Prime Minister of Albania

The Prime Minister of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Shqipërisë), officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Kryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the head of government of the Republic of Albania and as well the most powerful and influential person in Albanian politics. The Prime Minister holds the executive power of the nation and represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings.

The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of Albania after each general election and must have the confidence of the Parliament of Albania to stay in office. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs. The Prime Minister is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a four-year term. The Constitution of Albania sets no limit as to office terms of the prime minister.

The 33rd and current officeholder is Edi Rama of the Socialist Party who was elected on 23 June 2013 and started his first four-year-term on 15 September 2013.

Prime Minister of Albania
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë
Kryeministri i Shqipërisë

Emblem of the Prime Minister
Incumbent
Edi Rama

since 15 September 2013
ResidenceKryeministria
AppointerPresident
Inaugural holderIsmail Qemali
Formation29 November 1912
WebsiteOfficial Page

Powers, duties and responsibilities

The Prime Minister of the Albania, officially styled the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania, is the most powerful and influential state officeholder in the Albanian system of government.

One important role of the President is to designate a candidate for the office of Prime Minister who, in the opinion of the President, is best able to command a majority of the members of the Parliament.[1] As head of government, the Prime Minister is charged with directing the internal policy of the country and leads the public administration. In this regard, the government cooperates with other interested social actors. If the Prime Minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power, the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the cabinet and the council of ministers.

The Constitution states that the Prime Minister represents the council of ministers and chairs its meetings[2], outlines and presents the principal general policies of the state and is responsible for them, assures the implementation of legislation and policies approved by the Council of Ministers, coordinates and supervises the work of the members of the Council of Ministers and other institutions of the central state administration, performs other duties contemplated in the Constitution and laws, resolves disagreements among ministers, and issues orders in the exercise of his powers.[3] The Prime Minister can also initiate a proceeding of the Constitutional Court of Albania.[4]

Oath

Before assuming duty, the prime minister-elect is required to take an oath of office before the President, swearing loyalty to the Constitution. The text of the oath in its Albanian form is sensitive to gender and all nouns always retain a neutral form. The prime minister-elect takes the following oath of office, specified by the Constitution[5][6]:

Albanian: Betohem se do t’i bindem Kushtetutës dhe ligjeve të vendit, do të respektoj të drejtat dhe liritë e shtetasve, do të mbroj pavarësinë e Republikës së Shqipërisë dhe do t’i shërbej interesit të përgjithshëm dhe përparimit të Popullit Shqiptar. The President may add: Zoti më ndihmoftë!

English: I swear that I will obey to the Constitution and laws of the country, that I will respect the rights and freedoms of citizens, protect the independence of the Republic of Albania, and I will serve the general interest and the progress of the Albanian People. The President may add: So help me God!

Office and residence

Ndërtesa e Kryeministrisë, Tiranë. The Building of the Prime Ministry of Albania. Foto by Dritan Mardodaj.
The facade of the Kryeministria.

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian: Kryeministria) is the official office and residence of the Prime Minister. It provides secretarial assistance to the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister through his office coordinates with all ministers in the central union cabinet, minister of independent charges and governors and ministers of state government. Furthermore informal meetings between the prime minister and other government or foreign officials takes place in the Office. It also consists of the immediate staff of the Prime Minister of Albania, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the Prime Minister. Since 1941, the building serves as the office and residence of the Prime Minister. The building is in the capital city of Tirana at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, near the Mother Teresa Square.

The building was planned by the Italian architects Florestano Di Fausto and Gherardo Bosio, and constructed together with the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard, the Mother Teresa Square and all the buildings located on these squares, during the Italian occupation of Albania in 1939 to 1941, in a Rationalist style.

List of prime ministers (1912–present)

