PricewaterhouseCoopers (doing business as PwC) is a multinational professional services network headquartered in London, United Kingdom. PwC ranks as the largest professional services firm in the world, and is one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, EY and KPMG.
PwC is a network of firms in 158 countries, 721 locations, with 250,930 people. As of 2015, 22% of the workforce worked in Asia, 26% in North America and the Caribbean and 32% in Western Europe. The company's global revenues were $37.7 billion in FY 2017, of which $16 billion was generated by its Assurance practice, $9.46 billion by its Tax practice and $12.25 billion by its Advisory practice. PwC provides services to 420 out of 500 Fortune 500 companies.
The firm was formed in 1998 by a merger between Coopers & Lybrand and Price Waterhouse. Both firms had histories dating back to the 19th century. The trading name was shortened to PwC in September 2010 as part of a rebranding effort.
|Members have different legal structures; both UK and US firms are actually limited liability partnerships|
(Coopers & Lybrand)
|Headquarters||London, United Kingdom|
|Robert Moritz (Chairman)|
Data & Analytics
|Revenue||US$41.3 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
The firm was created in 1998 when Coopers & Lybrand merged with Price Waterhouse.
In 1957 Cooper Brothers; Lybrand, Ross Bros & Montgomery and a Canadian firm McDonald, Currie and Co agreed to adopt the name Coopers & Lybrand in international practice. In 1973 the three member firms in the UK, US and Canada changed their names to Coopers & Lybrand. Then in 1980 Coopers & Lybrand expanded its expertise in insolvency substantially by acquiring Cork Gully, a leading firm in that field in the UK. In 1990 in certain countries including the UK, Coopers & Lybrand merged with Deloitte Haskins & Sells to become Coopers & Lybrand Deloitte: in 1992 they reverted to Coopers & Lybrand.
Samuel Lowell Price, an accountant, founded an accountancy practice in London in 1849. In 1865 Price went into partnership with William Hopkins Holyland and Edwin Waterhouse. Holyland left shortly afterwards to work alone in accountancy and the firm was known from 1874 as Price, Waterhouse & Co. (The comma was dropped from the name much later.) The original partnership agreement, signed by Price, Holyland and Waterhouse could be found in Southwark Towers, one of PwC's important legacy offices (now demolished).
By the late 19th century, Price Waterhouse had gained significant recognition as an accounting firm. As a result of growing trade between the United Kingdom and the United States, Price Waterhouse opened an office in New York in 1890, and the American firm itself soon expanded rapidly. The original British firm opened an office in Liverpool in 1904 and then elsewhere in the United Kingdom and worldwide, each time establishing a separate partnership in each country: the worldwide practice of PW was therefore a federation of collaborating firms that had grown organically rather than being the result of an international merger.
In a further effort to take advantage of economies of scale, PW and Arthur Andersen discussed a merger in 1989 but the negotiations failed mainly because of conflicts of interest such as Andersen's strong commercial links with IBM and PW's audit of IBM as well as the radically different cultures of the two firms. It was said by those involved with the failed merger that at the end of the discussion, the partners at the table realized they had different views of business, and the potential merger was scrapped.
After the merger the firm had a large professional consulting branch, as did other major accountancy firms, generating much of its fees. Management Consulting Services (MCS) was the fastest growing and often most profitable area of the practice, though it was cyclical. The major cause for growth in the 1990s was the implementation of complex integrated ERP systems for multi-national companies. PwC came under increasing pressure to avoid conflicts of interests by not providing some consulting services, particularly financial systems design and implementation, to its audit clients. Since it audited a large proportion of the world's largest companies, this was beginning to limit its consulting market. These conflicts increased as additional services including outsourcing of IT and back office operations were developed. For these reasons, in 2000, Ernst & Young was the first of the Big Four to sell its consulting services, to Capgemini.
The fallout from the Enron, Worldcom and other financial auditing scandals led to the passage of the Sarbanes–Oxley Act (2002), severely limiting interaction between management consulting and auditing (assurance) services. PwC Consulting began to conduct business under its own name rather than as the MCS division of PricewaterhouseCoopers. PwC therefore planned to capitalize on MCS's rapid growth through its sale to Hewlett Packard (for a reported $17 billion) but negotiations broke down in 2000.
In 2000, PwC acquired Canada's largest SAP consulting partner Omnilogic Systems.
PwC announced in May 2002 that its consulting activities would be spun off as an independent entity and hired an outside CEO to run the global firm. An outside consultancy, Wolff Olins, was hired to create a brand image for the new entity, called "Monday". The firm's CEO, Greg Brenneman described the unusual name as "a real word, concise, recognizable, global and the right fit for a company that works hard to deliver results." These plans were soon revised, however. In October 2002, PwC sold the entire consultancy business to IBM for approximately $3.5 billion in cash and stock. PwC's consultancy business was absorbed into IBM Global Business Services, increasing the size and capabilities of IBM's growing consulting practice.
PwC began rebuilding its consulting practice with acquisitions such as Paragon Consulting Group and the commercial services business of BearingPoint in 2009. The firm continued this process by acquiring Diamond Management & Technology Consultants in November 2010 and PRTM in August 2011. In 2012 the firm acquired Logan Tod & Co, a digital analytics and optimisation consultancy, and Ant's Eye View, a social media strategy development and consulting firm to build upon PwC's growing Management Consulting customer impact and customer engagement capabilities.
