Primary education also called an elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education). Primary education usually takes place in a primary school or elementary school. In some countries, primary education is followed by middle school, an educational stage which exists in some countries, and takes place between primary school and high school. Primary Education in Australia consists of grades foundation to grade 6. In the United States, primary education is Grades 1 - 3 and elementary education usually consists of grades 1-6.
The United Nations Millennium Development Goal 2 was to achieve universal primary education by the year 2015, by which time their aim was to ensure that all children everywhere, regardless of race or gender, will be able to complete primary schooling.
Due to the fact that the United Nations specifically focused on Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, as they are both home to the vast majority of children out of school, they hypothesized that they might not have been able to reach their goal by 2015. According to the September 2010 fact sheet, this was because there were still about 69 million school-age children who were not in school with almost half of the demographic in sub-Saharan Africa and more than a quarter in Southern Asia.
In order to achieve the goal by 2015, the United Nations estimated that all children at the official entry age for primary school would have had to have been attending classes by 2009. This would depend upon the duration of the primary level, as well as how well the schools retain students until the end of the cycle.
Not only was it important for children to be enrolled in education, but countries will also have needed to ensure that there are a sufficient number of teachers and classrooms to meet the demand of pupils. As of 2010, the number of new teachers needed in sub-Saharan Africa alone, equaled the current teaching force in the region.
However, the gender gap for children not in education had also been narrowed. Between 1999 and 2008, the number of girls not in education worldwide had decreased from 57 percent to 53 percent, however it should also be noted that in some regions, the percentage had increased.
According to the United Nations, there are many things in the regions that have already been accomplished. Although enrollment in the sub-Saharan area of Africa continues to be the lowest region worldwide, by 2010 "it still increased by 18 percentage points—from 58 percent to 76 percent—between 1999 and 2008." There was also progress in both Southern Asia and North Africa, where both areas saw an increase in enrollment, For example, In Southern Asia, this had increased by 11 percent and in North Africa by 8 percent- over the last decade.
Major advances had been made even in the poorest of countries like the abolition of primary school fees in Burundi where there was an increase in primary-school enrollment which reached 99 percent as of 2008. Also, Tanzania experienced a similar outcome. The country doubled its enrollment ratio over the same period. Moreover, other regions in Latin America such as Guatemala and Nicaragua, and Zambia in Southern Africa "broke through the 90 percent towards greater access to primary education."
In Somalia, pupils start primary school when they are 7 and finish it at the age of 11 starting from form 1 to form 4. Pupils must firstly have attended casual school known as dugsi and learnt the Muslim holy book Qur'an, and the meaning of the Arabic language. Pupils who had not done this are not permitted to start primary school as they will be examined before starting. Pupils' age may sometimes vary seeing that some pupils achieve higher than their predicted grade and may skip the year while some require to repeat the year if they had not achieved the grade required from them. After finishing primary, students move to intermediate school.
In Tunisia pre-school education (3–6 years) is optional and provided primarily in three settings:
Kindergartens:socio-educational institutions that come under the supervision of Ministry of culture.
Kouttabs:religious institutions also cater for children between 3 and 5 years of age. Their task is to initiate them into learning the Quran as well as reading, writing, and arithmetic. They are under the supervision of the Ministry of Religious Affairs
Preparatory year: It is also an integral part of basic education but it is not compulsory. It is supervised by the Ministry of Education and is provided in public, private and quasi-public primary schools
9 years of basic education are compulsory.
In Bangladesh, students attend primary schools for six years. Primary/secondary education in Bangladesh is segregated as Primary (Pre school 1 Year + Class 1 -5), Junior High School (Class 6 - Class-10) and Higher Secondary or intermediate (11th and 12th Class) are as follows :
After completing primary education students join junior high school ( Class-6 to Class-10) and sit for S.S.C (Secondary school certificate ) Exam
H.S.C (Higher Secondary Certificate)
In Hong Kong, students attend primary schools for the first six years of compulsory education.
The Indonesian term for elementary school is "sekolah dasar" and it consists of six grades.