No. Portrait Name Term in office Party
Flag of Albanian Provisional Government (1912-1914).svg Albania (1912–1914)[7]
1 Ismail Qemali (portrait) Ismail Qemali
(1844–1919)
Ismail Qemali (nënshkrim).svg
4 December 1912 22 January 1914 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 18 days
International Control Commission
(22 January 1914 – 6 September 1914)
Flag of Albania (1914–1920).svg Principality of Albania (1914–1925)
2 Turhan Pasha Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
15 March 1914 3 September 1914 Independent
5 months and 19 days
3 Essad Pasha Toptani Esat Toptani
(1863–1920)
Esat Toptani (nënshkrim).svg
2 October 1914 27 January 1916 Independent
1 year, 3 months and 25 days
Austro-Hungarian Command
(24 February 1916 – 28 December 1918)
Turhan Pasha Turhan Përmeti
(1846–1927)
Turhan Pasha (nënshkrim).svg
25 December 1918 29 January 1920 Independent
1 year, 1 month and 4 days
4 Sulejman Delvina (portrait) Sulejman Delvina
(1884–1933)
Sylejman Delvina (nënshkrim)
30 January 1920 15 November 1920 Independent
9 months and 16 days
5 Iliaz Vrioni 1932 Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim)
15 November 1920 16 October 1921 Independent
11 months and 1 day
6 Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait) Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim)
16 October 1921 6 December 1921 Independent
1 month and 20 days
7 Qazim Koculi (side portrait) Qazim Koculi
Acting Prime Minister
(1887–1943)
Qazim Koculi (nënshkrim).svg
6 December 1921 6 December 1921 Independent
0 days
8 Hasan Prishtina (portrait) Hasan Prishtina
(1873–1933)
Hasan Prishtina (nënshkrim).svg
7 December 1921 12 December 1921 Progressive Party
5 days
9 Idhomen Kosturi Idhomen Kosturi
Acting Prime Minister
(1873–1943)
Idhomen Kosturi (nënshkrim)
12 December 1921 24 December 1921 Independent
−10 days
10 Xhafer Ypi Xhafer Ypi
(1880–1940)
Xhafer Ypi (nënshkrim).svg
24 December 1921 2 December 1922 Popular Party
11 months and 8 days
11 King Zog I Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
2 December 1922 25 February 1924 Conservative Party
1 year, 2 months and 23 days
12 Shefqet Vërlaci Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
30 March 1924 27 May 1924 Progressive Party
1 month and 27 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932 Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim)
27 May 1924 10 June 1924 Independent
14 days
13 Fan Stilian Noli Fan Noli
(1882–1965)
Fan Noli (nënshkrim)
16 June 1924 24 December 1924 Liberal Party
6 months and 8 days
Iliaz Vrioni 1932 Iliaz Vrioni
(1882–1932)
Ilias Vrioni (nënshkrim)
24 December 1924 5 January 1925 Independent
12 days
King Zog I Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
6 January 1925 25 September 1925 Conservative Party
8 months and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1926–1928).svg Albanian Republic (1925–1928)
King Zog I Ahmet Zogu
(1895–1961)
Zogu (nënshkrim).svg
28 September 1925 1 September 1928 Conservative Party
2 years, 11 months and 4 days
Flag of Albania (1934–1939).svg Albanian Kingdom (1928–1939)
14 Koço Kotta Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
1 September 1928 5 March 1930 Unaffiliated
1 year, 6 months and 4 days
Pandeli Evangjeli (portrait) Pandeli Evangjeli
(1859–1949)
Pandeli Evangjeli (nënshkrim)
6 March 1930 16 October 1935 Unaffiliated
5 years, 7 months and 10 days
15 Mehdi Frashëri Mehdi Frashëri
(1872–1963)
Mehdi Frashëri (nënshkrim)
21 October 1935 7 November 1936 Unaffiliated
1 year and 17 days
Koço Kotta Kostaq Kotta
(1889–1949)