On 30 October 2013, the firm announced that it would acquire Booz & Company, including the company's name and its 300 partners, after a December vote by Booz & Company partners authorized the deal. On 3 April 2014, Booz & Company combined with PwC to form Strategy&.
On 4 November 2013, the firm acquired BGT Partners, a 17-year-old digital consultancy.
After researching the role of digital money for over two years, PwC published a 17-page report called “Money is no object: Understanding the evolving crypto-currency market,” in August 2015. The report concluded that cryptocurrency will replace conventional markets with new technology-driven markets.
In October 2016, PwC and InvestCloud, LLC, the world's largest Digital App Platform announced that they entered into a non-exclusive joint business relationship designed to accelerate adoption and implementation of the InvestCloud Digital App Platform. PwC will be a preferred implementation and strategy partner of InvestCloud focused on enterprise delivery and innovative development of new financial app capabilities.
In January 2017, PwC announced a five-year agreement with GE to provide managed tax services to GE on a global basis, transferring more than 600 of GE's in-house global tax team to PwC. In addition, PwC will acquire GE's tax technologies and provide managed services not only to GE but also to other PwC clients as well.
In November 2017 PwC accepted bitcoin as payment for advisory services, the first time the company, or any of the Big Four accounting firms, accepted virtual currency as payment. The cryptocurrency was accepted by the company's Hong Kong office in relation to work from local companies that specialize in blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies.
PwC is organized into the following three service lines (the 2017 revenue shares are listed in parentheses):
Due to its size PwC is able to contribute data analysis to a wide range of areas.
The following list of revenue according to region is from the PwC Global Annual Review: 2016.
|Australia, Pacific Islands and New Zealand||$1.452 billion|
|Central and Eastern Europe||$678 million|
|Western Europe||$12.339 billion|
|Middle East and Africa||$1.294 billion|
|North America and the Caribbean||$14.916 billion|
|South and Central America||$826 million|
PwC refers to the PwC network and/or one or more of its member firms, each of which is a separate legal entity due to local legislative requirements. Much like other professional services firms, each member firm is financially and legally independent. PwC is co-ordinated by a private company limited by guarantee under English law, called PricewaterhouseCoopers International Limited. In addition, PwC is registered as a multidisciplinary entity which also provides legal services.
The PricewaterhouseCoopers name was formed by the combination of the names of Price Waterhouse and Coopers & Lybrand, following their merger in 1998. On 20 September 2010, PricewaterhouseCoopers rebranded as PwC, although the legal name of the firm remained PricewaterhouseCoopers.
The following are the several logos the company has used through the years. The current PwC logo was introduced in September 2010, when the company changed its trading name from PricewaterhouseCoopers to PwC. It was designed by Wolff Olins.
The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) has utilized the services of PwC to tally the votes for the Academy Awards since 1935. In addition, the company oversees AMPAS elections, prepares its financial documents, and is responsible for the group's tax filings.
At the 89th Academy Awards in 2017 La La Land was incorrectly announced as the winner of Best Picture after PwC partner Brian Cullinan gave presenters Warren Beatty and Faye Dunaway the wrong envelope. PwC was responsible for tabulating the results, preparing the envelopes, and handing them to presenters. It was called "as bad a mess-up as you could imagine." The firm took "full responsibility" for handing the presenters the wrong envelope and apologized for the error, acknowledging that Cullinan and PwC partner Martha Ruiz did not follow protocols for correcting the error quickly. In March 2017, the board of governors for the Academy voted to retain the services of accounting firm PricewaterhouseCoopers, despite the mix-up, saying “new protocols have been established including greater oversight from PwC's U.S. chairman Tim Ryan.”
The firm sponsored nine Canadian athletes in 2011: cyclist Ryder Hesjedal; Olympic gold medalist speed skaters Charles and François Hamelin; wrestler Carol Huynh; para-alpine skier Matt Hallatt; and four additional athletes.
PwC has sponsored the Dutch national soccer team, since 1992.
In May 2016 PwC agreed to renew their sponsorship of the Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) for four more years. The sponsorship includes PwC continuing to be the official sponsor of the Ireland U20, Ireland U19 and Ireland U18 teams.
PwC extended its sponsorship of the Players Championship of the Professional Golfer’s Association (PGA) through 2017. The company will be one of only two “Proud Partners” of the annual PGA Tour event which is held every year at TPC Sawgrass.
PwC sponsors Canada's CFO of the year award.
PwC created “The Building Public Trust in Corporate Reporting Awards” (BPTA) in 2002 which now covers the FTSE 100, FTSE 250, private, public and charity sectors for a total of 18 awards.
PwC sponsors Fast Growth Icons, a conference which highlights insights from the builders of successful businesses; a group of attendees who are founders of companies with rapid revenue growth; and offering tips and hands-on learning in founder-to-founder sessions.
The PwC Social Entrepreneurs Club sponsors members through community partners including the School for Social Entrepreneurs and Social Enterprise UK.
In February 2011 PwC was the sponsor of the televised debate “The Future of Employment: The West Isn't Working,” filmed at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting. The company has been a strategic partner with the WEF since the 1980s.
PwC sponsors a Charitable Foundation, founded in 1949, whose mission it is to “make contributions to the people of the firm in times of financial hardship through the people who care fund, and to nonprofit organizations that support and promote education and humanitarianism.
