Press release

A press release, news release, media release, press statement or video release is a written or recorded communication directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something ostensibly newsworthy. Typically, they are mailed, faxed, or e-mailed to assignment editors and journalists at newspapers, magazines, radio stations, online media, television stations or television networks.

Elements

Wikimedia Foundation press release template.pdf
An example of a press release, a Wikipedia press release template prepared by the Wikimedia Foundation communications team

Technically, anything deliberately sent to a reporter or media source is considered a press release—it is information released by the act of being sent to the media. However, public relations professionals often follow a standard format that they believe is efficient and increases their odds of getting the publicity they desire. The format is supposed to help journalists separate press releases from other PR communication methods, such as pitch letters or media advisories. Generally, a PR body consists of four to five paragraphs with a word limit ranging from 400 to 500. [1] However, press releases can be anywhere from 300 to 800 words[2]

Some of these common structural elements include:

  • Headline – used to grab the attention of journalists and briefly summarize the news.
  • Dateline – contains the release date and usually the originating city of the press release. If the date listed is after the date that the information was actually sent to the media, then the sender is requesting a news embargo, which journalists are under no obligation to honor.
  • Introduction – first paragraph in a press release, that generally gives basic answers to the questions of who, what, when, where and why.
  • Body – further explanation, statistics, background, or other details relevant to the news.
  • Boilerplate – generally a short "about" section, providing independent background on the issuing company, organization, or individual.
  • Close – in North America, traditionally the symbol "-30-" appears after the boilerplate or body and before the media contact information, indicating to media that the release has ended. A more modern equivalent has been the "###" symbol. In other countries, other means of indicating the end of the release may be used, such as the text "ends".
  • Media contact information – name, phone number, email address, mailing address, or other contact information for the PR or other media relations contact person.[3]

As the Internet has assumed growing prominence in the news cycle, press release writing styles have necessarily evolved.[4] Editors of online newsletters, for instance, often lack the staff to convert traditional press release prose into more readable, print-ready copy.[5]

Distribution models

In the traditional distribution model, the business, political campaign, or other entity releasing information to the media hires a publicity agency to write and distribute written information to the newswires.[6] The newswire then disseminates the information as it is received or as investigated by a journalist.

An alternative is the self-published press release. In this approach, press releases are either sent directly to local newspapers or to free and paid distribution services.[7] The distribution service then provides the content, as-is, to their media outlets for publication which is usually online.

Video news releases

Some public relations firms send out video news releases (VNRs) which are pre-taped video programs that can be aired intact by TV stations. Often, the VNRs are aired without the stations' identifying or attributing them as such.

TV news viewers can often detect the use of VNRs within television newscasts; for example, many movie-star "interviews" are actually VNRs, taped on a set which is located at the movie studio and decorated with the movie's logo. Another frequent example of VNRs masquerading as news footage is videotapes of particular medical "breakthroughs," that are really produced and distributed by pharmaceutical companies for the purpose of selling new medicines.

Video news releases can be in the form of full blown productions costing tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands. They can also be in the TV news format, or even produced for the web.

Recently, many broadcast news outlets have discouraged the use of VNRs. Many stations, citing an already poor public perception, want to increase their credibility. Public relations companies are having a tougher time getting their pre-edited video aired.

VNRs can be turned into podcasts then posted onto newswires. Further to this, a story can be kept running longer by engaging "community websites", which are monitored and commented on by many journalists and features writers.

Embargoing

Sometimes a press release is distributed early and embargoed – that is, news organizations are requested not to report the story until a specified time. For instance, news organizations usually receive a copy of presidential speeches several hours in advance. Product or media reviewers are commonly given a sample or preview of a product ahead of its release date.

Unless the journalist has voluntarily agreed to honor the embargo in advance, usually via a legally binding non-disclosure agreement, the journalist is under no obligation to it. However, even in the absence of any obligation, news organizations generally do not break the embargo for sources that they wish to cultivate. If they do, then the agency or client that sent the release may blacklist them.

Positives

Press release material can be beneficial towards media corporations because releases help decrease costs and improve the amount of material a firm can output in a certain amount of time. Due to the material being pre-packaged, this saves journalists time, not only in writing a story, but also the time and money it would have taken to capture the news firsthand.[8]

Negatives

Although the utilization of press release material can save a company time and money, it makes the distributed media boring and similar to the output of other firms. In the digital age, consumers want to get their information instantly and this puts pressure on media companies to output as much material as possible. This often causes them to heavily rely on the use of press releases in order to create their stories.[8]