Kostaq Kotta (nënshkrim).svg
9 November 1936 7 April 1939 Unaffiliated
2 years, 4 months and 29 days
Flag of Albania (1939–1943).svg Italian Occupation (1939–1943)
Shefqet Vërlaci Shefqet Vërlaci
(1877–1946)
Shefqet Vërlaci (nënshkrim).svg
12 April 1939 3 December 1941 Fascist Party
2 years, 7 months and 21 days
16 Mustafa Merlika Kruja Mustafa Merlika-Kruja
(1887–1958)
Mustafa Kruja (nënshkrim)
3 December 1941 4 January 1943 Fascist Party
1 year, 1 month and 1 day
17 Eqrem Libohova Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim)
18 January 1943 11 February 1943 Fascist Party
24 days
18 Maliq Bushati Maliq Bushati
(1880–1946)
Maliq Bushati (nënshkrim).svg
12 February 1943 28 April 1943 Fascist Party
2 months and 16 days
Eqrem Libohova Eqrem Libohova
(1882–1948)
Ekrem Libohova (nënshkrim)
11 May 1943 10 September 1943 Fascist Party
3 months and 30 days
Flag of Albania (1943–1944).svg German Occupation (1943–1944)
19 Rexhep Mitrovica Rexhep Mitrovica
(1887–1967)
Rexhep Mitrovica (nënshkrim).svg
5 November 1943 16 June 1944 National Front
9 months and 11 days
20 Fiqiri Dine Fiqiri Dine
(1897–1960)
Fiqiri Dine (nënshkrim)
18 July 1944 28 August 1944[8] National Front
1 month and 10 days
21 Ibrahim Biçakçiu Ibrahim Biçaku
(1905–1977)
Ibrahim Biçakçiu (nënshkrim).svg
6 September 1944 25 October 1944 National Front
1 month and 19 days
Flag of Albania (1946–1992).svg People's Socialist Republic of Albania (1944–1991)
22 HODŽA druhá míza Enver Hoxha
(1908–1985)
Enver Hoxha (nënshkrim).svg
23 October 1944 19 July 1954 Communist Party
renamed in 1948 to
Party of Labour
9 years, 8 months and 26 days
23 1967-01 1966年阿尔巴尼亚穆罕默德·谢胡 Mehmet Ismail Shehu Mehmet Shehu
(1913–1981)
Mehmet Shehu (nënshkrim).svg
20 July 1954 18 December 1981 Party of Labour
27 years, 4 months and 28 days
24 Adil Çarçani
(1922–1997)
Adil Çarçani (nënshkrim).svg
15 January 1982 21 February 1991 Party of Labour
9 years, 1 month and 6 days
Flag of Albania.svg Republic of Albania (1991–present)
25 Fatos Nano 2003 Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 1991 4 June 1991 Socialist Party
3 months and 13 days
26 Ylli Bufi
(born 1948)
Ylli Bufi (nënshkrim).svg
11 June 1991 6 December 1991 Socialist Party
5 months and 25 days
27 Vilson Ahmeti
(born 1951)
Vilson Ahmeti (nënshkrim).svg
14 December 1991 14 April 1992 Independent
4 months
28 Aleksandër Meksi Aleksandër Meksi
(born 1939)
Aleksandër Meksi (nënshkrim)
13 April 1992 1 March 1997 Democratic Party
4 years, 10 months and 16 days
29 Bashkim Fino
(born 1962)
Bashkim Fino (nënshkrim)
11 March 1997 24 July 1997 Socialist Party
4 months and 13 days
Fatos Nano 2003 Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
25 July 1997 28 September 1998 Socialist Party
1 year, 2 months and 3 days
30 Pandeli Majko Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
2 October 1998 25 October 1999 Socialist Party
1 year and 23 days
31 Ilir Meta (portrait) Ilir Meta
(born 1969)
Ilir Meta (nënshkrim).svg
28 November 1999 29 January 2002 Socialist Party
2 years, 2 months and 1 day
Pandeli Majko Pandeli Majko
(born 1967)
Pandeli Majko (nënshkrim).svg
22 February 2002 25 July 2002 Socialist Party
5 months and 3 days
Fatos Nano 2003 Fatos Nano
(born 1952)
Fatos Nano (nënshkrim).svg
29 July 2002 1 September 2005 Socialist Party
3 years, 1 month and 3 days
32 Sali Berisha (cropped) Sali Berisha
(born 1944)
Sali Berisha (nënshkrim)
12 September 2005 12 September 2013 Democratic Party
8 years
33 Edi Rama
(born 1964)
Edi Rama (nënshkrim)
13 September 2013 Incumbent Socialist Party
5 years, 7 months and 6 days