PwC sponsors PwC Pantomime, a theater group that produces a full scale show whose aim is to bring joy to children from inner-city schools and charities. In 2017 their production of Hansel and Gretel was its 31st pantomime production as part of its community Affairs Program that supports the local community.
PwC sponsors the Buy Social Campaign, the flagship campaign of Social Enterprise UK, which builds markets for social enterprises in the public and private sectors. The Buy Social Corporate Challenge is co-sponsored by PwC, Social Enterprise UK, and the Cabinet Office to bring high-profile businesses together to commit to spending £1 billion with social enterprises by 2020.
Wellbeing of Women is a non-profit organization that works to improve the health of women and babies, supported by PwC.
Compared to the other three of the “Big Four,” PwC is said to have a “less competitive” atmosphere. According to one observer, the core to the business is how the firm values and promotes “difference by building an environment where everyone can be themselves.” The company employs large numbers of young workers, with 80 percent of their workforce millennials. PwC uses education to bridge the culture gap between generations. The firm also implements the “Connect-Embed-Improve plan to promote employee engagement. PwC relies on employees sharing of knowledge and learning. Senior staff facilitate learning. Teaching the next generation what they know is one of the keys that ensures that PwC can bring value to its clients.
PwC is committed to diversity in the workplace, holding an annual “Global Diversity Week.”
To promote inclusion, diversity, equality, respect and tolerance in a respectful work environment, PwC Netherlands launched GLEE: Gay Lesbian and Everybody Else network.
The PwC Charitable Foundation, a separate entity from the firm, shares similar goals, according to Frank Gaudia, a trustee and member of the Board of Directors for the Foundation. The Foundation focuses on humanitarianism, education for children, and veterans.
PwC published a report including data on SDG-sustainable development goals awareness and on who is perceived as the entity responsible for bringing SDGs to the marketplace.
In 2015 PwC gave a donation of $100,000 to the Florida International University College of Business and the School of Accounting.
In 2011 PwC was appointed to conduct independent monitoring of the Tourism Development and Investment Company, TDIC's Employment Practices Policy, (EPP), which had already been introduced in 2009. Abu Dhabi's TDIC was the first major developer in the Middle East to introduce such a policy, designed to protect the welfare of workers employed by contractors and sub-contractors.
In 2002 PwC published the accounting profession's first global “Code of Conduct” to help its employees around the world maintain a corporate culture of ethics and integrity. In November 2016 the company updated their Code of Conduct.
In May 2016, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York, PwC was one of the principal sponsors of the inaugural ID2020 Summit. The summit brought together over 400 people to discuss how to provide digital identity to all, a defined Sustainable Development Goal including to 1.5bn people living without any form of recognized identification. Experts in blockchain and other cryptographic technology joined with representatives of technical standards bodies to identify how technology and other private sector expertise could achieve the goal.
PwC is a founding partner with the UN Women HeForShe IMPACT 10x10x10 Initiative to advance gender equality. The initiative created an online course featuring Michael Kimmel, an SUNY Distinguished Professor of Sociology and Gender Studies at Stony Brook University which aims to increase awareness of unconscious gender bias in corporate life. Emma Watson, British actress and UN Women Goodwill Ambassador, is a high-profile supporter of the UN Women's HeForShe campaign.
In 2014 Google announced its partnership with PwC to drive cloud adoption among businesses. Partnering with Google is part of PwC's decision to begin to move its own business to the cloud. PwC is one of three million business customers using paid services through G Suite, previously known as Apps for Work.
PwC began to include the Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE) DNS Malware Analytics (DMA) in its Security Assessment Services portfolio.
In January 2017 Oracle and PwC announced their international collaboration to offer IFRS 9 compliance solutions.
Karim Textiles Limited, a division of Purbani Group, signed a partnership agreement with PwC in February 2017 to implement SAP-ERP.
In November 2016 PwC acquired technology/consulting firm NSI DMCC, Salesforce's largest implementation partner in the Middle East.
In 2013 PwC and Microsoft Corp. formed a strategic alliance to help companies engaged in enterprise transformation projects using Microsoft Business Solutions technology. In 2016 PwC joined with Microsoft in India to bring the services of both companies to the business community in India.
PwC partners with the United Nations to help keep the international organization's monitoring systems up to date. The two organizations also teamed up to create a course about unconscious biases.
On 15 May 2017 PwC China and PwC Singapore announced a partnership with VeChain, a Singapore incorporated blockchain service provider.
On 26 March 2018 PwC France announced a partnership with Request Network, a Singapore-based blockchain service provider, which had formed a partnership with the Francophone Africa Blockchain Lab.
From 2010 until 2016, the number of employees worldwide rose from a total of about 160,000 to over 223,000. The largest percentage of workers are employed in Europe. PwC emphasises the role CEOs play in the transformation of companies to meet the needs of the 21st century marketplace.
The following is a chart of the number of employees in each region of the world as of Q1 2017.
|Region||Number of Employees|
|Australia, Pacific Islands and New Zealand||7,339|
|Central and Eastern Europe||8,432|
|Middle East and Africa||12,861|
|North America and the Caribbean||53,656|
|South and Central America||12,861|
Notable firm alumni include:
PwC was ranked #175 on Forbes’ Canada's Best Employers list, #5 on their America's Largest Private Companies list, and #256 on their America's Best Employers list.
Advertising Age named PwC Digital Services Experience Center one of the four best places to work in advertising and media in 2016.