Effects of press releases

Press releases are crucial from the point of view of public companies.[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ James, Geoffrey. "How To Write a Press Release, with Examples". cbsnews.com. CBS News. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
  2. ^ "Editorial Guidelines for News Releases | PRWeb". PRWeb. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
  3. ^ "Editorial Guidelines". Issuewire.
  4. ^ Goodden, Ron (1 September 2009). "For Businesses Chasing Recognition, The Print Media Is Losing Its Allure". PRWeb.
  5. ^ "Transforming a promotional press release to a highly informative post". NewswireNext. 5 December 2015.
  6. ^ Human, Tim (11 June 2010). "Wire industry feels the heat as self-publishing tools launch". IR Magazine.
  7. ^ McQuivey, James (10 December 2014). "Social, Content Marketing Strategies, Trends for 2015: EmailWire Press Release Distribution Services Presents Guides, eBooks". CIO Magazine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b Lewis, Justin; Williams, Andrew; Franklin, Bob (1 February 2008). "A Compromised Fourth Estate?". Journalism Studies. 9 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/14616700701767974. ISSN 1461-670X.
  9. ^ Srinivasan, Shuba; Pauwels, Koen; Silva-Risso, Jorge; Hanssens, Dominique M (29 May 2013). "Product Innovations, Advertising, and Stock Returns". Journal of Marketing. 73 (1): 24–43. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.145.6106. doi:10.1509/jmkg.73.1.24.
Anadarko Petroleum

Anadarko Petroleum Corporation is a company engaged in hydrocarbon exploration. It is organized in Delaware and headquartered in two skyscrapers in The Woodlands, Texas: the Allison Tower and the Hackett Tower, both named after former CEOs of the company.

The company has been the subject of multiple environmental cases, including the largest environmental contamination settlement in American history - the 2014 settlement related to the former Tronox subsidiary of Kerr McGee, a company purchased by Anadarko in 2006.The company is ranked 257th on the Fortune 500.In addition to exploration and production, the company engages in petroleum and natural gas gathering, processing, treating, and transportation. The company also participates in the hard minerals business through its ownership of non-operated joint ventures and royalty arrangements. As of December 31, 2018, the company had approximately 1.473 billion barrels of oil equivalent (9.01×109 GJ) of proved reserves, 45% of which was oil reserves, 37% of which was natural gas, and 18% was natural gas liquids. In 2018, the company produced 666 thousand barrels of oil equivalent (4,070,000 GJ) per day.The company’s operations in the United States accounted for 86% of total sales volumes during 2018 and 88% of total proved reserves at year-end 2018. In the United States, the company has major holdings in the Delaware Basin, where it has over 580,000 gross acres, primarily in the Cline Shale; the Denver Basin, where it has more than 400,000 net acres; operating 4,600 vertical wells and 1,400 horizontal wells, and in Greater Natural Buttes, Utah, where it has approximately 2,850 wells.The company’s international operations accounted for 14% of total sales volumes during 2018 and 12% of total proved reserves at year-end 2018. The company has holdings in Algeria, Ghana, Mozambique, Colombia, and Côte d’Ivoire.

Boeing 787 Dreamliner

The Boeing 787 Dreamliner is an American long-haul, mid-size wide-body, twin-engine jet airliner manufactured by Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Its variants seat 242 to 335 passengers in typical three-class seating configurations. It is the first airliner with an airframe constructed primarily of composite materials. The 787 was designed to be 20% more fuel-efficient than the Boeing 767, which it was intended to replace. The 787 Dreamliner's distinguishing features include mostly electrical flight systems, raked wingtips, and noise-reducing chevrons on its engine nacelles.

The aircraft's initial designation was the 7E7, prior to its renaming in January 2005. The first 787 was unveiled in a roll-out ceremony on July 8, 2007 at Boeing's Everett factory. Development and production of the 787 has involved a large-scale collaboration with numerous suppliers worldwide. Final assembly takes place at the Boeing Everett Factory in Everett, Washington, and at the Boeing South Carolina factory in North Charleston, South Carolina. Originally planned to enter service in May 2008, the project experienced multiple delays. The airliner's maiden flight took place on December 15, 2009, and flight testing was completed in mid-2011. Boeing has reportedly spent $32 billion on the 787 program.

Final US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) type certification was received in August 2011, and the first 787-8 was delivered in September 2011. It entered commercial service on October 26, 2011 with launch customer All Nippon Airways. The stretched 787-9 variant, which is 20 feet (6.1 m) longer and can fly 450 nautical miles (830 km) farther than the -8, first flew in September 2013. Deliveries of the 787-9 began in July 2014; it entered commercial service on August 7, 2014 with All Nippon Airways, with 787-9 launch customer Air New Zealand following two days later. As of January 2019, the 787 had orders for 1,421 aircraft from 72 identified customers.The aircraft has suffered from several in-service problems related to its lithium-ion batteries, including fires on board during commercial service. These systems were reviewed by both the FAA and the Japan Civil Aviation Bureau. The FAA issued a directive in January 2013 that grounded all 787s in the US, and other civil aviation authorities followed suit. After Boeing completed tests on a revised battery design, the FAA approved the revised design and lifted the grounding in April 2013; the 787 returned to passenger service later that month.

