Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزِیرِ اعظم پاکِستان‬‎ ‎ – Wazīr-ē-Āzam, Urdu pronunciation: [ʋəˈziːr-ˌeː ˈɑː.zəm]; lit. "Grand Vizier") is the head of government of Pakistan and designated as the "chief executive of the Republic".[15][16]

The Prime Minister leads the executive branch of the government, oversees the economic growth, leads the National Assembly, heads the Council of Common Interests as well as the Cabinet, and is vested with the command authority over the nuclear arsenals.[17][18][19] This position places its holder in leadership of the nation and in control over all matters of internal and foreign policy.[20] The Prime Minister is elected by the members of the National Assembly and therefore is usually the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The Constitution of Pakistan vests the executive powers in the Prime Minister, who is responsible for appointing the Cabinet as well as running the executive branch, taking and authorising executive decisions, appointments and recommendations that require executive confirmation of the Prime Minister.[16]

Constitutionally, the Prime Minister serves as the chief adviser to President of Pakistan on critical matters and plays an influential role in appointment in each branch of the military leadership as well as ensuring the control of the military through chairman joint chiefs.[21][22] Powers of the Prime Minister have significantly grown with a delicate system of the check and balance by each branch.[23] The position was absent during years of 1960–73, 1977–85 and 1999–2002 due to imposed martial law. In each of these periods, the military junta led by the President had the powers of the Prime Minister.[24]

Imran Khan has held the office of Prime Minister since 18 August 2018, following the outcome of nationwide general elections held on 25 July 2018.[16]

Prime Minister of the
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Flag of the Prime Minister of Pakistan
Standard of the Prime Minister of Pakistan
Mike Pompeo with Imran Khan in Islamabad - 2018 (29559549217) (cropped)
Incumbent
Imran Khan

since 18 August 2018
Style
Member of
Reports toPresident
ResidencePrime Minister Enclave [n 1]
SeatPrime Minister's Office
AppointerElection Commission of Pakistan through General Elections:
by a Convention that is held in the National Assembly, based on appointee's ability to command confidence among the majority of the members.
Term length5 years, renewable
Inaugural holderLiaquat Ali Khan
(1947–1951)
Formation14 August 1947
Salary16 lakh (US$15,000), annual.[n 2]
Websitepmo.gov.pk

History

Liaquat Ali Khan 1945
Liaquat Ali Khan, serving as first Prime Minister of Pakistan after independence (1947–1951).

The office of the Prime Minister was created on immediate effect after the partition and the establishment of Pakistan in 1947; the Prime Minister existed alongside the Governor-General who was the representative of the British Monarchy. The first Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, exercised central executive powers until his assassination in 1951.[25] However, the powers slowly began to be reduced as a result of constant intervention by the Governor-General. Despite the first set of the Constitution giving central power in 1956, the next six prime ministers were dismissed by the Governor-General from 1951 till 1957. In addition, the first set of the Constitution had evolved the Governor-General into the President of Pakistan whilst declaring the country an "Islamic republic".[26][27] In 1958, President Iskandar Mirza dismissed the seventh prime minister to impose martial law in a mere two weeks, President Mirza was ousted by army chief General Ayub Khan who had for a brief period held the post of Prime Minister.

In 1962, the second set of the Constitution completely dissolved the office of prime minister as all powers were transferred to the President of Pakistan.[27][28] Criticism over the presidency after the presidential election held in 1965 over the centralizing of powers. After the general elections held in 1970, the office was established with Nurul Amin becoming the Prime Minister who was also the Vice-President. Negotiations that fall apart between Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, Mujibur Rehman, and Yahya Khan that prompted to liberation movement in the East Pakistan. With India intervening in East Pakistan and Pakistan conceding defeat to end the war led to the collapse of the presidential system in 1971.

As the comprehensive Constitution reinstated in 1973, the post was reestablished with more central powers as the constitution provided a parliamentary system with President of Pakistan as figurehead.[29] Amid agitation instigated by the right-wing alliance invited the military intervention in 1977 which suspended the post.

The general elections held in 1985 restored the post, with Muhammad Junejo becoming the Prime Minister. Later that year, the National Assembly passed the controversial eighth amendment to the Constitution, giving the President the power to dismiss the Prime Minister and the National Assembly without prior consultation.[30] The general elections in 1988 resulted in the Pakistan Peoples Party's Benazir Bhutto becoming the first woman Prime Minister elected in a Muslim country.[31]

From 1988 to 1993, the power struggle between the Prime Minister and Presidency continued with President dismissing the National Assembly on three different occasions. At the 1997 elections, the PML(N) secured a two-thirds majority in the Parliament and drafted the XIII and XIV Amendments to reverse the eighth amendment to the Constitution; this allowed Nawaz Sharif to centralize more executive powers.[32] After the draw down of civil-military relations in 1999, Chairman joint chiefs General Pervez Musharraf staged a coup d'état against the PML(N)'s government and held nationwide elections in 2002.[33]

With no party gaining a majority, a coalition was formed with the PML(Q) – a breakaway of the PML(N) and a pro-Musharraf party – leading with MQM. After some political wrangling, Zafarullah Jamali became the Prime Minister, and passed the XVII amendment which partially restored the power of the President to dissolve the National Assembly, but made the dissolution subject to the Supreme Court of Pakistan's approval.[34]