In India, elementary schools provide education from Class 1 to Class 8. The children in these classes are generally aged between 6 and 15 years. It is the next stage after kindergarten (Pre-Nursery, Nursery, Prep or Lower Kindergarten and Upper Kindergarten). The next stage after primary education is Middle School (Class 7th to 10th). In most schools in North India, children in Classes 1st to 3rd are taught English, Hindi, Mathematics, Environmental Science, and General Knowledge. In class 4th and 5th the environmental science subject is replaced by General Science and Social Studies. However some schools may introduce this concept in Class 3 itself. Some schools may also introduce a third language in Class 5th or even in Class 4th. Sanskrit and local state language are the most common third languages taught in Indian schools. At some places, primary education is labeled as the education of Class 3rd to Class 5th and up to class 2nd as pre-primary education. This is because many new concepts are introduced in this class. Children are taught painting instead of drawing and colouring, exams are taken, and Word Sum Puzzle in maths are introduced along with geometry.
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is the apex body for school education in India. The NCERT provides support and technical assistance to a number of schools in India and oversees many aspects of enforcement of education policies. In India, the various bodies governing school education system are:
Primary/secondary education in India is segregated as Primary (1st standard to 5th standard), Upper Primary (6th standard to 8th standard), Lower Secondary (9th standard to 10th standard), and Higher Secondary (11th and 12th standard).
There are 6 years of education in primary school from ages 6 to 12 years old (new educational system).
Primary school is required by law in Iran. There are many free public schools for students to attend, and they can also choose to attend private schools with high tuition fees. There are also 'Nemuneh Mardomi' schools, which many believe to be better than public schools and less expensive than private schools, however they are very difficult to get accepted into. In order to attend 'Nemuneh Mardomi' schools you must take an entrance exam, which is used to identify the best students. This is a very competitive and stressful process for students.
Some schools include classes 7 and 8 as elementary school; some include them as high school.
Kindergartens nursery schools are private institutions and attendance is not mandatory.
English has become a compulsory subject at primary schools in Japan, since April 2011 in order to compete with other Asian countries in English proficiency; Japanese students have among the lowest English TOEFL scores in Asia.
In Malaysia, the first six years of compulsory formalised education take place in primary schools, and starts at the age of seven.
Primary education is compulsory in Malaysia. Children spend 6 years in primary schools. In 6th year, students sit for a national standardized test known as the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR, Primary School Achievement Test).
Kindergarten: age 5 - 6
After completing Standard 6, students go on to secondary schools.
Next, the students will be moving on into universities or college
In Pakistan, children aged between 3–6 years begin attending Pre School which is not mandatory but recommended by the government and private education sectors.
The Pre School is associated with the Early Years of Education (EYE) programme which is basically consists of initial three years of education starting from Play or Pre Nursery Class students age 3+ and Nursery Class Students age 4+ and Prep Class Students age 5+. The most private school have varied classes names for Pre School Classes I-e, Nursery, Kindergarten-1 and Kindergarten-2. Whereas, some other private schools names pre school classes like Nursery, Kindergarten and Prep.
Primary Education is free and mandatory by the Government of Pakistan in the Provincial Government and Federal Government Public Schools. The government obliged parents to enrolled their children in the schools. The student age should be 5 to 6 years when admitted in class 1. Besides Government Schools there are many Private Schools who provide Primary, Secondary and Higher Secondary education at a higher cost.
The Primary education in Pakistan is 5 years of education program starting from Class 1 to 5. The elementary school is called middle school in which classes 6 to 8 are taught.The high school is two years of education called Matric which consists of classes 9th and 10th. The students after passing the 10th year of education from Board of Secondary Education examination (BSEE) OR Secondary School Certificate (SSC) often called out matriculate. The 11th and 12th years of education classes mostly held in Higher Secondary Schools or at Colleges situated in the jurisdiction of the Board Of Intermediate Education (BIE). The classes called 1st Year and 2nd Year of Intermediate level at colleges. After that students are allowed to go to Universities for their bachelor's degree in respective subjects.
|Reception or Prep||5-6|
In the Philippines, the Department of Education mandates that elementary school lasts for 7 years in the public school system starting with Kindergarten and grade 1 and culminating with grade 6. After successful completion of the 7-year programme shall a student graduate, be awarded an elementary diploma and can move-on to a 4-year junior high school programme (most private schools will require an entrance examination). However most private schools (which usually call the elementary level as "grade school"), especially exclusive schools and those accredited to have a high degree of autonomy from the Department of Education usually extend their programmes to 7th grade and can also include levels such as nursery, kindergarten or preparatory (prep) as entry levels prior to 1st grade. Subjects usually taken up include Communication Arts in Mother Tongue (until Grade 3), English (some private schools break this down into Language and Reading) and Filipino, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies (taught in Mother Tongue from Grade 1-Grade 3, Filipino in Grades 4-6), Music, Art, Physical Education and Health (collectively known as MAPEH), Values Education and Technology and Livelihood Education (TLE). Students in the 6th grade, whether studying in a public or private school are required to undergo a National (Elementary) Achievement Test (NAT) even if grade 6 isn't the terminal level in that school. The NAT is similar to certain schemes like Primary School Leaving Examination of Singapore (PSLE) except that that NAT score isn't used as a basis to admit students to a high school. Kindergarten, Grade 1 to Grade 6 are affected with the K-12 education.
