Primark (/ˈpraɪˌmɑːrk/; named Penneys in the Republic of Ireland) is an Irish fast fashion retailer headquartered in Dublin, and a subsidiary of ABF. The company's first store was founded by Arthur Ryan on behalf of the Weston family in June 1969 on 47 Mary Street, Dublin, the store remains operative to this day.
|Primark Stores Limited|
|Founded||13 June 1969 in Dublin, Ireland|
Number of locations
|Revenue||£5.949 billion (2016)|
Number of employees
|Parent||Associated British Foods|
|Footnotes / references|
Success in Ireland led to expansion to the United Kingdom, and Penneys opened a large store in Belfast City Centre in 1971 and one in Derby, England, in 1973. The company could not use the name "Penneys" in Europe outside Ireland because J. C. Penney had the name registered. The name "Primark" was then invented to use outside Ireland.
On 28 August 2018, a fire started on the roof of a Primark store in Belfast, destroying the building and emitting plumes of thick, black smoke over the city. The building was a former bank with historical value that had been renovated previously.
Primark offers a diverse range of products, including baby and children's clothing, womenswear, menswear, homeware, accessories, footwear, beauty products and confectionery.
Starting in 2014, Primark welcomed Sephora products which are being sold starting at £1. Primark starting selling vegan snacks as of January 2018. The company sells clothes at the low cost end of the market below average prices.
Along with retailers such as the Zara and H&M, Primark contributes to the contemporary fast fashion trend. According to an article about Primark in The Economist, "For many shoppers, Primark has an irresistible offer: amazing trendy clothes at amazingly low prices. The result is a new and even faster kind of fast fashion, which forces consumers to buy heaps of items sometimes even the same ones to use when the first ones worn out, discard them after a few wears and then come back for another batch of new outfits."
Primark owns over 350 stores. The largest Primark store opened in Birmingham on 11 April 2019, occupying the former Pavilions Shopping Centre of 161,000 sqft. The company expanded rapidly in the UK in the mid-2000s. In 2005, it bought the Littlewoods retail stores for £409m, retaining 40 of the 119 stores and selling the rest. In May 2006, the first Primark store outside Ireland and the United Kingdom opened in Madrid, Spain. After 10 years of constructing a chain of around 40 stores in Spain, Primark opened another store in Madrid in October 2015, the second biggest in the chain. In December 2008, Primark opened in the Netherlands, followed by Portugal, Germany and Belgium in 2009. Primark opened its first store in Austria on 27 September 2012 in Innsbruck. It expanded to France in 2013, in Marseille. The first Italian store opened in 2014. In 2015, Primark opened its first United States store in Downtown Crossing, Boston, in the location that was once the flagship store of Filene's, later NYC, Philadelphia, and Danbury. In July 2018, it was revealed that Primark was entering Poland. On 28 August 2018, fire seriously damaged or destroyed the listed Belfast store as it came close to the end of a major redevelopment. The Belfast store was at risk of collapse,  but was reopened on 8 December 2018. On 13. June 2019 Primark expanded to its 12th country with a store in Ljubljana, Slovenia. It has also signed a lease for a store in Warsaw - its first in Poland. Not content with entry into Poland, Primark confirmed in its pre-close update that it has now signed for a store in Prague.
Primark operates stores in the following countries:
|Country||Number of stores||First store opened|
|Czech Republic||0||Opening 2020|
In 2006, Primark joined the Ethical Trading Initiative, a collaborative organisation bringing together businesses, trades unions and NGOs to work on labour rights issues in their supply chains. ETI members commit to working towards the implementation of a code of conduct based on the International Labour Organization's core conventions.
In December 2008, the UK charity War on Want launched a new report, Fashion Victims II, that showed conditions had not improved in Bangladeshi factories supplying Primark, two years after the charity first visited them.