Over the authority issues, Prime Minister Jamali resigned in 2004 and Shaukat Aziz was eventually appointed as Prime Minister, securing 151 out of 191 votes in the National Assembly.[35] The XVII amendment featured a semi-presidential system allowing the presidency to keep the interference executive and the judiciary.[34] The general elections in 2008 resulted in the PPP coming to power and supporting the movement to oust Pervez Musharraf.[36] A populist intellectual movement leading to the departure of Pervez Musharraf allowed Asif Zardari to become President. In 2010, the XVIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan was passed to reverse the XVII amendment; it returned the country to being a parliamentary democratic republic. In addition, the XVIII Amendment removed all powers of the presidency to dissolve the Parliament unilaterally and sweep away the powers amassed by the former presidents Pervez Musharraf and Zia-ul-Haq to maintain a delicate check and balance.[37]

Following a contempt of court case, the Supreme Court permanently disqualified Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gillani.[38] Originally, the PPP nomination was Makhdoom Shahbuddin,[39] but he was forced to withdraw after the ANF issued non-bailable arrest warrants against him.[40] Raja Pervaiz Ashraf became the Prime Minister and remained in office until 2013.[40][41][42][23] The general election held in 2013 saw the PML(N) almost achieve a supermajority. Following this, Nawaz Sharif was elected as Prime Minister, returning to the post for the third time after a fourteen-year absence, in a democratic transition. In July 2017, Sharif was forced to step down as prime minister following corruption charges against him.[43]

On 18 August 2018, Imran Khan was sworn in as the country's 21st prime minister.[44]

Constitutional law

The Constitution envisages a scheme of affairs in which the President of Pakistan is the head of state who represents the "unity of the Republic." The system of government in Pakistan is based on codified constitution which sees the Prime Minister as "chief executive of the Republic."

Subject to the Constitution, the executive authority of the Federation shall be exercised in the name of the President by the Federal Government, consisting of the Prime Minister and the Federal Ministers, which shall act through the Prime Minister, who shall be the chief executive of the Federation."

— Article 90(1) in Chapter 3: The Federal Government of Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan, source[45]

In addition, the Prime Minister is also the chairman of the Council of Common Interests as set by:

1 There shall be a Council of Common Interests, in this Chapter referred to as the Council, to be appointed by the President

(2) The Council shall consist of-
(a) the Prime Minister who shall be the Chairman of the Council;
(b) the Chief Ministers of the Provinces;

(c) three members from the Federal Government to be nominated by the Prime Minister from time to time.

— Article 153 in Chapter 3: Special Provisions of Part V: Relations between Federation and Provinces in the Constitution of Pakistan, source[46]

As in most of the parliamentary democracies, a head of state's duties are mostly ceremonial. The Prime Minister of Pakistan is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power. With Pakistan following a parliamentary system of government, the Prime minister is generally the leader of a party (or coalition of parties) that has a majority in the National Assembly —the lower house of the Parliament of Pakistan. The Prime Minister, in common with all other ministers, either has to be a current member of National Assembly, or be elected within six months of being appointed.[45]

Role and powers of the Prime minister

House of the Prime Minister of Pakistan in Islamabad
Prime Minister's Office in Islamabad– the principal workplace of the Prime Minister.

The principal workplace of the Prime Minister is the Prime Minister's Office located in northeast Islamabad. The official residence is near the Prime Minister's Office. The Prime Minister is the Chief Executive who heads and exercises the authority of the Government of Pakistan. After obtaining a vote of confidence, the Prime Minister is invited by the President to take the oath of office and form the government.[45] In practice, the Prime Minister nominates the members of the Cabinet who supervise the important functions and ministries of the Government of Pakistan.[45] In addition, the Prime Minister communicates to the President all decisions of the Cabinet relating to the administration of affairs of state and proposals for legislation.[47]

The Prime Minister, in consultation with the Cabinet, schedules and attends the sessions of the Parliament and is required to answer questions from members of parliament to the ministers. The Prime Minister makes appointments on various important positions, including:

  • The federal secretaries as head of cabinet-level ministries
  • The chief secretaries of the provinces
  • Key administrative and military personnel in the Pakistan Armed Forces
  • The chairmen of large public sector organisations and corporations such as NHA, PIA, PNSC etc
  • The chairmen and other members of the federal commissions and public institutions
  • Ambassadors and High Commissioners to other countries

Some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister himself. The prime minister is usually always in-charge/Chairman of:

The Prime Minister is vested with command authority over the Pakistani nuclear arsenals and represents the country in various delegations, high-level meetings and international organisations that require the attendance of the highest government office and also addresses the nation on various issues of national importance.[19]

Eligibility

The Constitution of Pakistan requires that the Prime Minister be a member of the National Assembly.[48] As well as this, one must:

  • be a citizen of Pakistan.
  • be a Muslim
  • be above 25 years of age
  • be able to prove good conduct of character and be not commonly known to violate Islamic injunctions
  • have adequate knowledge of Islamic teachings and practice obligatory duties prescribed by Islam, as well as abstaining from major sins
  • have not, after the establishment of Pakistan, worked against the integrity of the country or opposed the ideology of Pakistan.

