Prime Minister of Mauritius

The Prime Minister of Mauritius (French: Premier Ministre de Maurice) is the head of government of Mauritius. He presides over the Cabinet of Ministers which advises the President of the Country and is collectively responsible to the National Assembly for any advice given and for all action done by or under the authority of any Minister in the execution of his office.

The position is the most powerful constitutional office of the Republic. This is mainly because the office is amalgamated with other functions whereby conventions, the office holder is also the Minister of Defense & Home Affairs (which makes the office holder responsible for law & order, internal security, defense, the armed forces and intelligence services), the Leader of the National Assembly (which makes the office holder responsible for setting the agenda for parliament) and Minister for Rodrigues & Dependencies (which makes the office holder responsible for territorial occupancy, administration of local dependencies & their defense). It is also inter-alia, the head of government and presides over the cabinet of Ministers. It is second in the order of precedence just after the president and enjoys relative importance in the public as the office holder is usually the leader of the party/alliance that wins an election.

The current Prime Minister of Mauritius, Pravind Jugnauth, leader of the MSM, was appointed by the President on 23 January 2017 following the resignation of coalition leader Sir Anerood Jugnauth who held the post following victory of his Alliance in the 2014 General Election. The official residence of the Prime Minister during his term in office is the Clarisse House, the Prime Minister's Office is located in Port Louis. The longest serving prime minister is Anerood Jugnauth who held the office for 18 years as Prime Minister.

Prime Minister of Mauritius
Coat of arms of Mauritius (Original version)
Flag of Mauritius
Pravind Kumar Jugnauth
Incumbent
Pravind Jugnauth

since 23 January 2017
StyleThe Right Honourable
ResidenceClarisse House (Official)
NominatorThe President who must appoint the MP supporting a clear majority in the National Assembly
AppointerAmeenah Gurib
Term lengthAt The President's Pleasure serving as long as the office holder has a majority in the National Assembly
Inaugural holderSir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam
Formation12 March 1968
SalaryRs 3.66 Million[1]
WebsitePrime Minister Office

Overview

The current Prime Minister's portfolio includes, inter-alia, the following:[2]

  • Law and Order
  • Civil Status, Citizenship
  • External Communications
  • Electoral Commissions and Electoral Affairs
  • Government Information Services
  • Meteorological Services
  • Mauritius Oceanography Institute
  • Human Rights
  • Strategic Policy

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President. He or She holds the second most senior position in the country, second only to the president. The Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the ruling coalition. The position of Prime Minister alongside with the office of Deputy Prime Minister is specified under CHAPTER VI Section 59 Part 1 of the Constitution of Mauritius.

After the country became a Republic on 12 March 1992, the President became the Head of State. The President holds prerogative powers which includes summoning, prorogation and dissolution of parliament including appointment of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The Prime Minister has the constitutional duty to advise him/her when to exercise these prerogatives.

History

Pre-Independence

During the British Mauritius period, it was the Chief Minister who was the head of government, executive powers was vested by the Governor, representative of the Monarch. The only Chief Minister which the country had known was Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, from 26 September 1961 to 12 March 1968.[3]

Independence

The office of the Prime Minister of Mauritius was created on 12 March 1968 when Mauritius became an independent state. Queen Elizabeth II remained as head of state as Queen of Mauritius, with her executive powers in Mauritius delegated to the governor-general.

After the 1967 General Election, Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (SSR) became the first Prime Minister of Mauritius, he was re-elected in the 1976 General Election and remained in office. In the 1982 General Election, Sir Anerood Jugnauth (SAJ) coalition was elected, he became Prime Minister. However his alliance break up in 1983 and the 1983 General Election was held, SAJ formed another alliance, he was elected again and remain in office. In the 1987 General Election, another coalition concluded by SAJ won again, he remained in office. SAJ also won the 1991 General Election and remained the Prime Minister of Mauritius. The new leader of the Labour Party Dr. Navin Ramgoolam, became the Leader of the Opposition.

Republic

After the country became a Republic on 12 March 1992, the President became the Head of State. The President holds prerogative powers which includes summoning, prorogation and dissolution of parliament including appointment of the Prime Minister and Cabinet. The Prime Minister has the constitutional duty to advise him/her when to exercise these prerogatives.

