|Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia|
since 18 September 2018
as President of Abkhazia
|Inaugural holder||Gennady Gagulia|
|Formation||26 November 1994|
While the Presidency was held by one man – Vladislav Ardzinba – from 1994 to 2005, the position of Prime Minister changed hands a number of times during that time. It was created with the November 1994 adoption of the Constitution of Abkhazia, and Gennady Gagulia was appointed to the position in January 1995.
After Sergei Bagapsh succeeded Ardzinba to the Presidency in February 2005, he appointed Alexander Ankvab as Prime Minister. Ankvab was Bagapsh's Vice Presidential candidate in the 12 December 2009 presidential election, and as required by law, he was officially suspended from his post on 11 November and his duties were carried out by First Vice Premier Leonid Lakerbaia. Bagapsh and Ankvab won the election, and on 13 February 2010, Ankvab was succeeded by long-time Minister for Foreign Affairs Sergei Shamba.
The 2014 presidential election was won by opposition leader Raul Khajimba, who on 29 September 2014 appointed Beslan Butba as the new Prime Minister. However, there were rumors of Butba's resignation almost since the beginning of his term, explained variously by a power struggle between Butba and Khajimba and by Butba's supposed bad performance as Prime Minister. Butba was finally dismissed by President Khajimba on 16 March 2015, and temporarily replaced by First Vice Premier Shamil Adzynba. In a press conference afterwards, Butba said that he had made Khajimba aware of his intention to resign. He claimed that the Presidential Administration had taken over many of the responsibilities of the Prime Minister, creating a 'second government'. On 20 March, Khajimba appointed MP and former United Abkhazia Chairman Artur Mikvabia as Butba's successor.
Following a pending motion of no-confidence against him, the storming of the Interior Ministry by opposition activists and a failed referendum to bring about an early presidential election, Mikvabia announced his resignation as Prime Minister on 26 July 2016, accepted on the same day by Khajimba. In an interview with Caucasian Knot, Mikvabia stated that the strong unrest in society was being caused by the government's efforts to structurally improve the financial situation of Abkhazia through measures such as the introduction of VAT, that he did not want to work under conditions where society itself hindered development and that he hoped his resignation would defuse tensions. Khajimba again appointed Adzynba as acting Prime Minister. On 5 August, he appointed Newly Appointed Presidential Administration Head Beslan Bartsits as the new Prime Minister.
|Took Office||Left Office|
|January 1995||29 April 1997||Independent|
|29 April 1997||20 December 1999||Independent|
|20 December 1999||30 May 2001||Independent|
|7 June 2001||29 November 2002||Independent|
|29 November 2002||8 April 2003||Independent|
|22 April 2003||6 October 2004||Independent|
|6 October 2004||14 February 2005||United Abkhazia|
|14 February 2005||13 February 2010||Aitaira|
|13 February 2010||27 September 2011||Independent|
|27 September 2011||2 June 2014||Aitaira|
Acting Prime Minister
|2 June 2014||29 September 2014||Independent|
|29 September 2014||17 March 2015||Party for the Economic Development of Abkhazia|
Acting Prime Minister
|17 March 2015||20 March 2015||Independent|
|20 March 2015||26 July 2016||United Abkhazia|
Acting Prime Minister
|26 July 2016||5 August 2016||Independent|
|5 August 2016||25 April 2018||Independent|
|25 April 2018||8 September 2018||Independent|
Acting Prime Minister
|8 September 2018||18 September 2018||Independent|
|18 September 2018||Incumbent||Independent|
Aleksandr Ankvab ( (listen) AHNK-vahb; Abkhazian: Алықьсандр Анқәаб, Georgian: ალექსანდრე ანქვაბი, Russian: Алекса́ндр Анква́б; born December 26, 1952) is an Abkhaz politician and businessman who was President of Abkhazia from May 29, 2011, until his resignation on June 1, 2014. Under President Sergei Bagapsh, he previously served as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2010 and Vice-President from 2010 to 2011.
In the 4 October 2004 presidential election, Ankvab supported Bagapsh's candidacy following his own exclusion by the Central Election Commission; he was subsequently appointed as Prime Minister by Bagapsh in February 2005. Ankvab was appointed acting President of Abkhazia after President Bagapsh underwent an operation on May 21, 2011. Following the operation, Bagapsh died on May 29, 2011 and Ankvab served as Acting President until winning election in his own right later in 2011.