On 9 January 2009, a supplier was forced by ETI to remove its branding from Primark stores and websites following a BBC/The Observer investigation into the employment practices. The investigation alleged use of illegal immigrant labour and argued that the workers were paid less than the UK legal minimum wage.
On 16 June 2011, the BBC Trust's Editorial Standards Committee (ESC) published its findings into a Panorama programme 'Primark: On the Rack', broadcast in June 2008. The programme was an undercover investigative documentary examining poor working conditions in Indian factories supplying Primark. Although Primark subsequently stopped doing business with the Indian supplier, the ESC concluded that footage in the programme was 'more likely than not' to have been fabricated. The ESC directed the BBC to make an on-air apology and to ensure that the programme was not repeated or sold to other broadcasters. Primark created a specific website to deal with the issues around the programme.
On 24 April 2013, the eight-story Rana Plaza commercial building collapsed in Savar, a sub-district near Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. At least 1,127 people died and over 2,438 were injured. The factory housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, several shops, and a bank, and manufactured apparel for brands including the Benetton Group, Joe Fresh, The Children's Place, Primark, Monsoon, and DressBarn. Primark paid compensation and emergency aid to the victims of the collapse, a move which was welcomed by Oxfam, and committed to review the structural integrity of buildings making its clothes.
Of the 29 brands identified as having sourced products from the Rana Plaza factories, only nine attended meetings held in November 2013 to agree a proposal on compensation to the victims. Several companies refused to sign, including Walmart, Carrefour, Mango, Auchan and Kik. The agreement was signed by Primark, Loblaw, Bonmarché and El Corte Inglés.
Also in June 2014, a customer from Ireland found an SOS note wrapped in a prison ID card in the pocket of trousers purchased from a Primark store several years earlier. The letter was written in Chinese and alleged that prisoners were forced to work "like oxen" making fashion clothes for export for 15 hours per day, and the food they were given wouldn't be fit for dogs or pigs.
A year and a half later an SOS note from an alleged Chinese torture victim was found in socks purchased from Primark.
In December 2018, a human bone was found by a customer in a sock purchased in the shop’s Colchester branch. 
Alhambra Shopping Centre, also known by its former name The Mall Barnsley, is Barnsley's main shopping complex, housing 41 shops and adjacent to Barnsley Market. The centre was opened in 1991. A number of chains have been in the centre in the past, most notable was Woolworths which ceased trading in December 2008. It was owned and operated by shopping centre operator The Mall Company until its sale to F&C REIT in September 2011. In the centre there are a number of small retail stalls which encourage independent businesses to start.
Current stores (as of January 2019) include:
Primark, TK Maxx, Next, Iceland, Vodafone and Wilko.Associated British Foods
Associated British Foods plc (ABF) is a British multinational food processing and retailing company whose headquarters are in London. Its ingredients division is the world's second-largest producer of both sugar and baker's yeast and a major producer of other ingredients including emulsifiers, enzymes and lactose. Its grocery division is a major manufacturer of both branded and private label grocery products and includes the brands Mazola, Ovaltine, Ryvita, Jordans and Twinings. Its retail division, Primark, has around 345 stores with over 13,900,000 sq ft (1,290,000 m2) of selling space across Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, the UK, and the United States.Associated British Foods is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index.Broughton Shopping Park
Broughton Shopping Park is a retail park situated in Broughton, Flintshire. Branches of many popular high street stores have an outlet at the park. Retail outlets include Asda Living, Primark and SportsDirect.com.The Mill House Pub is also on the site. A Cineworld multi-screen IMAX cinema opened in 2015, alongside restaurants including Frankie and Benny's, Nandos, and Prezzo.Burlington Mall (Massachusetts)
Burlington Mall is a shopping mall in Burlington, Massachusetts. It was opened in 1968, and most recently expanded in 2006–08, bringing the property to 1,313,125 square feet (121,993 m2) of gross leasable area and 176 tenants. It is currently managed by Simon Property Group.