On 12 March 1992, Mauritius became a Republic State, with a new constitution in 1992, the terms of the General Elections was regulated to 5 years. Since then, each 5 years elections take place and a new Prime Minister is elected. After the 1995 General Election, Dr. Navin Ramgoolam became Prime Minister of Mauritius for the first time. However, he lost the 2000 General Election. In 2000, the Prime Minister's office was shared between two leaders, Sir Anerood Jugnauth spent 3 years as Prime Minister and Paul Bérenger spent 2 years. After the 2005 General Election, Dr. Navin Ramgoolam became the Prime Minister of Mauritius again. In 2010 General Election, he was re-elected and remained in office.[4] The 2014 General Election returned Sir Anerood Jugnauth to the Prime Minister's office.

Oaths

According to the third Schedule of the Constitution of Mauritius, an oath under this section shall be administered by the Prime Minister.[5]

I, ......................, being appointed Prime Minister/Minister/Junior Minister, do swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will to the best of my judgment, at all times when so required, freely give my counsel and advice to the President (or any other person for the time being lawfully performing the functions of that office) for the good management of the public affairs of Mauritius, and I do further swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will not on any account, at any time whatsoever, disclose the counsel, advice, opinion or vote of any particular Minister or Junior Minister and that I will not, except with the authority of the Cabinet and to such extent as may be required for the good management of the affairs of Mauritius, directly or indirectly reveal the business or proceedings of the Prime Minister/Minister/Junior Minister or any matter coming to my knowledge in my capacity as such and that in all things I will be a true and faithful Prime Minister/Minister/Junior Minister. (So help me God.)

See also

References

  1. ^ Walter, Karen (16 July 2017). "Salaires des dirigeants: le PM mieux payé que Putin et Modi". lexpress.mu (in French). Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  2. ^ "The Prime Minister". Government of Mauritius. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  3. ^ "Mauritius". Worldsstatesmen.org. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
  4. ^ Nohlen, D, Krennerich, M & Thibaut, B (1999) Elections in Africa: A data handbook, p618 ISBN 0-19-829645-2
  5. ^ "Constitution of Mauritius" (PDF). Government of Mauritius. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2012.
2000 Mauritian general election

The 2000 Mauritian general elections took place on 11 September 2000 for the National Assembly of Mauritius with the votes counted on 12 September 2000.

The opposition Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM) party decisively won the elections in coalition with the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), defeating the governing Mauritian Labour Party (MLP) led coalition. They formed together the MSM/MMM As a result, in a pre-election deal Anerood Jugnauth of the Militant Socialist Movement became Prime Minister of Mauritius before handing over to Paul Bérenger of the Mauritian Militant Movement in 2003; Bérenger would become the first non-Hindu Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Clarisse House

The Clarisse House is the official residence of the Prime Minister of Mauritius at 37, Riverwalk Vacoas, Plaines Wilhems. It is frequently used for governmental conferences, summits and other official purposes, including the Prime Minister's New Year Speech. The current occupant of this house is the present Prime Minister, Pravind Jugnauth. The Prime Minister's Office is located at Port Louis.

Deputy Prime Minister of Mauritius

The Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic Mauritius (French: Vice-Premier Ministre) is the senior member of the Cabinet of Mauritius. The actual Deputy Prime Minister Ivan Collendavelloo was appointed by the President on 20 December 2016 after the resignation of Xavier-Luc Duval. The Deputy Prime Minister is the first in line to succeed the Prime Minister on a temporary basis in case the latter is out of the country, sick, resigns or dies suddenly.

Government of Mauritius

The Government of Mauritius (French: Gouvernement de Maurice) is the main authority of the executive power in the Republic of Mauritius. The head of the Government is the Prime Minister of Mauritius, who manages the main agenda of the Government and direct the ministers.

The 2015 Ibrahim Index of African Governance ranked Mauritius first in good governance. According to the 2015 Democracy Index compiled by the Economist Intelligence Unit that measures the state of democracy in 167 countries, Mauritius ranks 18th worldwide followed by Uruguay and United States and is the only African country with Full Democracy.

Mauritius is also taking on the US and UK governments for the Chagos Archipelago islands which include Diego Garcia now a US naval base. Mauritius want these powers to hand back these islands which the government of Mauritius always considered as part of its territories to complete its decolonisation process. This is a matter of importance to the western world considering the critical location of the military base.