Selection and removal

The candidates for the prime minister are members of the National Assembly or Senate who were chosen through direct elections by popular vote following campaigning on the party platforms.[49] Usually, the leader of the majority party in the parliament retains the office of prime minister, and forms the government either by coalition or by simple majority.[50] The candidate must retain the vote of confidence of the members of the parliament before being invited by the President to form the government.[45]

The Prime Minister can be removed before the expiry of the term through a vote of no confidence in the parliament.[45] If the vote of no confidence is passed by the National Assembly by not less than 20%, the Prime Minister ceases to retain the office.[45] In the past, prime ministers (and their governments) have been dismissed by the President exercising the VIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (1985), but this was repealed by the XVIII Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan (2010).[51][52] In addition, the Prime Minister himself has absolute constitutional immunity from criminal and civil proceedings, and no proceedings can be initiated or continued against him during the term of his office.[53]

In 2012, the Supreme Court of Pakistan has ceased at least one Prime Minister from retaining the office due to contempt of court after retroactively disqualifying the membership of the parliament permanently.[54][55]

On 28 July 2017, the Supreme Court of Pakistan disqualified the Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif from retaining the office due to his failure in fulfilling the eligibility requirements as enshrined in Articles 62 of the Constitution. This was in the aftermath of the Supreme Court hearing regarding the Panama Papers Case. This also resulted in him being permanently disqualified from membership of the parliament.[56]

The prime minister is elected by the National Assembly.[57] The National Assembly meets on the twenty-first day after a general election (at least every five years) unless the President calls for a vote of no confidence. Whichever member of the National assembly is chosen serves as the Prime Minister until the next election or until he fails to maintain the confidence of the National Assembly.

91. The Cabinet:

(1) There shall be a Cabinet of Ministers, with the Prime Minister at its head, to aid and advise the President in the exercise of his functions.

(2) The National Assembly shall meet on the twenty-first day following the day on which a general election to the Assembly is held unless sooner summoned by the President.

(3) After the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker, the National Assembly shall, to the exclusion of any other business, proceed to elect without debate one of its Muslim members to be the Prime Minister.

(4) The Prime Minister shall be elected by the votes of the majority of the total membership of the National Assembly:

Provided that, if no member secures such majority in the first poll, a second poll shall be held between the members who secure the two highest numbers of votes in the first poll and the member who secures a majority of votes of the members present and voting shall be declared to have been elected as Prime Minister:

Provided further that, if the number of votes secured by two or more members securing the highest number of votes is equal, further poll shall be held between them until one of them secures a majority of votes of the members present and voting.

(5) The member elected under clause (4) shall be called upon by the President to assume the office of Prime Minister and he shall, before entering upon the office, make before the President oath in the form set out in the Third Schedule:

Provided that there shall be no restriction on the number of terms for the office of the Prime Minister.

Oath of office

The Prime Minister is required to make and subscribe to, in the presence of the President, an oath or affirmation that they shall protect, preserve and defend the Constitution as follows:

I, ____________, do swear solemnly that l am a Muslim and believe in the Unity and Oneness of Almighty Allah, the Books of Allah, the Holy Qura'an being the last of them, the Prophethood of Muhammad (peace be upon him) as the last of the Prophets and that there can be no Prophet after him, the Day of Judgment, and all the requirements and teachings of the Holy Quran and Sunnah:

That I will bear true faith and allegiance to Pakistan:

That, as Prime Minister of Pakistan, I will discharge my duties, and perform my functions, hon-estly, to the best of my ability, faithfully in accordance with the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan and the law, and always in the interest of the sovereignty, integrity, solidarity, well- being and prosperity of Pakistan:

That I will strive to preserve the Islamic Ideology which is the basis for the creation of Pakistan:

That I will not allow my personal interest to influence my official conduct or my official decisions:

That I will preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan:

That, in all circumstances, I will do right to all manner of people, according to law, without fear or favor, affection or ill- will:

And that I will not directly or indirectly communicate or reveal to any person any matter which shall be brought under my consideration or shall become known to me as Prime Minister except as may be required for the due discharge of my duties as Prime Minister.

May Allah Almighty help and guide me (A'meen). In Urdu, بسم اللہ الرحمان الرحیم میں (وزیراعظم-منتخب کا نام) صدق دل سے حلف اٹھاتا ہوں کہ میں مسلمان ہوں اور وحدت و توحید اور قادر مطلق اللہ تعالیٰ کتاب الہٰیہ جن میں قرآن پاک خاتم الکتب اور نبوت حضرت محمد ﷺ بحیثیت خاتم النبیین جن کے بعد کوئی نبی نہیں آسکتا روز قیامت اور قرآن پاک اور سنت کی جملہ مقتدیات و تعلیمات پر ایمان رکھتا ہوں۔ کہ میں خلوص نیت سے پاکستان کا حامی اور وفادار رہوں گا کہ بحیثیت وزیر اعظم پاکستان میں اپنے فرائض و کارہائے منصبی ایمانداری اپنی انتہائی صلاحیت اور وفاداری کے ساتھ اسلامی جمہوریہ پاکستان کے دستور اور قانون کے مطابق اور ہمیشہ پاکستان کی خودمختاری سالمیت استحکام یکجہتی اور خوشحالی کی خاطر انجام دوں گا۔ کہ میں اسلامی نظریے کو برقرار رکھنے کے لیے کوشاں رہوں گا جو قیام پاکستان کی بنیاد ہے کہ میں اپنے ذاتی مفاد کو اپنے سرکاری کام یا اپنے سرکاری فیصلوں پر اثر انداز نہیں ہونے دوں گا۔ کہ میں اسلامی جموریہ پاکستان کے دستور کو برقرار رکھوں گا اور اس کا تحفظ اور دفاع کروں گا اور یہ کہ میں ہر حالت میں ہر قسم کے لوگوں کے ساتھ بلا خوف ورعایت اور بلارغبت و عناد قانون کے مطابق انصاف کروں گا اور یہ کہ میں کسی شخص کو بلاواسطہ یا بالواسطہ کسی ایسے معاملے کی نہ اطلاع دوں گا اور نہ ظاہر کروں گاجو بحیثیت وزیر اعظم پاکستان میرے سامنے غور کیلئے پیش کیا جائے گا یا میرے علم میں آئے بجز جبکہ بحیثیت وزیر اعظم اپنے فرائض کی کماحقہ انجام دہی کیلئے ایسا کرنا ضروری ہو۔