The Saudi Arabian term for elementary school is المدرسة الابتدائية, consisting of students from ages 6 to 12.
The medium of instruction is English. After completing kindergarten, or pre-school years, children will then have to go through 6 years of compulsory primary education, from ages 7 to 12. At the end of primary education, students are required to take a standardised national exam, the Primary School Leaving Examination (also known as PSLE). Based on PSLE results, students apply and are sorted into secondary schools for a 4 or 5-year course.
Primary education in Singapore, normally starting at age seven, is a four-year foundation stage (Primary 1 to 4) and a two-year orientation stage (Primary 5 to 6). Primary education is compulsory and fees are low at public schools, there are also other fees per student to help cover miscellaneous costs.
During the foundation stage, all students are taught English Language as a first language, a mother tongue as a second language and Mathematics. Science is introduced from Primary 3 onwards. In addition to these examinable subjects, lessons in Civics and Moral Education, arts and crafts, music, health education, social studies and physical education are conducted at various levels. Students are also introduced to project work, receive pastoral care and career guidance, and are to participate in Co-Curricular Activities and Community Involvement Programmes. In the orientation stage, weaker students are banded based on their abilities in the four examinable subjects. Known as "subject-based banding", they take individual subjects either at the standard or foundation level. Conversely, higher mother tongue is offered for students with higher ability.
In South Korea, students attend elementary school from kindergarten to the 6th grade. Students study a wide range of subjects, including: Korean, English, Chinese characters, math, social studies, science, computers, art, physical education, music, health, ethics, and home economics. English instruction generally begins in the 3rd grade. After finishing elementary school, students attend middle school (middle school 1st–3rd grade). The Korean term for elementary school is chodeung hakgyo (Hangul: 초등학교).
9 years of primary school are compulsory.
Kindergarten (optional): 5–6 years
According to the Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey 2006 of Vietnam's General Statistics Office, 96% of six to 11-year-old children enrolled in primary school. However, there was still a significant disparity in the primary education completion rate among different ethnicity. While primary completion rate for Kinh students was 86%, the rate for ethnic minority children was only 61%.
In school year 2009-2010, Vietnam had 15,172 primary schools and 611 combined primary and lower secondary schools. The total enrollment was 7.02 million pupils, of whom 46% were girls.
The renovated primary education curriculum in Vietnam is divided into two phases as follows:
In Australia, students undertake preschool then 13 years of schooling before moving to vocational or higher education. Primary schooling for most children starts after they turn 5 years old. In most states, children can be enrolled earlier at the discretion of individual school principals on the basis of intellectual giftedness. In Victoria, New South Wales, Northern Territory, ACT and Tasmania students then move through Kindergarten/Preparatory School/Reception and Years 1 to 6 before starting high school. In Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia students do Year 7 while still enrolled at primary school, although most governmental primary schools are moving to a K to 6 structure to line up with the other states in order to ensure that Year 7 students are able to undertake laboratory practical components of the national syllabus.
In Denmark, 0 - 9 grade is compulsory primary education.
10th grade (optional): 15–18 years
In Estonia, 9 years of primary school (Põhikool or "basic school") are compulsory. The first three grades of primary school are called Algkool which can be translated as "beginning school" and can be confused with primary school. In some low density population areas Algkool is the only school available and students enter primary school in bigger towns.
9 years of primary school (Peruskoulu) are compulsory.
In France, primary schools provide education from the age of 6 to 11. The students start in CP (cours préparatoire) then past in CE1, CE2 (cours élémentaires), CM1 and finally CM2 (cours moyens). Before 1941 primary schools had upper sections called ecoles primaires supérieures, which spanned on four years and enabled students to enter normal schools or clerking professions; such sections were turned into Lycées but cours complementaires remained until 1959, when such courses were turned into collèges d'enseignement généraux.