International Accounting Bulletin awarded PwC the “Audit Innovation of the Year” award for 2016.
PwC Singapore won the Best Practice Award in 2016 from the Institute of Singapore Chartered Accountants.
The Australian Financial Review Client Choice Awards recognized PwC with the Market Leader Australia award for 2017.
PwC Australia has been recognized by clients as Market Leader at the Financial Review Client Choice Awards 2016.
In 2016, Brand Finance named PwC as the strongest business to business brand, and one of the world's 10 most powerful brands in their annual index.
PwC ranked #3 in DiversityInc's Top 12 Companies for Global Diversity.
For the second consecutive year PwC was named Global Corporate Ventures Consultancy Firm of the Year.
Strategy&’s strategy+business publication ranked #4 in top research and think tanks globally by Global Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program.
For the 14th consecutive year, PwC Brazil was ranked #1 in the Audit segment on the Carta Capital magazine’s list of ‘As Empresas mais Admiradas no Brasil’ (Brazil's Most Admired Companies.)
PwC US was named one of Fortune's ‘100 Best Companies to Work For’ for the 11th consecutive year of 13 years on the list.
PwC India won the 2016 AMCF (Association of Management Consulting Firms) Global Spotlight Award in the Growth Strategies category.
In 1989, the United States Supreme Court held that Price Waterhouse must prove by a preponderance of the evidence that the decision regarding employment would have been the same if sex discrimination had not occurred. The accounting firm failed to prove that the same decision to postpone Ann Hopkins's promotion to partnership would have still been made in the absence of sex discrimination, and therefore, the employment decision constituted sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The significance of the Supreme Court's ruling was twofold. First, it established that gender stereotyping is actionable as sex discrimination. Second, it established the mixed-motive framework as an evidentiary framework for proving discrimination under a disparate treatment theory even when lawful reasons for the adverse employment action are also present. Hopkins's candidacy for partnership was put on indefinite hold. She eventually resigned and sued the company for occupational sexism, arguing that her lack of promotion came after pressure to walk, talk, dress, and act more "femininely."
In 1990 a Federal district judge in Washington ordered the firm to make Hopkins a partner. It was the first time in which a court awarded partnership in a professional company as a remedy for sexual or race-based discrimination.
Following the suit, the firm received media attention due to its discriminatory labor practices towards males as well. Although incidents of such labor marginalization take place rarely, there were several cases of unfair work treatment.
Business Week said that PwC was American International Group Inc.'s auditor through years of "questionable dealings." AIG on 30 March 2005 said that deals with a Barbados-based insurance company, for instance, may have been incorrectly accounted for over the past 14 years, because an AIG-affiliated company may have been secretly covering that insurer's losses.
BusinessWeek said that PwC appeared to have "dropped the ball" on the deals between AIG and Berkshire Hathaway Inc.'s General Re Corp. General Re transferred $500 million in anticipated claims and premiums to AIG. BusinessWeek asked: "Did the auditor do its job by verifying that AIG was assuming risk on claims beyond the $500 million, thus allowing AIG to account for the deal as insurance? That's Accounting 101 in any reinsurance transaction."
PwC was also criticised by several witnesses during the investigation into AIG's collapse, after the insurer was unable to fulfil its collateral obligations to Goldman Sachs. The insurer was expected to cover the difference in value between the credit default swap contracts it had sold to Goldman Sachs, however the head of the unit at AIG disagreed with the valuation that Goldman presented. According to a memo published by Business Insider, witnesses wondered how PwC was signing off on the accounts for both AIG and Goldman Sachs, when they were using different valuation methods for the swaps contracts (and therefore booked different values for them in their accounts).
ChuoAoyama Audit Corporation (中央青山監査法人 Chūō-Aoyama Kansa Hōjin) was the Japanese affiliate of assurance service of PwC from April 2000 to 2006. In May 2006, the Financial Services Agency of Japan suspended ChuoAoyama from provision of some statutory auditing services for two months following the collapse of cosmetics company Kanebo, of which three of the partners were found assisting with accounting fraud for boosting earnings by the company of about $1.9 billion over the course of five years. The accountants got suspended prison terms up to 18 months from the Tokyo District Court after the judge deemed them to have played a "passive role" in the crime. The suspension was the first ever imposed on a major accounting firm in the country. Many of the firm's largest clients were forced to find replacement auditors before the suspension began that July.
Shortly after the suspension of ChuoAoyama, PwC acted quickly to stem any possible client attrition as a result of the scandal. It set up the PricewaterhouseCoopers Aarata, and some of ChuoAoyama's accountants (but most of the international divisions) moved to the new firm. ChuoAoyama resumed operations on 1 September 2006 under the Misuzu name. However, by this point the two firms combined had 30% fewer clients than did ChuoAoyama prior to its suspension. Misuzu was dissolved in July 2007.
In July 2007, PwC agreed to pay US$229 million to settle a class-action lawsuit brought by shareholders of Tyco International Ltd. over a multibillion-dollar accounting fraud. The chief executive and chief financial officer of Tyco were found guilty of looting $600 million from the company.