Leader of the Opposition (Mauritius)

The Leader of the Opposition (French: Leader de l'opposition) of the Republic of Mauritius is the Member of Parliament who leads the Opposition party in the National Assembly. This office is a constitutional one guaranteed by the laws of the country. The current office holder becomes automatically 7th in the order of precedence. The current Leader of the Opposition is Xavier-Luc Duval who was appointed by President Ameenah Gurib on December 20, 2016.

List of Prime Ministers of Mauritius

Five people have served as Prime Minister of Mauritius since the office was established in 1968, when independence from the United Kingdom was proclaimed. Additionally, one person has served as Chief Minister of Mauritius, the preceding office which existed from 1961 to 1968, while Mauritius still was a British crown colony.

Mauritius (1968–1992)

Between independence in 1968 and becoming a republic in 1992, Mauritius was an independent sovereign state that shared its head of state with the United Kingdom and other states headed by Elizabeth II.

In 1968, the United Kingdom's Mauritius Independence Act 1968 granted independence to the British Crown Colony of Mauritius. The British monarch, Elizabeth II, remained head of state as Queen of Mauritius, as well as being Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. The monarch's constitutional roles in Mauritius were mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Mauritius. The Governors-General were:

Sir John Shaw Rennie (12 March – 27 August 1968)

Sir Michel Rivalland (27 August – 3 September 1968)

Sir Leonard Williams (3 September 1968 – 27 December 1972)

Sir Raman Osman (27 December 1972 – 31 October 1977)

Sir Henry Garrioch (31 October 1977 – 26 April 1979)

Sir Dayendranath Burrenchobay (26 April 1979 – 28 December 1983)

Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (28 December 1983 – 15 December 1985)

Sir Cassam Moollan (15 December 1985 – 17 January 1986) (acting)

Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo (17 January 1986 – 12 March 1992)Seewoosagur Ramgoolam and then Sir Anerood Jugnauth held office as Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Elizabeth II visited Mauritius 24–26 March 1972.The Republic of Mauritius was proclaimed on 12 March 1992. Following the abolition of the monarchy, the last Governor General of Mauritius, Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo became the first President of Mauritius.

NCR

NCR may refer to:

NCR Corporation, business technology company, previously National Cash Register

"No carbon required" carbonless copy paper

Napier City Rovers, a New Zealand association football club

A Nature Conservation Review, listing of British nature conservation sites

Naval Construction Regiment, unit of US Navy Seabees

Navin Ramgoolam, prime minister of Mauritius

Nodule-specific cysteine rich, an antimicrobial peptide produced by many root nodule forming plants

New California Republic, fictional government in game franchise Fallout

Not criminally responsible, insanity defense

Numeric character reference, mechanism for specifying Unicode characters

nCr or nCr, mathematics operation a.k.a. "from n choose r" or "combinations of n things, taken r at a time"

Nugget Casino Resort, a hotel and casino located in Sparks, Nevada

Navin Ramgoolam

Navinchandra Ramgoolam, GCSK, FRCP (born 14 July 1947) is a Mauritian politician who was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2005 to 2014 and leader of the Labour Party. He was Leader of the Opposition from 1991 to 1995. He served as Prime Minister for the first time from December 1995 until September 2000, and became Leader of the Opposition again from October 2000 to 4 July 2005. On 5 July 2005, he became prime minister for a second term after his Alliance Sociale won the general elections. He served again as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2014, when he was defeated afterwards.

Paul Bérenger

Paul Raymond Bérenger GCSK, MP (born 26 March 1945) is a Mauritian politician who was Prime Minister of Mauritius from 2003 to 2005. He has been Leader of the Opposition on several occasions — from 1983 to 1987, 1997 to 2000, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2013, October 2013 to 15 September 2014, and again since December 2014. Following his party's defeat in the 2014 general elections, he became Leader of the Opposition for the sixth time, making him the longest ever to serve in this constitutional position. He was also Deputy Prime Minister from 1995 to 1997 and again from 2000 to 2003, and he was a cabinet minister in the government of Anerood Jugnauth in 1982 and 1991. Bérenger, a Christian of Franco-Mauritian descent, has been the only non-Hindu Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Pravind Jugnauth