اللہ تعالیٰ میری مدد اور رہنمائی فرمائے آمین

— Article 91 in Chapter 3: The Federal Governmentin Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan

Past Prime Ministers

Former Prime Ministers

Zafarullah Khan Jamali (cropped)
15th, served 2002–2004
1 January 1944 (age 75)
Pakistan delegation (cropped)
16th, served 2004
27 January 1946 (age 73)
Shaukat Aziz
17th, served 2004–2007
6 March 1949 (age 70)
Prime Minister of Pakistan (7171004240) (cropped)
18th, served 2008–2012
9 July 1952 (age 66)
PrimeMinisterNawazSharif
12th, 14th and 20th served 1990–1993, 1997–1999, 2013–2017
25 December 1949 (age 69)
Shahid Khaqan Abbasi (cropped)
21st, served 2017–2018
27 December 1958 (age 60)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Following Khan's victory, in his first maiden address, he detailed the "austerity measures" for both government and himself and announced that he will be living in Chief Minister's annex in Punjab House instead of living in Prime Minister House. However due to security measures it was announced that Khan along with Naeem-ul-Haq - the Information Secretary of PTI,[2][3][4] will be residing in Military's secretary house no 1 in PM enclaves of PM housing colony in Islamabad.[5][6][7][8] Khan plans to convert the Official PM house into a public research University.[9][10][11]
  2. ^ A salary of Prime mInister of Pakistan is 1 Lakhs 40 thousand per month (1,40,000/month equivalent US$1,300) inclusive of all allowances and exclusive of the taxes, which equates to 16 Lakhs and 80 thousand per annum (PKR1,680,000 equivalent US$16,000). The salaries of federal ministers, state ministers, senators, high court judges, and president is more than the prime minister of Pakistan.[12][13][14]