As of 2019, the mall is anchored by department stores Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Nordstrom, and fast fashion retailer Primark. Previous anchors include department stores Filene's, Jordan Marsh, and Sears.Child labour in India
The 2011 national census of India found the total number of child labourers, aged 5–14, to be at 10.1 million (https://www.indiastat.com/table/labour-and-workforce-data/380987/child-labour/60/969060/data.aspx ),and the total child population to be 259.64 million in that age group. The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time.As per the Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986, amended in 2016 ("CLPR Act"), a "Child" is defined as any person below the age of 15, and the CLPR Act prohibits employment of a Child in any employment including as a domestic help. It is a cognizable criminal offence to employ a Child for any work. Children between age of 14 and 18 are defined as "Adolescent" and the law allows Adolescent to be employed except in the listed hazardous occupation and processes which include mining, inflammable substance and explosives related work and any other hazardous process as per the Factories Act, 1948. In 2001, an estimated 1% of all child workers, or about 120,000 children in India were in a hazardous job. Notably, the Constitution of India prohibits child labour in hazardous industries (but not in non-hazardous industries) as a Fundamental Right under Article 24. UNICEF estimates that India with its larger population, has the highest number of labourers in the world under 14 years of age, while sub-Saharan African countries have the highest percentage of children who are deployed as child labourers. The International Labour Organization estimates that agriculture, at 60 percent, is the largest employer of child labour in the world, while the United Nation's Food and Agriculture Organization estimates 70% of child labour is deployed in agriculture and related activities. Outside of agriculture, child labour is observed in almost all informal sectors of the Indian economy.Companies including Gap, Primark, Monsanto have been criticised for child labour in their products. The companies claim they have strict policies against selling products made by underage children, but there are many links in a supply chain making it difficult to oversee them all. In 2011, after three years of Primark's effort, BBC acknowledged that its award-winning investigative journalism report of Indian child labour use by Primark was a fake. The BBC apologised to Primark, to Indian suppliers and all its viewers. Another company that has come under much scrutiny was Nike. Nike was under pressure to speak up about alleged sweatshops that harbored children that the company was exploiting to make their sneakers. Since then Nike has come out with a separate web page that specifically points out where they get their products from and where their products are manufactured.
In December 2014, the U.S. Department of Labor issued a List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor and India figured among 74 countries where a significant incidence of critical working conditions has been observed. Unlike any other country, 23 goods were attributed to India, the majority of which are produced by child labour in the manufacturing sector.
In addition to the constitutional prohibition of hazardous child labour, various laws in India, such as the Juvenile Justice (care and protection) of Children Act-2000, and the Child Labour (Prohibition and Abolition) Act-1986 provide a basis in law to identify, prosecute and stop child labour in India.Dan McDougall
Dan McDougall is an international journalist. He is the current Africa Correspondent for The Sunday Times of London. He has reported from over 90 countries and war zones including Afghanistan, Somalia, Pakistani Kashmir, Northern Yemen, The Sudan, The Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, Burma, Rwanda, Bosnia, China, Hezbollah-controlled Lebanon and the Palestinian Territories.
A former New Delhi-based South Asia Correspondent for The Observer Newspaper (London, he has won three Amnesty International UK Media Awards for outstanding human rights journalism, and was voted the British Foreign Journalist of the Year at the 2009 British Press Awards.Danbury Fair (shopping mall)
Danbury Fair Mall is an upscale shopping mall in Danbury, Connecticut. As of 2011, it is the second largest shopping mall in Connecticut as well as the fifth largest in New England. It is located off of Interstate 84 and U.S. Route 7 opposite the Danbury Municipal Airport. The mall anchors are JCPenney, Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Primark, and Sears. The junior anchors are Dick's Sporting Goods, Forever 21, The Cheesecake Factory, Brio Tuscan Grille, and L.L.Bean.Filene's
Filene's (originally Filene’s Sons and Co.) was an American department store chain; it was founded by William Filene in 1881. The success of the original full-line store in Boston, Massachusetts was supplemented by the foundation of its off-price sister store Filene's Basement in 1908. Filene's, in partnership with Abraham & Straus, Lazarus, and Shillito's, was an original member of the holding company Federated Department Stores upon its establishment in 1929.