See also

References

  1. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. At the beginning of a legislature, as well as when the position of Prime Minister is vacant, the President of the Republic appoints the Prime Minister on the proposal of the party or coalition of parties that has the majority of seats in the Assembly.
  2. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 20. represents the Council of Ministers and chairs its meetings;
  3. ^ Article 102, Section 1-3 of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  4. ^ Article 134, Section 1(b) of the Constitution of Albania (22 November 1998)
  5. ^ "1998 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA". osce.org. p. 19. Before taking office, the Prime Minister, the deputy prime minister, and the ministers take an oath before the President of the Republic.
  6. ^ "KUSHTETUTA E REPUBLIKËS SË SHQIPËRISË" (PDF). wipo.int (in Albanian). Betohem se do t'i bindem Kushtetutes dhe ligjeve te vendit, do te respektoj te drejtat dhe lirite e shtetasve, do te mbroj pavaresine e Republikes se Shqiperise dhe do t'i sherbej interesit te pergjithshem dhe perparimit te Popullit Shqiptar". Presidenti mund te shtoje edhe: "zoti me ndihmofte
  7. ^ Dervishi, Kastriot (2012). Kryeministrat dhe ministrat e shtetit shqiptar në 100 vjet. Tiranë: Shtëpia Botuese "55". p. 273. ISBN 9994356224.
  8. ^ Pearson, Owen (2005). Albania in Occupation and War: From Fascism to Communism, 1940-1945. London: The Centre for Albanian Studies. p. 1982. ISBN 1-84511-014-5.
Adil Çarçani

Adil Çarçani (May 15, 1922 – October 13, 1997) was an Albanian politician who served as the 24th Prime Minister of Albania in the Communist regime led by Enver Hoxha. He served as the titular head of the Albanian government in the years immediately preceding the fall of the Communist regime.

Deputy Prime Minister of Albania

The Deputy Prime Ministers of Albania (Albanian: Zëvendëskryeministri i Shqipërise), officially styled the Deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Zëvendëskryeministri i Republikës së Shqipërisë), is the deputy head of government of Albania. In the absence of the Prime Minister of Albania the Deputy Prime Minister takes over his functions, such as chairing the Cabinet of Albania and the Council of Ministers of Albania. The Office is the second senior minister of the cabinet in the executive branch of the government in the parliamentary system in the Republic of Albania.

Although Albania has always had a Deputy Prime Minister since its independence in 1912. A Prime Minister may choose not to appoint a Deputy Prime Minister. As of the Constitution of Albania, the President of Albania appoints the Deputy Prime Minister and swears before the starting duties in front of the President. The Deputy Prime Minister can take the position of the acting Prime Minister, when the Prime Minister is temporarily absent or incapable of exercising its executive power. The Deputy Prime Minister is often asked to succeed to the Prime Minister's term of office, following the Prime Minister's sudden death or unexpected resignation. However, that is not necessarily mandated by the Constitution of the nation.

Edi Rama

Edi Rama (born 4 July 1964) is an Albanian politician, artist, writer and former basketball player, who has been the 42nd Prime Minister of Albania and the Minister of Foreign Affairs since 2013 and January 2019, respectively.

Rama has also been Chairman of the Socialist Party of Albania since 2005. Before his election as Prime Minister, Rama held a number of other positions. He was appointed Minister of Culture, Youth and Sports in 1998, a position that he held until 2000.

He was first elected Mayor of Tirana in 2000, and was reelected in 2003 and 2007. In 2013, the coalition of center-left parties led by Edi Rama won the 2013 parliamentary election, defeating the center-right coalition of Democratic Party of Albania's incumbent Prime Minister, Sali Berisha. He was confirmed as prime minister for a second term on 2017 election.

Eqrem Libohova

Eqrem Libohova (24 February 1882, Gjirokastër – 7 June 1948, Rome) was an Albanian politician and Axis collaborator. He served as the Prime Minister of Albania on two occasions during the Italian occupation of Albania.

Ibrahim Biçakçiu

Ibrahim Aqif Biçakçiu (also known as Ibrahim Biçaku) was an Albanian landowner and Axis collaborator, Prime Minister of Albania during the Nazi occupation, from September 25 to October 24, 1943 and from August 29 to November 28, 1944.

Iliaz Vrioni

Iliaz Vrioni (1 January 1882 – March 12, 1932) was an Albanian politician and landowner. He served as Prime Minister of Albania three times.

Leader of the Opposition (Albania)

The Leader of the Opposition (Albanian: Kreu i opozitës) is a not official title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in the Parliament of Albania. The Leader is invariably seen as the alternative Prime Minister of Albania to the present incumbent, and heads a rival alternative government known as the Shadow Cabinet.

Maliq Bushati

Maliq Bushati (8 February 1880 in Shkodër, Scutari Vilayet – 15 February 1946), was an Albanian Axis collaborator, Prime Minister of Albania during the Italian occupation, from 13 February to 12 May 1943.Along with two other Axis Collaborators Lef Nosi and father Anton Harapi , he was sentenced to death by communist Albania.