References

  1. ^ "Heads of State, Government and Ministers for Foreign Affairs" (PDF). UN. United Nations Foreign and Protocol Service.
  2. ^ "Will live in military secretary's residence, not in PM House, says Pakistan Prime Minister Imran Khan". The Financial Express. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  3. ^ "PM-elect to stay in a residence near PM House: Naeemul Haq". Pakistan Today. 17 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  4. ^ "Imran Khan to live in PM House colony, says Naeemul Haq". Daily Times. 18 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  5. ^ Azeem, Munawer (1 August 2018). "Imran Khan to move into Ministers' Enclave". Dawn News. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  6. ^ "PM Imran shifts to military secretary's residence". The Nation. 20 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  7. ^ "PM Imran moves to military secretary's residence". Geo News. 26 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  8. ^ Idrees, Mahmood (20 August 2018). "Imran Khan leaves palatial PM House forever to stay at military secretary's residence". Daily Pakistan Global. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  9. ^ "The austerity prime minister Imran Khan leads by example". The National. 21 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  10. ^ Amjad Khan, Ameen (27 July 2018). "Imran Khan vows to convert PM House into a university". University World News. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  11. ^ "Change will begin from PM House, says Imran Khan". Khaleej Times. 19 August 2018. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
  12. ^ Hughes, Amani (8 August 2018). "Imran Khan net worth: How much is new Pakistan Prime Minister worth? What is PM's salary?". Express UK. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  13. ^ "Prime Minister's monthly income less than parliamentarians, ministers and judges - Pakistan". Dunya News. 17 September 2018. Retrieved 1 September 2018.
  14. ^ "The salary that we are not paying the PM". Dawn News. 10 September 2017. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  15. ^ Article 90(1) in Chapter 3: The Federal Government, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  16. ^ a b c "Prime minister". BBC News. 16 October 2008. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  17. ^ Article 91(1) in Chapter 3: The Federal Government, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  18. ^ Article 153(2a)-153(2c) in Chapter 3: Special Provisions, Part V: Relations between Federation and Provinces in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  19. ^ a b Govt. of Pakistan (3 March 2010). "The National Command Authority Act, 2010" (PDF). Islamabad: National Assembly press. National Assembly press. Retrieved 6 May 2015.
  20. ^ Pakistan Country Study Guide Strategic Information and Developments. Intl Business Pubns USA. 2012. ISBN 978-1438775258. Explicit use of et al. in: |last1= (help)
  21. ^ Article 243(2)) in Chapter 2: The Armed Forces. Part XII: Miscellaneous in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  22. ^ Article 46 in Chapter 1: The President, Part III: The Federation of Pakistan in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  23. ^ a b "Pakistan Supreme Court orders arrest of PM Raja Pervez Ashraf". BBC. 15 January 2013.
  24. ^ Singh, R.S.N. (2008). The military factor in Pakistan. New Delhi: Frankfort, IL. ISBN 978-0981537894.
  25. ^ Mughal, M Yakub. "Special Edition (Liaqat Ali Khan)". The News International. Archived from the original on 21 January 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  26. ^ "The Constitution of 1956". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  27. ^ a b Nagendra Kr. Singh (2003). Encyclopaedia of Bangladesh. Anmol Publications Pvt. Ltd. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-81-261-1390-3.
  28. ^ "The Constitution of 1962". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  29. ^ "The Constitution of Pakistan". infopak.gov.pk. Archived from the original on 9 November 2007. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  30. ^ Dossani, Rafiq; Rowen, Henry S. (2005). Prospects for Peace in South Asia. Stanford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0-8047-5085-1.
  31. ^ "Benazir Bhutto Becomes Prime Minister". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2003. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  32. ^ Akbar, M.K (1 January 1998). "Pakistan Under Navaz Sharif". Pakistan Today. New Delhi, India: Mittal Publications. p. 230. ISBN 978-81-7099-700-9. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  33. ^ "Pakistan after the coup: Special report". BBC News. 12 October 2000. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  34. ^ a b "Seventeenth Amendment 2003". Story of Pakistan. 1 June 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  35. ^ "Shaukat Aziz profile from BBC". BBC News. 19 August 2004. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  36. ^ "Yousaf Raza Gillani profile from BBC". BBC News. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  37. ^ "Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Pakistan" (PDF). National Assembly of Pakistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 June 2011. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  38. ^ "Pak SC disqualifies Gilani; new PM to be selected soon". Hindustan Times. 19 June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  39. ^ "Pakistan Peoples Party nominates Makhdoom Shahbuddin as new PM". The Times of India. 20 June 2012.
  40. ^ a b Nabi, Muhammad (22 June 2012). "Raja Pervez Ashraf nominated new Prime Minister of Pakistan". Business Recorder. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  41. ^ "Raja Pervez Ashraf declared new Pakistani PM". The Dawn. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  42. ^ "PPP nominates Raja Pervez Ashraf as new Pakistan PM". The Times of India. 22 June 2012. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
  43. ^ https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/28/pakistani-court-disqualifies-pm-nawaz-sharif-from-office
  44. ^ Raza, Syed Irfan (11 August 2018). "Imran to take oath as PM on August 18: PTI". Dawn. Pakistan. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g "Chapter 3: "The Federal Government" of Part III: "The Federation of Pakistan"". pakistani.org.
  46. ^ "Chapter 3: "Special Provisions" of Part V: "Relations between Federation and Provinces"". pakistani.org.
  47. ^ Article 46(a) in Chapter 1: The President in Part III: The Federation of Pakistan of the Constitution of Pakistan
  48. ^ "Chapter 2: "Majlis-e-Shoora (Parliament)" of Part III: "The Federation of Pakistan"". pakistani.org.
  49. ^ Hanif, Mohammad (13 May 2013). "Pakistan elections: how Nawaz Sharif beat Imran Khan and what happens next". The Guardians, Pakistan Bureau. The Guardians. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  50. ^ Boone, Jon (17 May 2013). "Nawaz Sharif: rightwing tycoon who has won over liberals – for now". The Guardians. The Guardians. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  51. ^ Aziz, Mazhar (2007). The Military Control in Pakistan: The Parallel State. United States: Routledge. ISBN 978-1134074105. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  52. ^ Omar, Imtiaz (2002). Emergency powers and the courts in India and Pakistan. England: Kluwer Law International. ISBN 978-9041117755.
  53. ^ Article 248(1) in Chapter 4: constitutionGeneral of Part XII: Miscellaneous in the Constitution of Pakistan.
  54. ^ Walsh, declan (19 June 2012). "Political Instability Rises as Pakistani Court Ousts Premier". The New York Times. New York Times, Pakistan Bureau. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  55. ^ Nauman, Qaiser (19 June 2012). "Pakistan Supreme Court disqualifies prime minister". Reuters, Pakistan Bureau. Reuters. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  56. ^ "Pakistan Supreme Court disqualifies prime minister". Dawn. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 28 July 2017.
  57. ^ Article 91 in Chapter 3: of the Constitution of Pakistan.

Further reading

External links

  • Profile on the website of the government of Pakistan
Air Force Strategic Command (Pakistan)

The Pakistan Air Force Strategic Forces Command, known as AF Strategic Command, is one of the major commands of the Pakistan Air Force responsible for air force elements of strategic deterrence (Pakistan's nuclear arsenal). The command is headquartered in Islamabad and directly reports to Chief of Air Staff, President, and the Prime Minister of Pakistan.The unified military combat command structure is intended to give the civilian leadership a unified resource for greater understanding of specific threats to Pakistan's national and strategic assets and the means to respond to those threats as quickly as possible.

Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: نگران وزیر اعظم پاکستان‎) is the head of government in Pakistan following the dissolution of the National Assembly. The purpose of this post is to ensure free and fair elections are held. The most recent Caretaker PM was former Chief Justice Nasirul Mulk, who took office on 1 June 2018, after the National Assembly dissolved, then resigned the office when Imran Khan was sworn in on 18 August 2018.

Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee

The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (CJCSC) is, in principle, the highest-ranking and senior most military officer, typically at four-star rank, in the Pakistan Armed Forces who serves as a principal military adviser to the civilian government led by elected Prime minister of Pakistan and his/her National Security Council. The role of advisement is also extended to the elected members in the bicameral Parliament and the Ministry of Defence. The Chairman leads the meetings and coordinates the combined efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee (JCSC), comprising the Chairman, the Chief of Army Staff and Chief of Air Staff and the Chief of Naval Staff, Commandant of Marines, DG Strategic Plans Division, and commanders of the service branches in the paramilitary command.Even as the Principal Staff Officer (PSO), the Chairman does not have any authority over the command of the combatant forces. The individual service chiefs are solely responsible for the coordination and logistics of the armed and combatant forces. Due to this constraint, the chiefs of army, air force, navy and marines are much in command and control of their respected commands.The Chairman's mandate is to transmit strategic communications to the combatant commanders from the Prime minister and President as well as allocate additional funding to the combatant commanders if necessary. The Chairman is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister; and is finally confirmed by the President. Unlike United States's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the appointment of Chairman does not need confirmation via majority vote by the Parliament. Although, the appointment needs confirmation from the Prime minister. By statute, the Chairman is appointed as a four-star general, four-star air chief marshal and/or four star admiral. By law required, all four-star officers are required to have vast experience in joint uniformed services of Pakistan during their 40-year-long military careers.The post of CJCSC was created by former Prime minister of Pakistan Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in March 1976, and the first Chairman was four star rank officer, General Muhammad Shariff. The current holder of the office is General Zubair Mahmood Hayat appointed in 2016.

Graduated from Cantt Public School (F G Cantt Public School) Malir Cantt Karachi in 1976.

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali

Chaudhry Muhammad Ali (Urdu: چوہدری محمد علی‎ 15 July 1905 – 2 December 1980), best known as Muhammad Ali, was the fourth Prime Minister of Pakistan , appointed on 12 August 1955 until being removed through a successful passage of vote of no confidence motion in the National Assembly on 12 September 1956.His credibility is noted for promulgating the first set of the Constitution of Pakistan lost political endorsement from his party when failing to investigate the allegations on vote rigging and the secret defections in favor of the Republican Party.

Chief of Army Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of Army Staff (Urdu: سربراہ پاک فوج‎) (reporting name: COAS), is a military appointment and statutory office held by the four-star rank army general in the Pakistan Army, who is appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and final confirmation by the President of Pakistan.The Chief of Army Staff is a senior most appointment in the Pakistani military who is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, usually consulting with the Chairman joint chiefs to act as a military adviser to the Prime Minister and its civilian government in the line of defending the land borders of the country. The Chief of Army Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, and training commands within the army, in contrast to the Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army. Due to its stature, the Chief of Army Staff have been instrumental in enforcing martial laws against the civilian government due to the meltdown of a civil-military relations in the past decades.The appointment, in principle, is constitutionally subjected to be for three years but extension may be granted from the approval and recommendations of the Prime Minister by the President. The Chief of Army Staff is based in the Army GHQ, and the current Chief of Army Staff is General Qamar Javed Bajwa, serving in this capacity since 29 November 2016

Chief of Naval Staff (Pakistan)

The Chief of the Naval Staff ((Urdu: سربراہ پاک بحریہ‎ (reporting name as CNS), is a military appointment and a Statutory office held by the four-star rank admiral in the Pakistan Navy, who is nominated and appointed by the Prime Minister of Pakistan and confirmed by the President of Pakistan.The Chief of Naval Staff is one of the senior-most appointments in the Pakistan military who is one of the senior members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee in a separate capacity, providing senior consultation to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee to act as a principal military advisor to the Prime Minister of Pakistan and its civilian government in the line of defending and safeguarding the expedition, maritime and sealine borders of the nation.The Chief of Naval Staff exercise its responsibility of command and control of the operational, combatant, logistics, administration, and training commands within the Pakistan Navy, in a clear contrast to the U.S. Navy's Chief of Naval Operations (CNO). Due to its responsibility and importance, the Chief of Naval Staff plays a critical role in assessing the coastal defence and conducting reconnaissance to insure its strike capability against aggressive forces.In principle, the appointment is constitutionally subjected for three years but extensions may be granted by the President upon recommendations and approvals from the Prime Minister. The Chief of Naval Staff is based on the Navy NHQ, and the current Chief of Naval Staff is Admiral

Admiral Z.M. Abbasi serving as chief of naval staff, who took over the command as chief of naval staff on 7 October 2017.

Deputy Prime Minister of Pakistan

The office of the Deputy Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: نائب وزيراعظم پاكستان‎) was created by the Prime Minister of Pakistan on 25 June 2012. The main coalition party, Pakistan Muslim League (Q) (PML-Q), demanded to make a post of Deputy Prime Minister which was accomplished by the newly elected Prime Minister Raja Pervez Ashraf. The main purpose of the post was to give a backup to the government in the absence of the Prime Minister. As a result of an agreement between the ruling Pakistan Peoples Party (PPP) and the PML-Q to share ministries in the federal cabinet, Chaudhry Pervaiz Elahi was made the first Deputy Prime Minister of Pakistan.