Education is mandatory from 6 years old to 16 years old. Free public and free private education is offered from 3 years old (sometimes 2 years old). Home education is allowed. Occasionally classes are of a double level to make up the number of pupil per class, usually to 29.
Depending on the federal state, primary schools provide education from Class 1 to Class 4 or from Class 1 to Class 6. After primary school students may attend a Hauptschule, Mittelschule, Regionale Schule or a Realschule, which are more vocationally orientated, a Gymnasium, which is more academically oriented, or a Gesamtschule, which is comparable to a Comprehensive School.
The first school for German children is called Grundschule. It takes usually four years, the pupils are between six and ten years old. The education consists of learning to read, write, basic math and general knowledge. In some schools, a first foreign language is introduced, usually English. In the final year of primary school, children receive a recommendation as to which further school they can attend.
Depending on the recommendation they received from their teacher, children proceed to their mandatory secondary education in either Hauptschule (Grades 5-9, sometimes 10th grade is added which is then called "Werkrealschule"), Realschule (Grades 5-10), or Gymnasium (Grades 5-12). Upon the successful completion of Grades 11 and 12 in the Gymnasium, students receive the Abitur, a diploma with the permission to enter post-secondary education (similar to the A-level or High School Diploma). The Abitur will not be received at the end of Haupt- and Realschule, but graduating students are eligible to enter the 10th Grade of the Gymnasium if they wish to obtain the Abitur.
Primary school education for children in Hungary takes 8 years.
In Iceland, 10 years of primary school (Grunnskóli) are compulsory.
Primary school teaching in Iceland consists of 10 grade levels. These are:
Primary school teaching in Ireland consists of 8 class levels. These are:
Junior and Senior infants correspond to Kindergarten.
The subjects mainly taught in primary school are:
Secondary school teaching in Ireland consists of 6 class levels. These are:
The content of the Religion course taught depends on the management of the school. Many schools are managed and owned by the Roman Catholic Church, with a lesser number belonging to the Church of Ireland and to the Multi Denominational Group Educate Together and a handful run by other religions such as Muslims. Each school body decides on the emphasis of its religious instruction. In Catholic schools 2nd and 6th class prepare children for Holy Communion and Confirmation respectively. In the Church of Ireland this preparation is done when the pupil is aged about 14 years, and is in secondary school.
Children may start at primary school at any age between four and six years of age. Most children finish primary school at or around twelve years of age.
Primary school teaching in Italy consists of 5 grades. Before the First Grade, there is the kindergarten (scuola dell'infanzia in Italian), which is not compulsory and lasts 3 years.
Schools used to have a six-day school week, Monday to Saturday. Lately, as of 2008, most elementary and middle schools have reduced the school week to five days, with high schools remaining with six.
Basic education (primary education) in Latvia goes from ages 7 to 16 years old and include grades 1 through 9. Primary education is mandatory and free of cost for students. The purpose of basic education (primary education) in Latvia is to provide students with the basic knowledge and skills that are needed for their everyday lives. It also provides the groundwork needed for further education. Every citizen of Latvia has rights to an education. The educational system includes three different levels, national, municipal, and institutional. Basic education is funded by the national or municipal budget. The 10 point grading system that is used starting in grade 2 goes in the order from the highest being outstanding (10.00), excellent (9.00-9.99), very good (8.00-8.99), good (7.00-7.99), almost good (6.00-6.99), satisfactory (5.00-5.99), almost satisfactory (4.00-4.99), and unsatisfactory (1.00-3.99). In first grade students are assessed on knowledge and skills and they are graded in a descriptive way rather than using marks. In second and third grade students are assessed on subjects including Latvian language, minority language, math, and foreign languages and are graded using the 10 point scale. In fourth grade through ninth grade students begin being assessed in all subject areas and are graded using the 10 point scale. When students complete their 9 years of basic education they take a centralized national exam, which qualifies them for further education.
Children in the Netherlands must be at least four years old to enter primary education. Almost all 4-year-olds (99.3%) in the Netherlands indeed attend primary school, although this is not compulsory until children reach the age of 5. Primary school is free of charge. In most schools, children are grouped by age in mixed ability classes, with one teacher for all subjects. Primary school consists of 8 groups (thus 8 years of schooling). During the first two years (both kindergarten), children receive an average of 22 hours of education, during the last 6 years children receive an average of 25 hours per week. Schools are open 5 days a week, but all children have a half day on Wednesdays (ending at noon). At the end of primary school, in group 8, schools advise on secondary school choice. Most schools use a national test to support this advice, for instance the 'Citotoets', a test developed by the Central Institute for Test development.