Filene's expanded into shopping malls throughout New England and New York in the later half of the twentieth century, and was rivaled by fellow Boston-based department store Jordan Marsh. Federated sold Filene's to The May Department Stores Company, and spun off Filene's Basement into a separate company, in 1988. With this reorganization, the Filene's nameplate replaced the Hartford-based G. Fox & Co. in 1992 and Steiger's in 1994; the store assumed control of the Pittsburgh-based department store chain Kaufmann's in 2002.
May itself was ultimately acquired by Federated in 2005; the Filene's brand was retired and most stores were converted into the Federated-owned, Cincinnati-based Macy's nameplate by September 2006. Federated itself was renamed Macy's, Inc. in 2007. The former Filene's flagship store at Downtown Crossing in Boston is listed in the National Register of Historic Places; its current tenants include advertising agencies Arnold Worldwide and Havas Media, and fast fashion retailer Primark.G. Araneta station
G. Araneta Station is a proposed station of the Manila Metro Rail Transit System Line 8 located nearby the G. Araneta Avenue crossing in Quezon City. Close landmarks include the Santo Domingo Church, Angelicum College, Primark Town Center Quezon-Araneta and some residential areas. The station shall also be nearby the future Metro Manila Skyway.Galaxy Minstrels
Galaxy Minstrels, also known as Minstrels, are milk chocolate buttons with a hard glazed shell sold in several countries including the UK, Ireland, South Africa, Kenya, Cyprus, Malta, Canada, Spain and inside the chain of stores Primark in Italy.
They originally had the slogan "They melt in your mouth, not in your hands", featuring in 1980s British advertisements, the same slogan used in the UK for Treets in the 1960s, and for M&M's in the UK and US up to the 1990s.In line with Mars' re-branding, Minstrels were brought under the Galaxy brand and are now sold as "Galaxy Minstrels", referring to the use of Galaxy chocolate in them.Houndshill Shopping Centre
Houndshill Shopping Centre is an indoor shopping mall in Blackpool, Lancashire England. It is owned by BCC Eiffel Ltd and managed by Waypoint Asset Management and Eddisons.Houndshill is the only enclosed shopping centre in the town, and is situated at the heart of the prime retail area. Retailers include - Mark One, Dorothy Perkins, Superdrug, Pilot, Claire's Accessories, Clinton Cards, Primark, Starbucks, Faith shoes, Game, Disney Store, Republic, …instore, Shoe Zone and Boots.In September 2008 a new extension was opened, including stores Debenhams, Zavvi, Next, Topman and Topshop, River Island, Jane Norman, Costa Coffee, New Look, Aleef, 3, The Carphone Warehouse, Phones4U, Clarks, O2, La Senza, H&M, Just Desserts, lp4, Qube and BANK.
During the period 2008–Present, some of the shopping centre's stores were closed down and replaced/added. These include: Zavvi being replaced by JD, Build-A-Bear Workshop replacing Game and Disney Store changing location therefore replacing Dorothy Perkins and the previous Disney Store location being left with no tenant. Stores which have closed include: Clinton Cards, Early Learning Centre and Barratts.King of Prussia (mall)
King of Prussia (also referred to as King of Prussia Mall) is the largest shopping mall in the United States in terms of gross leasable area, with a GLA of 2,651,631 square feet (246,344.6 m2). It is a mall with numerous retailers, anchored by Lord & Taylor, Dick's Sporting Goods, Primark, Neiman Marcus, Nordstrom, Macy's and Bloomingdale's with one vacant anchor last occupied by JCPenney.