Economic Coordination Committee (Pakistan)

The Economic Coordination Committee (reporting name:ECC), is a principle federal institution and a consultative forum used by the people-elected Prime Minister of Pakistan as its chairman, for concerning matters of state's economic security, geoeconomic, political economic and financial endowment issues. Although it is often chaired by the Finance Minister and the senior economic officials as its members on multiple occasions, the key executive authorization on key economic policies are made by the Prime Minister of Pakistan who reserves the right call upon and serves as the chairman of the ECC.Established in 1965 by President Ayub Khan, its primary functions and responsibility is to finalize executive economic decisions to national economy, and to assist Prime Minister and his key staff on issues involving the economic security, threat of war, economic effects of nuclear weapons, and challenges in geoeconomic policies. The ECC served as Prime Minister's principal decision-making and consultative forum for coordinating economic security and geo-economic policies among various government institutions and ministries. The DCC is a counterpart of the national security councils of many other nations. Its national security counterpart is DCC, and counterpart of the Monetary Policy Committees of many other nations.

The Economic Coordination Committee (ECC) was formed in 1965 by the government, handing over the chairmanship of the (ECC) to Finance Minister of Pakistan as its central and designated chairman. The ECC was chair by the Finance minister with almost weekly meetings of its members, who are ministers in charge of economic ministries. However, after the 1971 war with India, its chairmanship was handed over to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, and in 1993, the ECC's chairmanship was permanently handed over to the Prime Minister of Pakistan. Along with its counterpart DCC, the ECC more densely emphasized its economic and financial role in country's nuclear command and control since the 1980s. On May 1998, the emergency meetings, along with the DCC, provided a great environment of its performance when Prime minister Nawaz Sharif ordered Pakistan's first public nuclear tests, Chagai-I which was followed by Chagai-II, after the DCC and ECC council conveyed various civil-military sessions with the Prime minister and the military leadership. The Economic Coordination Committee has control for all important economic decisions and finalizes, promulgated the economic policies in the country.

Kulsoom Nawaz

Begum Kulsoom Nawaz Sharif (Urdu: بیگم كلثوم نواز شريف‎) (29 March 1950 – 11 September 2018) was a Pakistani politician who had been the first lady of Pakistan for three non-consecutive terms; from 1990 to 1993, 1997 to 1999 and then from 2013 to 2017. She was the President of Pakistan Muslim League (Nawaz) from 1999 to 2002.

List of Prime Ministers of Pakistan

The Prime Minister of Pakistan (Urdu: وزِیرِ اعظم‎ — Wazīr-ē Aʿẓam, Urdu pronunciation: [ʋəˈziːr-ˌeː ˈɑː.zəm]; Turkish lit. "Grand Vizier"), is the popularly elected politician who is the chief executive of the Government of Pakistan. The Prime Minister is vested with the responsibility of running the administration through his appointed federal cabinet, formulating national policies to ensure the safeguard of the interests of the nation and its people through the Council of Common Interests as well as making the decision to call nationwide general elections for the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan.Since 1947, Pakistan has had eighteen prime ministers, aside from the appointed caretaker prime ministers who were only mandated to oversee the system until the election process was finished. In Pakistan's parliamentary system, the Prime Minister is sworn-in by the President and usually is the Chairman or/ the President of the party or coalition that has a majority in the National Assembly– the lower house of Pakistan Parliament.

After the Partition of India on the midnight of 14/15 August 1947, Pakistan followed the British system by creating the post of Prime Minister based at the Prime Minister's Secretariat. The then Governor-General of Pakistan, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, took advice from the Founding Fathers of the nation and appointed Liaquat Ali Khan to establish and lead his administration on 15 August 1947. Before the presidential system in 1960, seven prime ministers had served between 1947 until martial law in 1958. In 1971, the office was again revived but ceased to exist shortly. Executive powers and authority was given to the Prime Minister when the full set of the Constitution of Pakistan was promulgated in 1973 but the post was ceased from its effective operations after another martial law in 1977. After the general elections held in 1985, the office came to its existence. Between 1988–99, the office was held by Benazir Bhutto of the PPP and Nawaz Sharif of PML(N), each holding the office for two non-consecutive terms between 1988 and 1999: Bhutto during 1988–90 and 1993–96; and Sharif during 1990–93 and 1997–99.The premiership of I. I. Chundrigar was the shortest in Pakistan's history, serving only 55 days of his term. At approximately five years and four months in total, Sharif is the longest-serving Prime Minister. Sharif was re-elected for a third non-consecutive term on 5 June 2013, which is a record in the history of Pakistan. The national politics in Pakistan was mostly dominated by the army department of the Pakistan Armed Forces throughout its history, but it is now dominated by the political parties.After the general elections held in 2002, Zafarullah Khan Jamali was invited to form his administration as its Prime Minister. After the Supreme Court of Pakistan's rulings to disqualified the Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani in 2012, the business of his administration was looked after by Pervez Ashraf until the caretaker administration was setup under Mir Hazar Khoso.