Higher education: 18 and over Children may end their schooling after passing secondary school if desired.
In Portugal, the primary education (ensino primário) is known as the 1st cycle of the basic education (1º ciclo do ensino básico). It includes the first four years of compulsory education (1ª classe, 2ª classe, 3ª classe and 4ª classe), their pupils being children between six and ten years old. After the education reform of 1986, the former primary education became part of the basic education (educação básica).
Basic education now includes:
Primary education in Spain lasts for six academic years and includes students ages 6 to 12 years old. Students learn cognitive and social development in primary school. There are three different types of schools that students can attend, public schools (state-funded), private schools (privately funded), and semi-private schools (state and privately funded). The length of the academic day differs depending on the type school. Some school days go from 9:00 in the morning to 5:00 in the evening and students get a two-hour lunch break from 1:00 to 3:00 in the afternoon. Other schools start at 9:00 in the morning and end at 2:00 in the afternoon. Education in Spain is required by law between the ages of 3 and 16 years old. It is state funded, but parents are responsible for buying the materials needed for their children's education.
Most children attend a preparatory year at the age of 6 even if this initial year is not mandatory. Children then kids go to the primary school (grundskola) through the ages of 7 and 15. After that they can choose to (although it is very uncommon not to) study at a gymnasium for three years where they pick a program devoted to a particular direction (i.e. Science, Aesthetics, Civics). During the gymnasium all students have some subjects they have to study, but not during all three years.
Gymnasieskola is not compulsory but most common. What you wish to read is your choice, if you have the right grades for your wanted education. If there are more people who wish to read than spots, the ones with the highest grades are accepted. This is either a preparation for University or for work.
During the year before children start compulsory school, all children are offered a place in a pre-school class (förskoleklass), which combines the pedagogical methods of the pre-school with those of compulsory school. Between ages 7 and 15, children attend compulsory comprehensive school (grundskola), divided in three stages. The vast majority of schools in Sweden are municipally run, but there are also independent schools. The education in independent schools has many objectives in common with the municipal school, but it can have an orientation that differs from that of the municipal schools.
Elementary schools in England and Wales were publicly funded schools which provided a basic standard of education for children aged from six to 14 between 1870 and 1944. These were set up to enable children to receive manual training and elementary instruction and provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis on reading, writing and arithmetic (the three Rs). The schools operated on a 'monitorial' system, whereby one teacher supervised a large class with the assistance of a team of monitors, who were quite often older pupils. Elementary school teachers were paid by results. Their pupils were expected to achieve precise standards in reading, writing and arithmetic such as reading a short paragraph in a newspaper, writing from dictation, and working out sums and fractions.
Before 1944 around 80 per cent of the school population attended elementary schools through to the age of 14. The remainder transferred either to secondary school or junior technical school at age 11. The school system was changed with the introduction of the Education Act 1944. Education was restructured into three progressive stages which were known as primary education, secondary education and further education.
In the UK, schools providing primary education are now known as primary schools. They generally cater for children aged from four to eleven (Reception to Year Six or in Northern Ireland and Scotland P1 to P7). Primary schools are often subdivided into infant schools for children from four to seven and junior schools for ages seven to 11. In the (diminishing) minority of areas where there is a "three-tier" system, children go to lower school or "first school" until about 9, then middle school until about 13, then upper school; in these places, the term "primary school" is not usually used.
In the UK schools providing primary education in the state sector are known as primary schools. They generally cater for children aged from four to eleven (Reception to Year Six; in Northern Ireland and Scotland Primary One to Primary Seven).
In areas that adopted a three-tier system, the term primary school is often used as an alternative to First School, taking in ages up to 9 or 10 years old, although for education planning purposes, the term "primary education" in these areas will still cover the age groups as in a two-tier system.
In the private sector, fee-paying schools which provide primary education are known as preparatory schools, and they often cater for children up to the age of thirteen. As their name suggests, preparatory schools are designed to prepare pupils for entrance examinations for fee-paying independent schools.
Children start school either in the year or the term in which they reach five depending upon the policy of the Local Education Authority. All state schools are obligated to follow a centralized National Curriculum. The primary school years are split into Key Stages:
They then change schools to go to secondary school.