Ankvab survived six attempts on his life from 2005 to 2012, last time as a president on February 22, 2012, when his convoy was ambushed in Abkhazia, killing two of his guards.On May 27, 2014, Ankvab's headquarters in Sukhumi were stormed by opposition groups led by Raul Khadjimba, forcing him into flight to Gudauta in what Ankvab denounced as an "armed coup attempt". The Abkhaz parliament declared Ankvab "unable" to exercise his presidential powers on May 31, 2014, and Ankvab resigned on June 1, 2014.Anri Jergenia
Anri Mikhail-ipa Jergenia (Abkhazian: Анри Михаил-иҧа Џьергьениа; born 1941) has been one of the leading politicians of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia since it achieved de facto independence from Georgia. From June 2001 to November 2002 he was the republic's Prime Minister and for a time Jergenia looked to be the favourite to succeed Abkhazia's first president Vladislav Ardzinba.Artur Mikvabia
Artur Mikvabia (Abkhazian: Артур Артиом-иԥа Амқәаб; Georgian: არტურ მიქვაბია; born 22 May 1949) is an economist and politician from Abkhazia. He was Prime Minister in the Government of President Khajimba between 20 March 2015 and 26 July 2016.Belarusian National Technical University
Belarusian National Technical University (BNTU) is the major technical university in Belarus.Beslan Bartsits
Beslan Bartsits (born 22 July 1978) is a former Prime Minister of Abkhazia, having been appointed by President Raul Khajimba on 5 August 2016 with his term ending 25 April 2018. In the past, he has served as Head of the Presidential Administration, Head of Gagra District and Member of Parliament.Beslan Butba
Beslan Butba (Abkhazian: Беслан Быҭәба, Georgian: ბესლან ბუთბა) (born February 7, 1960) is a businessman and a former Prime Minister of Abkhazia. He owns Abkhazia's only private television station Abaza TV and is the chairman of the Party of the Economic Development of Abkhazia. Butba was an unsuccessful candidate in the December 2009 presidential election.Daur Arshba
Daur Arshba (Russian: Даур Аршба; born 28 March 1962) is a politician from Abkhazia. He is the Head of the Presidential Administration, having been appointed by President Raul Khajimba on 10 October 2016, and Chairman of the pro-government Forum for the National Unity of Abkhazia. In the past, he has served as Vice Speaker of the People's Assembly and as Head of Tkvarcheli District. Following the death of Gennadi Gagulia on 8 September 2018, Arshba was appointed Acting Prime Minister of Abkhazia, a position he held until 18 September 2018.Gennadi Gagulia
Gennadi Leonidipa Gagulia (Abkhazian: Геннадии Леонид-иҧа Гагәлиа, Georgian: გენადი გაგულია; 4 January 1948 – 8 September 2018) was an Abkhazian politician who was three-time Prime Minister of Abkhazia and the head of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. He served as the first prime minister of Abkhazia after the post was established by the constitution in 1995, holding it until 1997. He returned to the post in 2002 and remained for several months into 2003, and held it for a final time in 2018, before dying in a car crash.Leonid Lakerbaia
Leonid Lakerbaia (Abkhazian: Леонид Ла́крба, Georgian: ლეონიდ ლაკერბაია; born 1 January 1947 in Kutaisi), was the Prime Minister of Abkhazia in the Government of President Ankvab from 27 September 2011 until his resignation on 2 June 2014 following the 2014 Abkhazian political crisis. Lakerbaia is also chairman of the socio-political movement Aitaira (since 2001).Before becoming Prime Minister, Lakerbaia was Vice-Premier and First Vice-Premier in the government of President Bagapsh (since 24 February 2005) and he was Minister for Foreign Affairs from 29 June 1995 until 31 July 1996 in the Government of President Ardzinba. Lakerbaia was nominated by the People's Party to stand in the 1999 Presidential election but was refused registration by the Central Election Commission, allowing President Vladislav Ardzinba to run unopposed for a second term.Nodar Khashba
Nodar Vladimirovich Khashba (Abkhazian: Нодар Хашба, Georgian: ნოდარ ხაშბა; born 1951 in Tkvarcheli) is a former prime minister of Georgia's breakaway republic of Abkhazia and a former mayor of Sukhumi.
Khashba was mayor of Sukhumi from 1993 until 1995. Afterwards he became a senior official in Russia's emergencies ministry. In April 2004 he emerged as one of the leaders of a new political movement named United Abkhazia (Yedinaya Abkhazia, reminiscent of the Russian pro-Kremlin party Yedinaya Rossiya). He was not eligible to run in the October 2004 presidential election in Abkhazia because of a requirement that candidates must have been resident in Abkhazia for five years. Shortly after the election, amid confusion surrounding its outcome, the outgoing president, Vladislav Ardzinba, appointed Khashba prime minister.