The mall is located in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, a census-designated place within Upper Merion Township, Montgomery County, just outside Philadelphia. The mall, which opened in 1963, consisted of two distinct buildings known as The Plaza and The Court until August 2016, when a major expansion was completed and the two buildings were finally connected to create one massive shopping mall.List of shopping malls in the Philippines
This is a list of notable shopping malls in the Philippines. The retail industry in the Philippines is an important contributor to the national economy as it accounts for approximately 15% of the Philippines' total Gross National Product (GNP) and 33% of the entire services sector. It employs some 5.25 million people, representing 18% of the Philippines' workforce. The Philippine Retailers Association is the association of retailers, mall, and shopping center operators in the country.Matalan
Matalan is a British fashion and homeware retailer based in Knowsley, United Kingdom. It was established by John Hargreaves in 1985. Matalan has 217 shops across the United Kingdom.
In 2009 Hargreaves sought to sell off Matalan but failed to find buyers willing to meet the £1.5 billion price Hargreaves set.Jason Hargreaves was appointed managing director in July 2013.Matalan was among the companies who sourced clothes from the Rana Plaza factory in Bangladesh which collapsed, killing 1,129 people in April 2013.In July 2014, they were the focus of a campaign by 38 Degrees and Labour Behind the Label, for failing to contribute to the official compensation fund co-ordinated by the ILO. This was in contrast to some of their main competitors, such as Primark who contributed $9 million. After pressure, they announced that they would contribute an undisclosed amount. It was later revealed that they had paid £60,000 in to the fund, which labour rights campaigns challenged as being an insufficient amount compared with other retailers.In November 2014, Matalan sponsored a three-day event to celebrate fashion, art, photography and architecture in Liverpool, the hometown of Jason Hargreaves. The event was backed by Matalan and organised by Cricket Fashion co-founder Justine Mills, and Denise Harris of SK Events.Primark Town Center
Primark Town Center is engaged in the development of Public Market and Town Center of LKY Group, one of the Philippines' largest land developers. The management is handled by Philippine Primark Properties, Inc., and headed by Wilbert T. Lee as the company's President and CEO.South Shore Plaza
South Shore Plaza is a shopping mall in Braintree, Massachusetts. It opened as an open-air plaza in 1961; it was enclosed in 1976 and expanded between 1995–96. With 192 tenants and 1,586,446 sq ft (147,385.7 m2) of gross leasable area, the mall is the largest in New England in terms of square footage and is the 16th-largest mall in the United States. It is currently owned by Simon Property Group.
As of 2019, the mall is anchored by DSW, Lord & Taylor, Macy's, Nordstrom, Sears, Primark, and Target. Previous anchors include Filene's, Filene's Basement, and Jordan Marsh.Staten Island Mall
Staten Island Mall is a shopping mall in the New Springville neighborhood of Staten Island, New York City, United States. It is the only indoor shopping mall in the borough. It is the largest retail center on the island and is the site of the island's third largest public transit hub after the St. George Terminal and Eltingville Transit Center, with numerous bus routes that connect to the periphery of the mall area. Anchor stores include JCPenney, Macy's, Sears, and Primark.Thomson Financial
Thomson Financial was an arm of the Thomson Corporation, an information provider. When the Thomson Corporation merged with Reuters to form Thomson Reuters in April 2008, Thomson Financial was merged with the business of Reuters to form the Markets Division of Thomson Reuters.Willow Grove Park Mall
Willow Grove Park Mall is a three-story shopping mall located in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania at the intersection of Easton Road and Moreland Road (Pennsylvania Route 63). The mall contains over 120 stores along with several restaurants including The Cheesecake Factory. It is the 3rd most profitable mall in the Philadelphia Area.
The Willow Grove Park Mall has Bloomingdale's, Sears, Primark, Macy's, and Nordstrom Rack as anchor stores. It is owned by Pennsylvania Real Estate Investment Trust (PREIT) and is the third most profitable mall in the Philadelphia area. The mall features a fountain, carousel, and scenic elevator. In October, the fountain is illuminated pink for Breast Cancer Awareness Month.