Children start school either in the year or the term in which they reach four. All state schools are obliged to follow a centralised National Curriculum. The primary school years are split into Key Stages:
At the end of Key Stage 2 in P7, all children are offered the voluntary 11-plus (also called the transfer procedure) examinations, though the parents of thirty percent of children elect not to, and send their kids to secondary schools instead of grammar schools.
All state primary schools are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Education.
In Scotland children typically spend seven years in a primary school, whose years are named P1 to P7. Children enter P1 at the age of four or five (according to a combination of birth date and parental choice); for example, if your birthday is between 1 March 2015 and 29 February 2016, then you would generally start Primary 1 in August 2020.
Primary schools in Wales goes from third grade through sixth grade (ages 7 to 11 years old). Education in Wales is required by law from ages 5 to 15 years old. There are about 466,500 state schools in Wales to serve the large student population that there is. Students are assessed through teacher assessments. The curriculum by which students are assessed in are split into two categories, core subjects, and non-core subjects. The core subjects include English, Welsh first language, math, and science.
In Canada, primary school (also referred to as elementary school) usually begins at ages three or four, starting with either Kindergarten or Grade 1 and lasts until age 13 or 14. Many places in Canada have a split between primary and elementary schools.
In Nova Scotia "elementary school" is the most common term. The provincial government of Nova Scotia uses the term "Primary" instead of Kindergarten.
* Students in the Prairie Provinces are not required by statute to attend pre-kindergarten or kindergarten.
Costa Rica has the highest ranked education system in Latin America. Primary education in Costa Rica is required by law for most children in the country between the ages of 6 and 13. Because of this, their literacy is 98% which is one of the highest in Latin America. Primary education starts in first grade and goes through sixth grade. Education is generally free to students.
The education system enrollment in Mexico has continued growing throughout the years. With this, Mexico schooling systems need to come up with different ways to manage and expand access to schooling in order to accommodate their growing enrollment. They also need to make sure they providing high-quality education to students. Mexico's primary schools include grades one through six and are both state and federally funded. Their school year usually goes from August to June. They have a morning session that goes from 7:30 am to 12:30 pm and an afternoon session that goes from 1:30 pm to 6:30 pm. Breakfast is served in some primary schools, but lunch is not provided. In grades three through six students need to pass all of their subjects as well as an end of course exam in order to move up to the next grade level. The curriculum that is covered in Mexico's primary schools includes Spanish plus an additional language like English, math, geography, civics and ethics, physical education, and art.
In the United States, authority to regulate education resides constitutionally with the individual states. The direct authority of the U.S. Congress and the federal U.S. Department of Education is essentially limited to regulation and enforcement of federal constitutional rights. Great indirect authority is exercised through federal funding of national programs and block grants; but there is no obligation upon any state to accept these funds, and the U.S. government otherwise may propose but not enforce national goals, objectives and standards, which generally lie beyond its jurisdiction.
Nevertheless, education has had a relatively consistent evolution throughout the United States. All states have historically made a distinction between two genres of K-12 education and three genres of K-12 school. The genres of education are primary and secondary; and the genres of school are elementary school(Primary school have in common term as well), middle or junior high school, and high school (historically, "senior" high school to distinguish it from the junior school).
Primary education (or "primary school" meaning "primary education") still tends to focus on basic academic learning and socialization skills, introducing children to the broad range of knowledge, skill and behavioral adjustment they need to succeed in life - and, particularly, in secondary school. Secondary education or secondary school has always focused on preparing adolescents for higher education or/and for careers in industries, trades or professions that do not require an academic degree.
Over the past few decades, schools in the USA have been testing various arrangements which break from the one-teacher, one-class model. Multi-age programs, where children in different grades (e.g. Kindergarten through to second grade) share the same classroom and teachers, is one increasingly popular alternative to traditional elementary instruction. Another alternative is that children might have a main class and go to another teacher's room for one subject, such as science, while the science teacher's main class will go to the other teacher's room for another subject, such as social studies. This could be called a two-teacher, or a rotation. It is similar to the concept of teams in junior high school. Another method is to have the children have one set of classroom teachers in the first half of the year, and a different set of classroom teachers in the second half of the year. Primary School is also known as Elementary school.
43 of the states are now using the Common Core Standards which claim to better prepare students for college and career.
Brazil has recently gone through changes in school grades. Currently, at the age of 6 children attend from the grade 1 to 4 what is called Ensino Primário (Portuguese for Primary Teaching, or Primary School), and afterwards from grade 5 to 9 the Ensino Fundamental (Fundamental Teaching/School). At the age of 15 the teenagers go to Ensino Médio (Mid Teaching/School), which is equivalent High School in other countries, but it is only 3 years long (grades 10 to 12) and can either be a regular or technical course.