On November 14, Prime Minister Nodar Khashba, named by the relatives of Tamara Shakryl as responsible for her death and threatened by them, had to spend the night at Russia's Peacemaking Headquarters in Sukhumi. Tensions continued to mount as the day for Bagapsh's inaugural ceremony came. In early December 2004, however, Bagapsh came to an agreement with Khadjimba under which they would run in new elections under a national unity ticket, with Bagapsh as presidential candidate and Khadjimba as vice-presidential candidate. The ticket won the elections with over 90% of the vote, and the new administration took office on February 12, 2005.President of Abkhazia
The position of President of Abkhazia was created in 1994. Before the office of president was created the head of state position was known as the Chairman of Parliament between 1992 and the creation of the 1994 constitution. Before the position of Chairman of Parliament, the highest office in Abkhazia was the Chairman of the Supreme Soviet. The post would last from the declaration of sovereignty from the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic on 25 August 1990 until the outright declaration of independence on 23 July 1992.Sergei Bagapsh
Sergei Uasyl-ipa Bagapsh (Abkhazian: Сергеи Уасыл-иҧа Багаҧшь, Georgian: სერგეი ბაგაფში, Russian: Сергей Васильевич Багапш; 4 March 1949 – 29 May 2011) was the second President of the Republic of Abkhazia. He was Prime Minister from 1997 to 1999 and was later elected as President in 2005. He was re-elected in the 2009 presidential election. He died on
29 May 2011, at the age of 62, from complications of surgery.Sergei Shamba
Sergei Shamba (Abkhazian: Сергеи Шамба, Georgian: სერგეი შამბა) is a senior politician from Abkhazia. He is currently a member of the People's Assembly of Abkhazia and Chairman of United Abkhazia. He was Prime Minister of Abkhazia under President Sergei Bagapsh from 13 February 2010 until 27 September 2011. Between 1997 and 2010 he had been Minister for Foreign Affairs under both Bagapsh and his predecessor Vladislav Ardzinba, with only a half-year interruption in 2004. Shamba has twice unsuccessfully participated in Presidential elections, in 2004 and 2011. He has been a staunch proponent for dialogue between Abkhazia and Georgia.Shamil Adzynba
Shamil Adzynba (Abkhazian: Шамиль Аӡынба; born 21 May 1970) is the current First Vice Premier of Abkhazia in the Government of President Khajimba, and a two-time acting Prime Minister.Sokrat Jinjolia
Sokrat Rachevich Jinjolia (Abkhaz: Сократ Аџьынџьал, Georgian: სოკრატ ჯინჯოლია; born 11 December 1937) was the second Prime Minister and the second foreign minister of the internationally unrecognised Republic of Abkhazia from 1993 to 1994. He has also been the speaker of the People's Assembly of Abkhazia from 1996 until he lost his seat in the 2002 parliamentary elections to Anatoly Khashba, and was succeeded by Nugzar Ashuba.
He graduated from the Department of Russian Language and Literature Faculty of Philology of Sukhumi Pedagogical Institute. In 1956–1959 he served in the Soviet Army. After transferring to the Army reserve, he worked on Tkvarcheli power plant, and in 1967 was elected secretary to the Tkvarcheli City Council. Between 1985 and 1988 he worked on the Tkvarcheli Party Committee, becoming head of the Department of Agitation and Propaganda. In 1988–1992 – chief editor of "Tkvarchalsky miner." In 1991 he was elected to the Supreme Council, and in 1992 he became deputy chairman of the Abkhazian armed forces. In 1993 appointed Prime Minister. He headed the official delegation to Abkhazia, the peace talks in Geneva. Elected speaker of the new parliament – the National Assembly – the first and second convocations. He is married. He has two children.
During the 2004 presidential elections, Jinjolia was head of opposition candidate Sergei Bagapsh's election team. He has since become the head of the Sukhumi branch of the Caucasian Institute for Democracy.
Recently, Jinjolia became a member of the newly founded Public Chamber of Abkhazia.Valeri Bganba
Valeri Ramshukhovich Bganba (Russian: Валерий Рамшухович Бганба; born 26 August 1953) is an Abkhazian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Abkhazia since 18 September 2018. Prior to that he was the Speaker of the People's Assembly of Abkhazia from 2012 until 2017. He was elected as speaker on 3 April 2012 and was succeeded by Valery Kvarchia on 12 April 2017. Bganba became acting President on 1 June 2014, following the resignation of Alexander Ankvab as a result of the 2014 Abkhazian political crisis. On 25 September 2014 he was replaced by Raul Khajimba, the winner of the presidential elections on 24 August.Viacheslav Tsugba
Viacheslav Mikhail-ipa Tsugba (Abkhazian: Виачеслав Михаил-иҧа Цыгәба, Georgian: ვიაჩესლავ ცუგბა; born 1944) was the third Prime Minister of the Republic of Abkhazia (a de facto independent republic of Georgia) from December 1999 to May 2001. Before his appointment as Prime Minister, Tsugba had headed the Central Election Committee, which had overseen the internationally unrecognised simultaneously held October 1999 presidential election and constitutional referendum.Vice President of Abkhazia
The Vice President of the Abkhaz Republic, a partially recognized state, internationally regarded as a part of Georgia, is the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Abkhazia upon the death, resignation, or removal of the President. Additionally, the Vice President would assume the presidency in case the President becomes incapable of carrying out the presidential duties.Vladimir Delba
Vladimir Valerevich Delba is a politician from Abkhazia, who served as acting Prime Minister, Finance Minister and Vice Premier in the Government of President Ankvab.
After serving as Deputy Minister for Finance in the Government of President Bagapsh, Delba was appointed Finance Minister and Vice Premier by Alexander Ankvab on 10 October 2011.On 2 June 2014, following Leonid Lakerbaia's resignation as a result of the 2014 Abkhazian political crisis, Vladimir Delba was appointed acting Prime Minister. After the Election of President Raul Khajimba, he was succeeded by Beslan Butba on 29 September.
Heads of the Government of Abkhazia since 1992
Heads of state and government of Europe