In January 2009 PwC was criticised, along with the promoters of Satyam, an Indian IT firm listed on the NASDAQ, in a $1.5 billion fraud. PwC wrote a letter to the board of directors of Satyam that its audit may be rendered "inaccurate and unreliable" due to the disclosures made by Satyam's (ex) Chairman and subsequently withdrew its audit opinions. PwC's US arm "was the reviewer for the U.S. filings for Satyam." Consequently, lawsuits have been filed in the US with PwC as a defendant. Two partners of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Srinivas Talluri and Subramani Gopalakrishnan, have been charged by India's Central Bureau of Investigation in connection with the Satyam scandal. Since the scandal broke out, Subramani Gopalakrishnan has retired from the firm after reaching mandatory retirement age, while Talluri remains on suspension from the firm.
In 2015 PwC India said they were disappointed with court judgement of the case saying, “As we have said many times, there has never been any evidence presented that either of our former partners S Gopalakrishnan or Srinivas Talluri were involved in or were aware of the management-led fraud at Satyam. We understand that Gopal and Talluri are considering filing an appeal against this verdict." In 2018, PwC was banned by India's securities regulator from providing auditing services to public-listed companies for 2 years, PwC was fined $2 million in addition to the suspension.
Yukos was a Russian oil and gas company that was the target of politically motivated prosecutions by Russian authorities. The company's assets were sold for alleged unpaid taxes and it was declared bankrupt. PwC's audits were the foundation for the firm's defense in a series of continuing trials against former chief executive, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, and the former majority shareholder, Platon Lebedev. The Russian authorities then went after PwC. In March 2007 police raided PwC's Moscow offices, confiscating documents related to Yukos and charging and convicting PwC of failing to pay 243 million rubles, or $9.4 million, in taxes. PwC withdrew its Yukos audits and less than two weeks later authorities cleared PwC of any wrongdoing in regard to its audit.
"In 2007, with the prospect of parole on the horizon, the same prosecutors—with what appears to be the complicity of PricewaterhouseCoopers, Yukos's longtime accounting firm—indicted the two men (Mikhail B. Khodorkovsky and Platon Lebedev), again, bringing a new round of Kafkaesque charges."
A cable from the US embassy in Moscow stated that the trial was politically motivated and that a deposition in a US court by PricewaterhouseCoopers may show that PwC was pressured by the Russian government to withdraw its prior Yukos audits. An embassy source noted that if the audits were not properly withdrawn it "would greatly tarnish PWC's international reputation."
India's accounting standards agency ICAI is investigating partners of PwC for professional negligence in the now-defunct Global Trust Bank Ltd. case of 2007. Like Satyam, Global Trust Bank was also based in Hyderabad. This led to the RBI banning PwC from auditing any financial company for over a year. PwC was also associated with the accounting scandal at DSQ Software in India. Following the Satyam scandal, the Mumbai-based Small Investor Grievances Association (SIGA) has requested the Indian stock market regulator SEBI to ban PwC permanently and seize its assets in India alleging more scandals like "Ketan Parekh stock manipulations."
Upon the completion of the construction of the ESPO (East Siberia-Pacific Ocean) pipeline by Transneftin December 2010, an official report of the Audit Chamber of the Russian Federation suggested that $4 billion was stolen by Transneft insiders. One Federation Council Speaker, Sergei Mironov, called for an investigation. Alexei Navalny, a minority Transneft shareholder and lawyer, accused the company of wrongdoing in his personal blog, and criticized PwC, Transneft's auditor, of ignoring his warnings. PwC denied wrongdoing, stating that, “We believe there are absolutely no grounds for such allegations, and we stand behind our work for OAO AK Transneft.”
In 2007, PwC was criticised by the Treasury Select Committee of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for helping Northern Rock, a client of the firm, to sell its mortgage assets while also acting as its auditor. In 2011, a House of Lords inquiry criticized PwC for not drawing attention to the risks in the business model followed by Northern Rock, which was rescued by the UK government during the financial crisis.
In 2012, the Accountancy and Actuarial Discipline Board (AADB) of the UK fined PwC a record £1.4m for wrongly reporting to the Financial Services Authority that JP Morgan Securities had complied with client money rules which protects client funds. The accountants neglected to check whether JP Morgan had the correct systems in place, and failed to gather sufficient evidence to form opinions on the issue, and as a result, failed to report that JP Morgan failed to hold client money separate from JP Morgan's money. It is the greatest penalty administered to a professional accountancy firm in the UK.
PwC was found to be unethically favored by the World Bank in a bid to privatize the water distribution system of Delhi, India, an effort that was alleged as corrupt by investigators. When bidding took place, PwC repeatedly failed in each round, and the World Bank in each case pressured PwC to be pushed to the next round and eventually win the bid. The effort at privatization fell through when an investigation was conducted by Arvind Kejriwal and the non-governmental organization (NGO) Parivartan in 2005. After submitting a Right to Information (RTI) request, Parivartan received 9000 pages of correspondence and consultation with the World Bank, where it was revealed that the privatization of Delhi's water supply would provide salaries of $25,000 a month to four administrators of each of the 21 water zones, which amounted to over $25 million per year, increasing the budget by over 60% and water taxes 9 times.