Primary school is mandatory and consists in nine years called Ensino Fundamental, separated into Ensino Fundamental I (1st to 5th grades) and Ensino Fundamental II (6th to 9th grades).
Primary school is followed by the optional three years called Ensino Médio (former Científico, Liceu or Ginásio).
An All-through school is a school which provides both primary and secondary education. In the United Kingdom, they accept children at age 4, and school them right through to the age of 16 (or 18 with a sixth form).In 2009, there were only 13 all-through state schools in England, but the Coalition Government's Free school (England) programme has seen the number expand rapidly.Education in Australia
Education in Australia encompasses the sectors of early childhood education (preschool) and primary education (primary schools), followed by secondary education (high schools), tertiary education (universities, TAFE colleges, and vocational education and training providers) and adult education (referred to as adult and community education or ACE). Regulation and funding of education is primarily the responsibility of the States and territories, but the Federal Government also plays a funding role.Education in Australia is compulsory between the ages of five or six and fifteen, sixteen or seventeen, depending on the State or territory and date of birth.For primary and secondary education, government schools educate approximately 60% of Australian students, with approximately 40% in non-government schools. At the tertiary level, the majority of Australia's universities are public, and student fees are subsidised through a student loan program where payment becomes due when debtors reach a certain income level.For primary and secondary schools, a national Australian Curriculum has been progressively developed and implemented since 2010.The Education Index, published with the UN's Human Development Index in 2008, based on data from 2006, listed Australia as 0.993, the highest in the world.In 1966 Australia signed the Convention against Discrimination in Education, which aims to combat discrimination and racial segregation in the field of education.Education in Bangladesh
Education in Bangladesh' is overseen by the Bangladesh's Ministry of Education. Ministry of Primary and Mass Education are responsible for implementing policy for primary education and state-funded schools at a local level. In Bangladesh, all citizens must undertake twelve years of compulsory education which consists of eight years at primary school level and six years at high school level. Primary and secondary education is financed by the state and free of charge in public schools.
Bangladesh conforms fully to the UN's Education For All (EFA) objectives and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) as well as other education-related international declarations. Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution provides that all children receive free and compulsory education.Education in Cyprus
Education in Cyprus is overseen by the Ministry of Education and Culture.
The education system is divided into pre-primary education (ages 3–6), primary education (ages 6–12), secondary education (ages 12–18) and higher education (ages 18+). Full-time education is compulsory for all children aged between 5 and 15. State-provided schooling including higher education is paid for by taxes.
There is also a parallel system of accredited independent schooling, and parents may choose to educate their children by any suitable means. Private school and university fees are not usually covered by the state.
Higher education often begins with a four-year bachelor's degree. Postgraduate degrees include master's degrees, either taught or by research, and the doctorate, a research degree that usually takes at least three years. Universities require accreditation in order to issue degrees.Education in Jamaica
Education in Jamaica is primarily modeled on the British education system.Education in Namibia
Education in Namibia is compulsory for 10 years between the ages of 6 and 16. There are approximately 1500 schools in Namibia of which 100 are privately owned. The Constitution directs the government to provide free primary education; however, families must pay fees for uniforms, stationery, books, hostels, and school improvements.Education in Uganda
The system of education in Uganda has a structure of 7 years of primary education, 6 years of secondary education (divided into 4 years of lower secondary and 2 years of upper secondary school), and 3 to 5 years of post-secondary education. The government of Uganda recognizes education as a basic human right and continues to strive to provide free primary education to all children in the country. However, issues with funding, teacher training, rural populations, and inadequate facilities continue to hinder the progress of educational development in Uganda.Educational stage
Educational stages are subdivisions of formal learning, typically covering early childhood education, primary education, secondary education and tertiary (or higher) education. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) recognizes seven levels of education in its International Standard Classification of Education system (ISCED, from Level 0 (pre-primary education) through Level 6 (second stage of tertiary education)). UNESCO's International Bureau of Education maintains a database of country-specific education systems and their stages.Fifth grade
Fifth grade (called Grade 5 in some regions) is a year of education in many nations. In the United States, the fifth grade is the fifth and last school year of elementary school in most schools. It depends on the school district, the grade may be the second to last or last year of elementary school, the first year of middle school or the first year of intermediate school. Students are usually 10-11 years old unless the child has been held back. In England and Wales, the equivalent is Year 6. In Ireland the equivalent is 5th class.First grade
