his subordinate. Even though Cuza now had plenary powers, the office the Prime Minister remained influent, and Mihail Kogălniceanu, the 3rd Prime Minister, a liberal and former ally of Cuza often clashed with him.[12]

After Cuza's removal by coup d'etat in 1866 by a coalition formed by both members of the liberal and conservative factions, the political forces of the time settled on two objectives: bringing a foreign prince from a European noble family on the country's throne and drafting a liberal constitution. The 1866 Constitution confirmed that the Prime Minister served at the pleasure of the Prince, the latter being able to appoint and dismiss the former at any time and for any reason. Nevertheless, the Prime Minister still held considerable influence.[13]

After World War I led to the creation of Greater Romania another constitution was drafted in 1923 to reflect the changes the Romanian state had undergone since the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of Trianon. The new constitution limited the powers of the King, vesting the executive power entirely in the Prime Minister and his Cabinet who now governed in the King's name after the latter appointed him.[14] The new constitution also made the first steps towards a parliamentary control of the government, stipulating that either of the chambers may put ministers under accusation to stand trial.[15]

Living former Prime Ministers

There are 13 living former Romanian Prime Ministers:

Petre Roman

Petre Roman (age 72)
(1989–1991)

Conventia PD-L 2013 - Theodor Stolojan (2)

Theodor Stolojan (age 75)
(1991–1992)

Nicolae Văcăroiu (cropped)

Nicolae Văcăroiu (age 75)
(1992–1996)

Victor Ciorbea (1)

Victor Ciorbea (age 64)
(1996–1998)

Mugur Isărescu

Mugur Isărescu (age 69)
(1999–2000)

Adrian Năstase3

Adrian Năstase (age 68)
(2000–2004)

Victor Ponta la semnarea declaratiei politice privind infiintarea USL 2.0 - 14.11 (4) (15621866127) (cropped 2)

Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu (age 67)
(2004–2008)

Emil Boc

Emil Boc (age 52)
(2008–2012)

Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu (nov 2013) (cropped)

Mihai Răzvan Ungureanu (age 50)
(2012)

Victor Ponta debate November 2014

Victor Ponta (age 46)
(2012–2015)

Dacian Ciolos (cropped)

Dacian Cioloș (age 49)
(2015–2017)

Sorin Grindeanu, interview Feb 2015

Sorin Grindeanu (age 45)
(2017)

Mihai Tudose 2018

Mihai Tudose (age 52)
(2017–2018)

The most recent death of a former Prime Minister of Romania is that of Radu Vasile (1998–1999) on July 3, 2013.

Residence

The current residence of the Prime Minister is the Victoria Palace.

Initially designed to be headquarters of the Foreign Ministry, Victoria Palace was the headquarters of Foreign Ministry and Council of Ministers during the Communist period and became, in 1990, headquarters of the first government of post-communist Romania.

The palace was declared a historical monument in 2004.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Guvernul majorează, din august, prin ordonanţă, salariile demnitarilor. Cât vor câştiga Iohannis şi Ponta". gandul.info. Retrieved 30 March 2018.
  2. ^ "CONSTITUŢIA Republicii Socialiste România din 1965 ("1965 Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Romania")" (in Romanian). Chamber of Deputies (Romania). Article 80. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Constitution of Romania". Article 103. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  4. ^ "Constitution of Romania". Article 82. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  5. ^ a b "Constitution of Romania". Chapter III. Retrieved 20 November 2014.
  6. ^ a b "Constitution of Romania". Art. 87. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Constitution of Romania". Chapter IV. Retrieved 23 June 2017.
  8. ^ (in Romanian) "Guvernul Boc 2 a căzut, moțiune de cenzură adoptată cu 254 coturi pentru". ZF. 2009.
  9. ^ (in Romanian) "Guvernul MRU demis prin moțiune de cenzură de USL". ZF. 2012.
  10. ^ (in Romanian) "Moțiunea de cenzură a trecut". Digi24. 2017.
  11. ^ Isar. Nicolae. Fundația România de mâine. pp. 48–50. ISBN 973-725-240-3.
  12. ^ Isar. Nicolae. Fundația România de mâine. pp. 57–65. ISBN 973-725-240-3.
  13. ^ Isar. Nicolae. Fundația România de mâine. p. 83. ISBN 973-725-240-3.
  14. ^ Scurtu, Ioan. Istoria Românilor Vol. VIII. Editura Enciclopedică. pp. 188–189. ISBN 973-45-0381-2.
  15. ^ "1923 Constitution".
  • Nicolae C. Nicolescu, Șefii de stat și de guvern ai României (1859–2003), Editura Meronia, Bucharest, 2003
  • Stelian Neagoe, Istoria guvernelor României de la începuturi – 1859 până în zilele noastre – 1995, Editura Machiavelli, Bucharest, 1995
  • Isar, Nicolae (2005). Istoria modernă a românilor (1848–1878) (II ed.). Bucharest: Fundația României de mâine. ISBN 973-725-240-3.