The Delhi Jal Board (DJB), which administers the water system of Delhi, was first approached by Parivartan in November 2004, following a report by the newspaper The Asian Age, where the scheme was revealed to the public for the first time. The DJB denied the existence of the project, but after an appeal, the RTI request was granted. The documents revealed that the project began in 1998, in complete secrecy within the DJB administration. The DJB approached the World Bank for a loan to improve the water system, which it approved, and the effort began with a $2.5 million consultation loan. The Delhi government could have easily provided the money, and the interest rate of 12% that was to be loaned by the World Bank could have been raised on capital markets for 6%. Following the consultation, 35 multi-national companies bid, of which six were to be short listed. When PwC was in 10th place, the World Bank said that at least one company should be from a developing country, and since PwC made the bid from its Kolkata office, it was dubbed an "Indian" company, and its rank was dropped to 6th. When PwC failed in the second round, the World Bank pressured the DJB to start over with a fresh round of bidding. Only one company succeeded in the new round that was not PwC, and the World Bank had the lowest marks from an evaluator thrown out. The contract was awarded to PwC in 2001. Following the investigation by Parivartan, a campaign was waged by Kejriwal, Aruna Roy, and other activists across Delhi, and the DJB withdrew the loan application to the World Bank.
In 2013 Cattles plc brought a legal action against PwC in the UK in respect of the 2006 and 2007 audits claiming that they had failed to carry out adequate investigations. Cattles, a UK consumer finance company, later discovered control weaknesses which caused its loan book to be materially overstated in its balance sheet; having been listed as a FTSE250 company, it subsequently lost its listing. PwC disputed this legal claim. The claim was settled out of court on undisclosed terms.
The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) issued a fine of £2.3m on PwC and ordered the firm to pay £750,000 costs following their investigation of the 2007 audits of Cattles and its principal trading subsidiary. PwC admitted their “conduct fell significantly short of the standards reasonably to be expected of a member firm” in respect of the 2007 financial statements. The FRC said that PwC had insufficient audit evidence as to the adequacy of loan loss provisions.
The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (PCAOB) report on audit work carried out by PwC in 2014 in respect of US public companies identified significant deficiencies in 17 of 58 audits examined. The PCAOB report on work carried out in 2015 identified significant deficiencies in 12 of 55 audits examined.
PwC Ireland is being sued by the joint administrators of Quinn Insurance Limited (QIL) for €1bn. Having been audited by PwC for the years 2005 to 2008, QIL went into administration in 2010. The administrators allege that PwC should have identified a material understatement of QIL's provisions for claims.
Connaught plc, a UK former FTSE 250 Index outsourcing company operating in property maintenance for the social housing and public sector, was put into administration on 2010 after reporting material losses. In 2017, the Financial Reporting Council (FRC) severely reprimanded PwC and its audit partner following an investigation of their conduct in respect of the 2009 audit of Connaught. PwC was fined a record £5 million plus costs.
In 2014 Tesco, a UK retailer, announced that it had overstated profits by £263m by misreporting discounts with suppliers. The Financial Reporting Council started an investigation into accounting practices at Tesco and into the conduct of PwC in carrying out its audits in 2012, 2013 and 2014. Two members of Tesco's Audit Committee, responsible for monitoring Tesco's relationship with its auditors, had themselves previously worked for PwC, including its chairman, Ken Hanna; he later stood down. In 2015 PwC were replaced as auditors of Tesco, ending a 32-year engagement, following a tender process to which they did not participate. In June 2017 the Financial Reporting Council said there was no "realistic prospect" that a tribunal of the UK's accountancy watchdog would rule against the auditor PwC concerning its involvement in Tesco's 2014 case.
In 2014, The Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ was investigated by New York banking regulators over its role in routing payments for Iranian customers through its New York branch in violation of U.S. sanctions. It was found that PwC had altered an investigation report on the issue; PwC itself was fined $25 million in relation to the matter.
The firm helped multinational companies obtain 548 legal tax rulings in Luxembourg between 2002 and 2010. The rulings provide written assurance that companies’ tax-saving plans will be seen favorably by the Luxembourg authorities. The companies saved billions of dollars in taxes with these arrangements. Some firms paid less than one percent tax on the profits they shifted to Luxembourg. Employees or former employees of PwC provided documentation of the rulings to journalists. PwC UK's head of tax was before the UK's public accounts committee and was questioned about lying regarding the marketing of these tax avoidance schemes. He told the committee the financing, investments and tax structure is legal and well known to the British government. “If you want to change the Lux tax regime, the politicians could change the Lux tax regime.” The disclosures attracted international attention and comment about tax avoidance schemes in Luxembourg and other tax havens. The revelations later led to a series of EU-wide measures aimed at regulating tax avoidance schemes and tax probes into several EU companies. PwC initiated charges against the two whistleblowers that revealed the LuxLeaks tax controversy. In March 2017 a Luxembourg appeals court upheld their convictions, but with reduced sentences.
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by Microsoft founder Bill Gates has sued Petrobras and accounting firm PwC Brazil arm over investment losses due to corruption at the Brazilian oil company. The filings have also alleged that PwC's Brazil affiliate, PricewaterhouseCoopers Auditores Independentes, played a significant role by attesting to Petrobras financial statements and ignoring warnings.
CEO, Luke Sayers, is a vocal supporter of gay marriage and had the firm prepare a report in 2016 projecting the excessive cost of a plebiscite on the issue. Mark Allaby, a senior executive at PwC, left the board of the Australian Christian Lobby, a group campaigning against same-sex marriage, following outrage.
Shopping center giant Centro understated its current liabilities by more than $3 billion and almost collapsed when it was unable to refinance its debt during the global financial crisis. PwC was Centro's auditor and admitted negligence. Centro and PwC paid a $200 million settlement to resolve the shareholder class action, the largest ever in Australia.