Mehdi Frashëri

Mehdi Frashëri (February 28, 1872 – May 25, 1963) was an Albanian intellectual and politician. He served as Prime Minister of Albania twice, the second term as Prime Minister of Albania's puppet government under Nazi Germany.

Movement for Solidarity

Movement for Solidarity is an Albanian political party, the formation of which was announced on September 19, 2007 by former Prime Minister of Albania and former Socialist Party of Albania leader Fatos Nano. He stated he wanted to rebuild and reform the Socialist Party through his new movement.

Pandeli Majko

Pandeli Sotir Majko (born 15 November 1967) is an Albanian socialist politician. He served twice as Prime Minister of Albania; once from 1998 to 1999, and again in 2002.He graduated from the University of Tirana, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, and later in Law.

Prime Minister's Office (Albania)

The Prime Minister's Office (Albanian: Kryeministria); (Albanian pronunciation: [kɾyɛministɾia]) is the official office and residence of the Prime Minister of Albania. It is a ministerial level executive agency within the Government of Albania that handles the ministries and other political matters that are of great importance to the nation, such as corruption and elections. It also consists of the immediate staff of the Prime Minister, as well as multiple levels of support staff reporting to the Prime Minister.

The building was constructed in 1941 and is located at the Dëshmorët e Kombit Boulevard in Tirana, which is also the official residence and office for the Prime Minister of Albania.

Qazim Koculi

Qazim Koculi (August 22, 1887 – January 2, 1943) was an Albanian politician of the early 20th century and one-day acting Prime Minister of Albania. He was also the principal military commander of the Albanian forces during the Vlora War in 1920.

Senida Mesi

Senida Mesi is an Albanian politician and professor. She served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Albania from 11 September 2017 to 17 January 2019.Now she is a member of parliament representing Shkodër.

Socialist Movement for Integration

The Socialist Movement for Integration (Albanian: Lëvizja Socialiste për Integrim, LSI) is a social-democratic political party in Albania. The LSI was formed on 6 September 2004 when Ilir Meta, former Prime Minister of Albania, broke from the Socialist Party of Albania (PS). Through the use of the term "movement", LSI attempts to give the message that it is open and inclusive. The other reason for using this term is its intention to differentiate itself from the other parties. LSI employed the one member, one vote system in March 2005 to elect its leader, Ilir Meta.

Turhan Pasha Përmeti

Turhan Pasha Përmeti (19 December 1846 – 18 February 1927) was an Ottoman-Albanian politician who served as the 2nd Prime Minister of Albania. He held the title of Pasha of the Ottoman Empire.

Among the Ottoman posts he occupied were Governor of Crete 1895 and 1896, and ambassador in Saint Petersburg. He was a fluent Greek speaker and considered a capable though rather indecisive administrator. His governorship of Crete ended with the insurrection of May 24, 1896 that eventually led to the loss of the island by the Ottoman Empire. Përmeti represented the Ottoman Empire as its delegate at the Second Hague Peace Conference of 1907.He served as Prime Minister of Albania in 1914, and then again in 1918–1920. Succeeding Ismail Qemali, he became Albania's second prime minister and the first to serve under Prince Wied. Përmeti's contemporaries argued that, because he had lacked affiliation with the Albanian national cause, he was not familiar with the needs of Albanians. His premiership was interrupted by Albanian discontent twice. He was overthrown by Essad Pasha in 1914, and then by the Congress of Lushnjë in 1920.

Vasil Laçi

Vasil Laçi also referred as Vasil Llaçi (1922–41, People's Hero of Albania), was an Albanian patriot and monarchist who attempted to kill Victor Emmanuel III, King of Italy and Shefqet Bej Vërlaci, Prime Minister of Albania after the occupation of Albania by fascist Italy.

Vilson Ahmeti

Vilson Ahmeti (born 5 September 1951 in Fier) is an Albanian political figure. He served as the 33rd Prime Minister of Albania between 10 December 1991 and 13 April 1992. He was appointed to the position by President Ramiz Alia on December 4, following the dismissal of seven ministers, the resignation of Ylli Bufi, and the dissolution of the June 12th caretaker government. He had previously served as a minister in the Socialist government.On 31 August 1993, Ahmeti was sentenced to two years in prison on charges of abuse of power.

Ylli Bufi

Ylli Bufi (born 25 May 1948, Tirana) is an Albanian politician who served briefly as the 32nd Prime Minister of Albania in 1991.

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