Pravind Kumar Jugnauth MP Esq. (Mauritian Creole pronunciation: [pʁavind dʒʌgnət]; born 25 December 1961) is a Mauritian politician who is Prime Minister of Mauritius, in office since 2017, and also holds another portfolio as Minister of Finance. He is currently leader of the Militant Socialist Movement (MSM), which has the majority seats Pravind Jugnauth previously served as Minister of Technology, Communication and Innovation following the victory of their alliance LEPEP in the 2014 general elections from December 2014 to July 2015. He has occupied various positions in both government and opposition since 2000. He was Minister of Agriculture from 2000 to 2003, Deputy Prime Minister & Minister of Finance from 2003 to 2005. While he served in Navin Ramgoolam's cabinet from 2010 to 2011 as Vice Prime Minister and Minister of Finance He is also Member of Parliament for the 8th constituency Quartier Militaire and Moka. He left the coalition government and was appointed Leader of the Opposition in September 2014 until he was named as minister in his father's cabinet following their victory.

He is the only son of Sir Anerood Jugnauth and Sarojini Ballah. His candidacy for Parliamentary General Elections in Constituency No 9, Rose Belle and Vieux Grand Port in 2000 made him elected as Member of Parliament from there. He was appointed as Minister of Agriculture by President Uteem to serve in the cabinet. He served as Minister under the premiership of his father Anerood Jugnauth who became Prime Minister in 2000 after winning the elections with the MSM/MMM coalition.

He was initially found guilty of conflict of interest for a transaction of Rs. 144 million under the Prevention of Corruption Act (POCA) Law and was sentenced by the Intermediate court of Mauritius for 1 year of imprisonment. He was accused of having reallocated funds to purchase the Medpoint Clinic in which his sister held a majority of shares. He resigned from the government as minister following the sentence. However, he appealed to the Supreme Court of Mauritius and won his appeal. He was then appointed as Minister of Finance.

On 23 January 2017, he was chosen Prime Minister by his father, Anerood Jugnauth, following the resignation of the latter; who was the leader of the coalition government.

Rama Sithanen

Rama Krishna Sithanen, GCSK, MP (born Tamil: இராம சித்தனன் Hindi: राम कृष्ण सिथनेन on 21 April 1954) is a former finance minister of Mauritius and vice-prime minister of Mauritius and has held the office between 1991 and 1995 when Sir Anerood Jugnauth was Prime Minister and from 2005 to 2010 Navin Ramgoolam's Cabinet .

Seewoosagur Ramgoolam

Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam (Hindi: सर शिवसागर रामगुलाम; September 18, 1900 – December 15, 1985; often referred to as Chacha Ramgoolam) was a Mauritian politician, statesman and philanthropist. He was a leader in the Mauritian independence movement, and served as the first Chief Minister and Prime Minister of Mauritius, as well as its Governor-General. He was the Chairperson of the Organisation of African Unity from 1976 to 1977. As the leader of the Labour Party, Ramgoolam fought for the rights of labourers and led Mauritius to independence in 1968.

After his tertiary studies in London, Ramgoolam, who was initially a fervent defendant of the British administration and its empire, started calling for mass movement in order to obtain equal treatment, consideration, education and chances for all Mauritians through his authorship in a newspaper. His views changed due to then-fate of the Indo-Mauritian community which was oppressed, uneducated and ill-treated by the elite. He later joined the Labour Party to align himself with other members who were asking for equal rights and adequate working conditions for workers (mainly laborers). He later took leadership of the fight fought by other party members including Dr. Maurice Cure, Emmanuel Anquetil, Dr. R. Seeneevasen and Dr. Hassenjee.

He later cooperated with the Independent Forward Block (IFB) led by the Bissoundoyal brothers (Pundit Basdeo and Sookdeo; who were demanding for a complete decolonization and the removal of British administration from all Mauritian territories) and the Committee D'action Musulmane (CAM) led by Abdool Razack Mohamed (who demanded constitutional guarantees for the Muslim and other minority communities in an effort to prevent a circumstantial Hindu hegemony, which never happened) to form the independence party and movement which eventually led to Independence after the Mauritian general election, 1967.

Few years later, he formed a national government with then opposition party Parti Mauricien Social Démocrate (PMSD; the nationalist, conservative and only party to lead a campaign against Independence) led by Gaetan Duval in order to prevent the Mauritian economy and social environment to collapse.