PwC in the UK is being investigated by the Financial Reporting Council over its conduct in relation to the audit of BHS for the year to 30 August 2014. PwC completed their audit of financial statements in which BHS was described as a going concern days before its sale for £1 to a consortium with no retail experience. BHS collapsed the following year with a substantial deficit in its pension fund.
In 2016, United States federal judge rejected PwC's bid to dismiss a $3 billion lawsuit accusing the accounting firm of professional malpractice for helping cause the October 2011 bankruptcy of MF Global Holdings Ltd, a brokerage once run by former New Jersey Governor Jon Corzine.
BT Group (British Telecom), a client of PwC, reported in 2017 that profits in its Italian subsidiary had been over-stated by £530 million. BT reportedly sought the immediate replacement of PwC as auditors following a breakdown of trust, but had existing commercial relationships with the other Big 4 firms which would have prevented their early appointment. BT subsequently stated that its audit would be put out to tender to identify a replacement for PwC. The Financial Reporting Council has begun an investigation of PwC's audit of BT.
PwC Spain is being investigated by the Spanish National Court as part of the Lezo Case for participating in and profiting from the embezzlement of public funds to illegally finance the People's Party (PP) political party in the Community of Madrid.
PwC Ukraine had its audit license removed by the National Bank of Ukraine in July 2017 for its alleged "verification of misrepresented financial information" leading to a $5.5 billion balance-sheet hole in PrivatBank. The government of Ukraine had had to rescue PrivatBank by nationalisation in 2016 to protect its 20 million customers.
In December 2016, researchers at ESNC discovered a vulnerability in PwC's software which could allow a malicious party to manipulate accounting documents and financial results, bypass change management controls, and bypass segregation of duties restrictions which could result in fraud, theft or manipulation of sensitive data, as well as the unauthorized payment transactions and transfer of money. PwC tried to suppress this research through legal means and a "cease and desist" order, but the researchers published their findings regardless.
In 2017, the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama held PwC liable for professional negligence in its audit of Colonial Bank, which failed in 2009 after filing materially false financial information with the SEC. A federal judge later ordered PwC to pay the FDIC $625 million in December, the largest-ever judgement against a U.S. audit firm. The FDIC reached a $335 million settlement with PwC in March 2019.
In 2016, PwC was accused of disproportionately hiring younger workers and fostering "an age-conscious workplace in which youth is highly valued."  Plaintiffs estimated that younger applicants are over 500% more likely to be hired than candidates over age 40. In March 2019, a collective action related to the case was certified by a federal judge in San Francisco.
$32 million bill for delinquent taxes ... pay for the $45 million lawsuit Mr. Nelson filed last year against his former accountants at Price Waterhouse, who he contends put him into ill-advised tax shelters. The Government ruled against many of the tax shelters, and the I.R.S. later disallowed many of the tax benefits that Mr. Nelson claimed.
The Big Four (Deloitte, Ernst & Young (EY), KPMG and PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)) are the four biggest professional services networks in the world, offering audit, assurance services, taxation, management consulting, advisory, actuarial, corporate finance and legal services. They handle the vast majority of audits for public companies as well as many private companies.
Until the late 20th century, the market was dominated by eight networks but this gradually reduced due to mergers and the 2002 collapse of one firm, leaving four networks dominating the market in the early 21st century.
In the UK in 2011, it was reported that the Big Four audit 99% of the companies in the FTSE 100, and 96% of the companies in the FTSE 250 Index, an index of the leading mid-cap listing companies. Such industry concentration has caused concern and calls for the Competition and Markets Authority (CMA) to consider breaking up the Big Four. In October 2018, the CMA announced it had launched a detailed study of the Big Four's dominance of the audit sector.IBM Global Services
IBM Services is the professional services arm of IBM, made up of business, technology and industry experts who apply advanced technology and help clients design, build and run businesses. It includes two divisions: IBM Global Business Services (GBS) and IBM Global Technology Services (GTS).ICC Player Rankings
The International Cricket Council Player Rankings is a widely followed system of rankings for international cricketers based on their recent performances. The current sponsor is MRF Tyres who signed a 4-year deal with the ICC that will last until 2020.The ratings were developed at the suggestion of Ted Dexter in 1987. The intention was to produce a better indication of players' current standing in the sport than is provided by comparing their averages. Career averages are based on a player's entire career and do not make any allowance for match conditions or the strength of the opposition, whereas the ratings are weighted towards recent form and account for match conditions and the quality of the opponent using statistical algorithms.Initially the rankings were for Test cricket only, but separate One Day International rankings were introduced in 1998. Both sets of rankings have now been calculated back to the start of those forms of the game. The rankings include the top 10 Test, ODI and T20I batsmen, bowlers and all-rounders based on the rating of each player.List of cities by GDP
This is a list of cities and/or their metropolitan areas in the world by GDP. The methodology may differ between the studies and are widely based on projections and sometimes approximate estimations, notably for non-OECD cities (refer to sources for more information.)