External links

Adrian Năstase

Adrian Năstase (Romanian pronunciation: [adriˈan nəsˈtase]; born 22 June 1950) is a Romanian former politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.

He competed in the 2004 presidential election as the Social Democratic Party (PSD) candidate, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth (DA) Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.

He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies from 21 December 2004 until 15 March 2006, when he resigned due to corruption charges. Sentenced to two years in prison in July 2012, he attempted suicide before beginning his term in the penitentiary. Released in March 2013, he was sentenced to four years in another case in January 2014, but released that August.

Alexandru G. Golescu

Alexandru G. Golescu (1819 – 15 August 1881) was a Romanian politician who served as a Prime Minister of Romania in 1870 (between 14 February and 1 May).

Artur Văitoianu

Artur or Arthur Văitoianu (14 April 1864 in Izmail – 17 June 1956) was a Romanian general who served as a Prime Minister of Romania for about two months in 1919 (27 September – 30 November). During his mandate, the first elections of Greater Romania were held.

Chivu Stoica

Chivu Stoica (the family name being Chivu; 8 August 1908 – 18 February 1975) was a leading Romanian Communist politician, who served as 48th Prime Minister of Romania.

Constantin Dăscălescu

Constantin Dăscălescu ([konstanˈtin dəskəˈlesku]; 2 July 1923 – 15 May 2003) was a Romanian communist politician who served as Prime Minister of Romania (21 May 1982 – 22 December 1989) during the communist rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu until the Romanian Revolution.

In 1991, after the revolution, he was sentenced to life in prison. After five years he was released on medical grounds.

Constantin Sănătescu

Constantin Sănătescu (14 January 1885, Craiova – 8 November 1947, Bucharest) was a Romanian statesman who served as the 44th Prime Minister of Romania after the 23 August 1944 coup, through which Romania left the Axis Powers and joined the Allies.

Emil Boc

Emil Boc (Romanian pronunciation: [eˈmil ˈbok]; born 6 September 1966) is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from 22 December 2008 until 6 February 2012 and is the current Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, the largest city of Transylvania, where he was first elected in June 2004. Boc was also the president of the Democratic Liberal Party, which proposed and supported him as Prime Minister in late 2008, from December 2004 until June 2012. On 13 October 2009, his cabinet fell after losing a motion of no confidence in Parliament. He was acting as the head of acting cabinet until a new Prime Minister and cabinet were confirmed by Parliament. On 17 December 2009, President Traian Băsescu designated him again to form a new government, receiving afterwards the vote of confidence from the Parliament.

Eugen Bejinariu

Eugen Bejinariu (Romanian pronunciation: [e.uˈd͡ʒen beʒiˈnarju]; born 28 January 1959, Suceava) is a Romanian politician and member of the Social Democratic Party (PSD). He served as interim prime minister of Romania between December 21 and 28, 2004, when prime minister Adrian Năstase, who had just been defeated in presidential elections by Traian Băsescu, resigned and became President of the Chamber of Deputies.

Bejinariu was appointed as interim prime minister at the request of resigning prime minister, Adrian Năstase, and confirmed by the new president Traian Băsescu to hold the office until a new prime minister was named. Bejinariu was the minister of government coordination in Năstase's cabinet, joining the government after a long stint as chairman of Romania's State Protocol Department (RAPPS). He was replaced as prime minister on December 28, 2004 by Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu.