First grade (called Year 2 in the UK) is the first grade in elementary school. It is the first school year after kindergarten in Canada and the USA. Children are usually 6–7 years old in this grade.Fourth grade
Fourth Grade (also called Grade Four, equivalent to Year Five in England and Wales) is a year of elementary education in some countries. In North America, the fourth grade is the fifth school year of elementary school. Students are usually 9–10 years old, depending on their birthday. It is a part of elementary school, a school providing instruction for young pupils, comprising traditionally of grades K-6. In some school districts, Fourth Grade is the first year of intermediate school or the last year of elementary. Examples of lessons taught include: larger place value; how to write a good summary; writing with transitions; how to read large numbers; writing with starter sentence; and detailed sentences.Primary education in the United States
Primary education in the United States (also elementary education) refers to the first seven to nine years of formal education in most jurisdictions, often in elementary schools, including middle schools. Preschool programs, which are less formal and usually not mandated by law, are generally not considered part of primary education. The first year of primary education is commonly referred to as kindergarten and begins at or around age 5 or 6. Subsequent years are usually numbered being referred to as first grade, second grade, and so forth. Elementary schools normally continue through sixth grade, which the students normally complete when they are age 11 or 12. Some elementary schools graduate after the 4th or 5th grade and transition students into a middle school.
In 2001, there were 92,858 elementary schools (68,173 public, 24,685 private) in the United States.Primary school
A primary school (or elementary school in American English and often in Canadian English) is a school for children from about five to eleven years old, in which they receive primary or elementary education. It can refer to both the physical structure (buildings) and the organisation. Typically it comes after preschool, and before secondary school.The International Standard Classification of Education considers primary education as a single phase where programmes are typically designed to provide fundamental skills in reading, writing and mathematics and to establish a solid foundation for learning. This is ISCED Level 1: Primary education or first stage of basic education.Second grade
Second grade (also called grade two, corresponding to Year 3 in the UK) is a year of primary education in Canada and the US. Second grade is the second grade of primary school. Children are usually aged 7-8 in this grade level.Secondary education
Secondary education covers two phases on the International Standard Classification of Education scale. Level 2 or lower secondary education (less common junior secondary education) is considered the second and final phase of basic education, and level 3 (upper) secondary education is the stage before tertiary education. Every country aims to provide basic education, but the systems and terminology remain unique to them. Secondary education typically takes place after six years of primary education and is followed by higher education, vocational education or employment. Like primary education, in most countries secondary education is compulsory, at least until the age of 16. Children typically enter the lower secondary phase around age 11. Compulsory education sometimes extends to age 19.
Since 1989, education has been seen as a basic human right for a child; Article 28, of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that primary education should be free and compulsory while different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, should be available and accessible to every child. The terminology has proved difficult, and there was no universal definition before ISCED divided the period between primary education and university into junior secondary education and upper secondary education.
In classical and mediaeval times secondary education was provided by the church for the sons of nobility and to boys preparing for universities and the priesthood. As trade required navigational and scientific skills the church reluctantly expanded the curriculum and widened the intake. With the Reformation the state wrestled the control of learning from the church, and with Comenius and John Locke education changed from being repetition of Latin text to building up knowledge in the child. Education was for the few. Up to the middle of the 19th century, secondary schools were organised to satisfy the needs of different social classes with the labouring classes getting 4 years, the merchant class 5 years and the elite getting 7 years. The rights to a secondary education were codified after 1945, and countries are still working to achieve the goal of mandatory and free secondary education for all youth under 19.Secondary school
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education (levels 2 and 3 of the ISCED scale), but these can also be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system.
Secondary schools typically follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16. The organisations, buildings, and terminology are more or less unique in each country.Sixth grade
Sixth grade (Year 6 in Australia, equivalent to P7 (Scotland); Year 7 elsewhere in the UK) is a year of education for students ages 11–12. In many nations, it is the first year of middle school or the last year of elementary school (UK: primary school).Third grade
Third grade (also called grade three, equivalent to Year 4 in the UK) is a year of primary education in many countries. It is the third school year of primary school. Students are usually 8–9 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs.West Bengal Board of Primary Education
The West Bengal Board of Primary Education is the state government administered autonomous authority for overseeing primary education in West Bengal, India.
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