Nirmala Sitharaman (born 18 August 1959) is an Indian politician of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), serving as the Minister of Defence since 2017 and has served as Member of the Rajya Sabha, upper house of the Indian Parliament, since 2016. Sitharaman is India's second female defence minister. She has served as the Minister of State for Finance and Corporate Affairs under the Ministry of Finance and the Minister for Commerce and Industry with independent charge. Prior to that, she has served as a national spokesperson for the BJP.Phoenix Venture Holdings
Phoenix Venture Holdings (PVH), also known as the Phoenix Consortium, was a British company formed by four businessmen (John Towers, Peter Beale, Nick Stephenson and John Edwards). Following BMW's break-up of the Rover Group a financially complex deal involving a £500 million "dowry payment" from BMW, resulted in PVH purchasing the Rover marque in May 2000 for the notional sum of £10, relaunching the car company as MG Rover. MG Rover and related companies placed themselves in administration on 8 April 2005.
Four years later and after spending £16m the Government finally released the report investigating the collapse of the company. The report, which was only concerned with dealing with the directors and their actions while MG-Rover Group was still trading, revealed that the five executives involved took £42m in pay and pensions from the troubled firm before it collapsed.
The report also commented on the personal relationship between Nick Stephenson and Dr Qu Li, who was paid more than £1.6m in the 15-month period up to April 2005 for consultancy services. Additionally, fellow Director Peter Beale was accused of installing a software application, Evidence Eliminator, which may have destroyed documentation relevant to the investigation. The investigators further accused Mr Beale of giving "untruthful" evidence during interviews.
In return the Directors have accused the findings of being a whitewash and a witchunt, and it remains unknown the exact details of the actions of key Government Ministers at the time of the collapse.
Conservative business spokesman Kenneth Clarke said it was right the report criticised the Phoenix Four, whose behaviour was "disgraceful". Lord Mandelson said the Phoenix group had not shown an "ounce of humility" about the firm's demise and they owed an apology to the firm's employees and creditors. However his comments that steps will be taken to disbar the five executives have been discredited, and the report at no point uses language stronger than 'inappropriate' in describing the activities of the Group Directors.
Phoenix Venture's main trading businesses are/were:
Studley Castle Ltd.
MGR Financial Ltd. - joint venture with the Royal Bank of Scotland
MG Rover Exports Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopers
Phoenix Distribution Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopers
Phoenix Venture Motors Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopers
MG Rover Group Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopers, assets sold to Nanjing Automobile
Powertrain Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopers, assets sold to Nanjing Automobile
MG Sport and Racing Ltd. - administered by PriceWaterhouseCoopersSamuel DiPiazza
Samuel A. DiPiazza, Jr., was CEO of PricewaterhouseCoopers from January 1, 2002 until 2009. Prior to that, he served as chairman of the PwC U.S firm.Strategy
Strategy (from Greek στρατηγία stratēgia, "art of troop leader; office of general, command, generalship") is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. In the sense of the "art of the general," which included several subsets of skills including tactics, siegecraft, logistics etc., the term came into use in the 6th century C.E. in East Roman terminology, and was translated into Western vernacular languages only in the 18th century. From then until the 20th century, the word "strategy" came to denote "a comprehensive way to try to pursue political ends, including the threat or actual use of force, in a dialectic of wills" in a military conflict, in which both adversaries interact.Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited. Strategy generally involves setting goals, determining actions to achieve the goals, and mobilizing resources to execute the actions. A strategy describes how the ends (goals) will be achieved by the means (resources). Strategy can be intended or can emerge as a pattern of activity as the organization adapts to its environment or competes. It involves activities such as strategic planning and strategic thinking.Henry Mintzberg from McGill University defined strategy as a pattern in a stream of decisions to contrast with a view of strategy as planning, while Henrik von Scheel defines the essence of strategy as the activities to deliver a unique mix of value – choosing to perform activities differently or to perform different activities than rivals. while Max McKeown (2011) argues that "strategy is about shaping the future" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". Dr. Vladimir Kvint defines strategy as "a system of finding, formulating, and developing a doctrine that will ensure long-term success if followed faithfully." Complexity theorists define strategy as the unfolding of the internal and external aspects of the organization that results in actions in a socio-economic context.Thomas Modly
Thomas B. Modly is an American businessman and government official who currently serves as the Under Secretary of the Navy.Prior to assuming his current role, Modly served as the managing director of the PricewaterhouseCoopers global government and public services sector and as the firm's global government defense network leader. He previously served as the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense for Financial Management and as the first executive director of the Defense Business Board. Modly is a graduate of the United States Naval Academy, Georgetown University, and Harvard Business School. He served on active duty in the United States Navy as a helicopter pilot and spent seven years as a U.S. Navy officer. He has held various leadership positions at Iconixx, Oxford Associates, and UNC Inc., and taught political science at the United States Air Force Academy.Westcoast Curling Classic
The Westcoast Curling Classic (formerly the Key West Ford Westcoast Curling Classic, the Allied Windows Westcoast Curling Classic and the PriceWaterhouseCoopers Westcoast Curling Classic) was an annual curling tournament, held on Thanksgiving weekend in New Westminster, British Columbia. It was one of the early curling tournaments of the World Curling Tour season. It was cancelled after 12 years on the tour.William Ngeleja
William Mganga Ngeleja (born 5 October 1967) is a Tanzanian CCM politician and Member of Parliament for Sengerema constituency since 2005.Windmade
WindMade is a global (Brussel's based) consumer label for companies, events and products using wind power in their operations or production. It is aimed at promoting wind power and is guided by a Technical Advisory Board, which includes various scientists, and third-party auditors. The organization is a non-profit NGO established by seven Founding Partners: United Nations Global Compact, WWF, Global Wind Energy Council, LEGO Group, PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC), Bloomberg L.P. and Vestas Wind Systems.