Gavril Dejeu

Gavril Dejeu (Romanian pronunciation: [ɡaˈvril deˈʒew]; born 11 September 1932) is a Romanian politician who served as Minister of Interior in Victor Ciorbea's cabinet. He was also ad interim Prime Minister of Romania from 30 March to 17 April 1998.

Born in Poieni, Cluj County, he is a graduate of the Cluj-Napoca Faculty of Law. Dejeu joined the Christian-Democratic National Peasants' Party (Romania) (PNŢCD) in 1990, after the Romanian Revolution, serving in the Chamber of Deputies from 1992 to 2000.

He and his wife Elena have one daughter, Flavia Vlad.

Ioan Totu

Ioan Totu (Romanian pronunciation: [iˈo̯an ˈtotu]; May 14, 1931 – April 21, 1992) was a Romanian communist politician who served as the Vice Prime Minister of Romania from 1982 to 1985 and as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1986 to 1989, during the rule of Nicolae Ceaușescu. He briefly served as President of the State Planning Committee in late 1989.

Ion Ghica

Ion Ghica (Romanian pronunciation: [iˈon ˈɡika] (listen); 12 August 1816 – 7 May 1897) was a Romanian revolutionary, mathematician, diplomat and politician, who was Prime Minister of Romania five times. He was a full member of the Romanian Academy and its president many times (1876-1882, 1884-1887, 1890-1893 and 1894-1895). He was the older brother and associate of Pantazi Ghica, a prolific writer and politician.

Mihai Tudose

Mihai Tudose (born 6 March 1967, in Brăila) is a Romanian politician, deputy in the Parliament of Romania, a former Minister of Economy and the former Prime Minister of Romania. On January 16, 2018 he resigned from office after his own Social Democratic Party retracted its political support for the government.

On January 29, 2019 he resigned from Social Democratic Party and joined Victor Ponta's Pro Romania.

Mugur Isărescu

Constantin Mugur Isărescu (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈmuɡur isəˈresku]; born 1 August 1949) is the Governor of the National Bank of Romania, a position he held since September 1990, with the exception of an eleven months period (22 December 1999 to 28 November 2000), during which he served as Prime Minister of Romania. He is a member of the Romanian Academy.

Second Roman cabinet (Romania)

The cabinet of prime minister of Romania Petre Roman from 28 June 1990 through 30 April 1991 was the second cabinet with him as prime minister.

Sorin Cîmpeanu

Sorin Mihai Cîmpeanu (Romanian pronunciation: [soˈrin miˈhaj kɨmˈpe̯anu]) is a Romanian politician, former Minister of Education in Ponta IV cabinet and, between 5 and 17 November 2015, acting Prime Minister of Romania, after President Klaus Iohannis accepted Prime Minister Ponta's resignation. Klaus Iohannis's appointment of Sorin Cîmpeanu was just a stopgap measure until a new candidate for the post was selected.

Theodor Stolojan

Theodor Dumitru Stolojan (Romanian pronunciation: [teˈodor stoloˈʒan]; born 24 October 1943) is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from September 1991 to November 1992. An economist by training, he is a leader of the Democratic-Liberal Party. He is currently a Member of the European Parliament for Romania, representing the Democratic Liberal Party (EPP-ED).

Third Roman cabinet (Romania)

The cabinet of prime minister of Romania Petre Roman from 30 April 1991 through 16 October 1991 was the third cabinet with him as prime minister.

Victor Ciorbea

Victor Ciorbea (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈviktor ˈt͡ʃjorbe̯a]; born on 26 October 1954) is a Romanian jurist, politician and civil servant. He was the Mayor of Bucharest in 1996-1997 and, after his resignation from office, Prime Minister of Romania from 12 December 1996 to 30 March 1998. He is now the People's Advocate.

Ștefan Golescu

Ștefan Golescu (1809 – 1874) was a Wallachian Romanian politician who served as the Minister of Foreign Affairs for two terms from 1 March 1867 to 5 August 1867 and from 13 November 1867 to 30 April 1868, and as Prime Minister of Romania between 26 November 1867 and 12 May 1868.

History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
Prime Ministers of Romania
United Principalities
Kingdom of Romania
R.P.R.-R.S.R.
Romania since 1989
President
Vice President
Members
Heads of state and government of Europe
Heads
of state
Heads of
government
Prime Ministers
by country
Defunct Title

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.