Minister of Foreign Affairs (Pakistan)

The following is the list of all the previous foreign ministers of Pakistan to date, according to Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

Mir Hazar Khan Khoso

Mir Hazar Khan Khoso (Urdu, Balochi: میر ہزار خان کھوسو‎) (born 30 September 1929), was the caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan from 25 March 2013 to 5 June 2013. A jurist, Khoso is a retired judge who previously served as the Chief Justice of the Federal Shariat Court and served as the interim prime minister ahead of the general elections scheduled in May 2013.

Muhammad Khan Junejo

Mohammad Khan Junejo (Urdu: محمد خان جونیجو; Sindhi: محمد خان جوڻيجو; born 18 August 1932 – 18 March 1993) was a Pakistani politician and an agriculturist who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan, having elected in this capacity in 1985 until being dismissed in 1988.

Junejo, a powerful landowner, was educated in Karachi, having attend the St. Patrick's College, and was trained as an agriculturist at the Agricultural Institute near Hastings in the United Kingdom. He gained public notice when he joined the Ayub administration and subsequently held cabinet portfolio of railways, health, communications and labour from 1963–69.

After participating in the elections held in 1985, he was chosen to form the government on a Pakistan Muslim League's platform, of which, he took over the party's presidency. His government was noted for the support of conservatism, austerity measures that ultimately reduces the government budget deficits and repealed the emergency laws to allow the freedom of press and media in the country. Despite strong resistance and fierce opposition from President Zia-ul-Haq, Junejo authorized his Foreign Minister Yakob Khan to sign and ratified the Geneva Accords in 1988. His relations with President Zia-ul-Haq also soured when he opened the parliamentary inquiry on Ojhri Camp disaster, also in 1988.

On 29 May 1988, Prime Minister Junejo was dismissed by President Zia who leveled charges on incompetency and economic stagflation and immediately called for new general elections. After the general elections held in 1988, he led his own faction while being ceremonial party's presidency.

In 1993, Junejo reportedly suffered from leukemia (a form of cancer), and died while undergoing treatment at the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Muhammad Mian Soomro

Muhammad Mian Soomro (Sindhi: محمد میاں سومرو; born 19 August 1950) is a Pakistani politician and a banker who currently serves as the Federal Minister for Privitization and Aviation. Previously, he served as the Chairman of the Senate from 2003 to 2009, the caretaker Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2007 to 2008 and the acting President of Pakistan from 18 August 2008 to 9 September 2008.

Soomro hails from an influential Sindhi feudal family that has been active in national politics since 1923. His father, the late Ahmed Mian Soomro, was Deputy Speaker of the West Pakistan Assembly and a member of the Senate and helped to establish the Senate Committee Systems. He is the grandson of another politician, Khan Bahadur Haji Moula Bux Soomro. He was Prime Minister of Pakistan in an acting capacity from 16 November 2007 to 25 March 2008 to oversee the 2008 General Elections and became the 3rd Acting President of Pakistan upon the resignation of Pervez Musharraf on 18 August 2008, both by virtue of his office of the Chairman of the Senate.

Prime Minister's Office (Pakistan)

The Prime Minister's Office is the principle workplace of the Prime Minister of Pakistan, located at 44000 Constitution Avenue, Islamabad, Pakistan. The PMO is the headed by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of Pakistan, currently Muhammad Azam Khan.

Initially, the PMO was referred to as the Prime Minister's Secretariat until it was renamed by former Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif in 2013. The PMO was designed by the Capital Development Authority (CDA).

Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of Pakistan

The Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of Pakistan (also referred to as PSPM) is the administrative head and highest-ranking official of the Prime Minister's Office. The position holder is usually an officer belonging to the Pakistan Administrative Service serving in BPS-22 grade. The Principal Secretary advises and assists the Prime Minister on all the official business routed through the PM Office, and because of this the PSPM is generally regarded as the most crucial aide to the Prime Minister. The current Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister is Muhammad Azam Khan.The duties of the Principal Secretary includes, but are not limited to; dealing with official paperwork in the Prime Minister's Office, placing before the Prime Minister critical files of importance for approval, coordinating activities in the Prime Minister's Office, and preparing notes on issues to be discussed by the PM with senior politicians, bureaucrats and other dignitaries.

Zafarullah Khan Jamali

Mir Zafarullah Khan Jamali (Urdu: میر ظفراللہ خان جمالی‎; born 1 January 1944) is a Pakistani politician who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Pakistan from 2002 until his resignation in 2004.

Originally a supporter of the Pakistan Peoples Party, Jamali emerged from the politics of Balochistan Province under military governor Rahimuddin Khan during the 1970s. He became a national figure as part of the government of Nawaz Sharif, and was Chief Minister of Balochistan for two non-consecutive terms (from June–December 1988 and November 1996 –February 1997). Although he was a senior leader in the Pakistan Muslim League (PML) and Sharif's confidant, relations between Jamali and Sharif cooled and Jamali joined the Pakistan Muslim League (Q) after the 1999 coup led by General Pervez Musharraf. In the 2002 general election, Jamali won his bid for the office of Prime Minister after his supporters and colleagues crossed party lines to support him. On 21 November 2002 Jamali was appointed the 13th Prime Minister of Pakistan-designate. He took the oath on 23 November 2002, until he unexpectedly announced his resignation in 2004.

Prime Ministers of Pakistan (List)
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