Ramgoolam has been praised and highly revered for his work for independence, free education & free heatlhcare. He is criticized for accepting the unlawful excision of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritian territories by the British government. However official colonial documents which has been declassified in the UK revealed that Ramgoolam acted under duress. The British eventually evicted all the natives of the archipelago to mainland Mauritius and Seychelles to allow American to build a military base on the biggest island of the Archipelago, Diego Garcia. He is also criticized for the poor performance of his last government (1976–1982) which lacked extreme economic growth and led to the country being on the verge of bankruptcy.

Due to the extreme poor performance of his government, his party lost the 1982 general elections with a heavy defeat when none of his candidates were elected to parliament. He himself lost his seat leading to the downfall of the Labour Party. He then supported the newly formed party named MSM and its leader Anerood Jugnauth in the 1983 elections. The Labour Party became a minority party in a coalition government and Ramgoolam was appointed as Governor-General, position he held until his death.

As Mauritius' first Prime Minister, he played a crucial role in shaping modern Mauritius' government, political culture and foreign policy. He worked for the emancipation of the Mauritian population, established free universal education and free health care services, and introduced old age pensions. He is known as the "Father of the Nation". His son, Navin Ramgoolam, has had three terms as Prime Minister of Mauritius.

Shahabad district

Shahabad district or Arrah district, headquartered at Arrah (now part of Bhojpur District) was a bhojpuri speaking district in western Bihar, India making western border of Bihar with Uttar Pradesh. In year 1972, the district was subsequently bifurcated into two districts namely Bhojpur and Rohtas. Later on Kaimur District was carved out from Rohtas in 1991 and Buxar District from Bhojpur in 1992.

The districts in erstwhile Shahabad are as follows.

Bhojpur District headquartered at Arrah

Rohtas District headquartered at Sasaram

Kaimur District headquartered at Bhabua

Buxar District headquartered at BuxarAll four above districts falls under Patna Division along with Patna and Nalanda District.

Spouse of the Prime Minister of Mauritius

The Spouse of the Prime Minister of Mauritius is the title of the wife or husband of the Prime Minister of Mauritius. To date it has been held by only 5 women, the current holder is Kobita Jugnauth.

Sushil Ramgoolam

Sushil Ramjoorawon, The Right Honorable Lady Ramgoolam (2 October 1922 – 5 January 1984; commonly known as Lady Sushil Ramgoolam) was the wife of the late Sir Seewoosagur Ramgoolam, father of the nation, leader of the Labour Party from 1959 to 1982, ex-Prime Minister of Mauritius (1968-1982) and ex-Governor General of Mauritius (1983-1985). She was First Lady of Mauritius while her husband was in office of Governor General and Prime Minister of Mauritius from 1968 to 1982. Her son Navin Ramgoolam has also been Prime Minister of Mauritius (1995-2000, 2005-2014).

Veena Ramgoolam

Veena Ramgoolam (née Brizmohun) is the wife of Navin Ramgoolam, the leader of the Labour Party and ex-Prime Minister of Mauritius. She held the title of Spouse of the Prime Minister of Mauritius while her husband held the office of Prime Minister twice, first from 1995 to 2000 and again from 2005 to 2014.

Vice-President of Mauritius

The Vice-President of the Republic of Mauritius (French: Vice-Président de la République de Maurice) is the second-highest office of the Republic of Mauritius. Because Mauritius is a parliamentary republic, the Vice-President functions as a ceremonial figurehead, elected by the National Assembly, as set out by the Constitution of Mauritius. The current Vice-President is Barlen Vyapoory; he took office on 29 March 2016.

Vice Prime Minister of Mauritius

Vice-Prime Minister of Mauritius (French: Vice-Premier Ministre) is an honorary title usually carried by up to two incumbent Ministers of the Government of Mauritius, that does not exist separately under the Constitution of Mauritius.

There is currently only one Vice-Prime Minister of Mauritius, namely Fazila Jeewa-Daureeawoo. She became the country's first female Vice-Prime Minister in November 2017, and is therefore the 9th highest ranking Mauritian citizen.

She is also currently the Minister of Local Government and Outer Islands.

Mauritius Prime Ministers of Mauritius (List)
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Mauritius (1968–1992)
Republic of Mauritius
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