On April 20, 2019, The New York Times uncovered production quality issues in the 787 Dreamliner assembly line at the Boeing South Carolina assembly site.

Business Wire

Business Wire is a company that disseminates full-text press releases from thousands of companies and organizations worldwide to news media, financial markets, disclosure systems, investors, information web sites, databases, bloggers, social networks and other audiences. It is a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway.

Ethiopian Airlines

Ethiopian Airlines (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ አየር መንገድ (ye-Ityopya ayer menged); የኢትዮጵያ (ye-Ityopya) for short), formerly Ethiopian Air Lines (EAL) and often referred to as simply Ethiopian, is Ethiopia's flag carrier and is wholly owned by the country's government. EAL was founded on 21 December 1945 and commenced operations on 8 April 1946, expanding to international flights in 1951. The firm became a share company in 1965 and changed its name from Ethiopian Air Lines to Ethiopian Airlines. The airline has been a member of the International Air Transport Association since 1959 and of the African Airlines Association (AFRAA) since 1968. Ethiopian is a Star Alliance member, having joined in December 2011 (2011-12).

Its hub and headquarters are at Bole International Airport in Addis Ababa, from where it serves a network of 125 passenger destinations—20 of them domestic—and 44 freighter destinations. The airline has secondary hubs in Togo and Malawi. Ethiopian is Africa's largest airline in terms of passengers carried, destinations served, fleet size, and revenue. Ethiopian is also the world's 4th largest airline by the number of countries served.

Geneva Motor Show

The Geneva International Motor Show (French: Salon international de l'automobile) is an annual auto show held in March in the Swiss city of Geneva. The show is hosted at the Palexpo, a convention centre located next to the Geneva Cointrin International Airport. The Salon is organised by the Organisation Internationale des Constructeurs d'Automobiles, and is considered an important major international auto show.First held in 1905, the Salon has hosted almost all major internal combustion engined models in the history of the automobile, along with benzene- and steam-powered cars from the beginning of the century. Exotic supercars often steal the spotlight during their debuts at the show. Prototypes, new equipment, technical breakthroughs, international partnerships, as well as political and social debates, have been announced at the exhibition. The show is regarded as a level playing field for the world's automakers, aided by the fact Switzerland lacks an auto industry of its own.

IndieWire

IndieWire (sometimes stylized as indieWIRE or Indiewire) is a film industry and review website that was established in 1996. As of January 19, 2016, IndieWire is a subsidiary of Penske Media. It has a staff of about 20, including publisher James Israel, and Editor-in-Chief Dana Harris.

Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider and the largest machine in the world. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.

First collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record. After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.

The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: Lead–lead collisions and proton-lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

MacOS

macOS (; previously Mac OS X and later OS X, Roman numeral "X" pronounced "ten") is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop, laptop and home computers, and by web usage, it is the second most widely used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, which was introduced in 1984, and the final release of which was Mac OS 9 in 1999. The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. The latest version is macOS Mojave, which was publicly released in September 2018.

Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold a separate series of operating systems called Mac OS X Server. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is the Roman numeral for the number 10 and is pronounced as such. The X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but gradually receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version also have UNIX 03 certification. macOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, and many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS. A heavily modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV.Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion (2011) run exclusively on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, and do not support PowerPC applications.

Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame

The Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame is an American history museum and hall of fame, located at 1000 Hall of Fame Avenue in Springfield, Massachusetts. It serves as the sport's most complete library, in addition to promoting and preserving the history of basketball. Dedicated to Canadian-American physician and inventor of the sport James Naismith, it was opened and inducted its first class in 1959.

As of the induction of the Class of 2018, the Hall has formally inducted 389 individuals.

Oneworld

Oneworld (stylized as oneworld; CRS: *O) is an airline alliance founded on 1 February 1999. The alliance's stated objective is to be the first choice airline alliance for the world's frequent international travelers. Its central alliance office is in Manhattan, New York, United States. Its member airlines include American Airlines, British Airways, Cathay Pacific, Finnair, Iberia, SriLankan Airlines, Japan Airlines, LATAM Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Qantas, Qatar Airways, Royal Air Maroc (in 2020), Royal Jordanian, S7 Airlines, Fiji Airways plus some 30 affiliated airlines. As of October 2017, Oneworld is the third-largest global alliance in terms of passengers with more than 527.9 million passengers carried, behind SkyTeam (730M) and Star Alliance (727.67M).As of October 2017, its member airlines collectively operate a fleet of 3,447 aircraft, serve about 1,000 airports in more than 158 countries, carrying 527.9 million passengers per year on 12,738 daily departures, generating annual revenues of more than US$130 billion.

PR Newswire

PR Newswire is a distributor of press releases headquartered in New York City. The service was created in 1954 to allow companies to electronically send press releases to news organizations, at first using teleprinters. The founder, Herbert Muschel, operated the service from his house in Manhattan for approximately 15 years. The business was eventually sold to Western Union and then United Newspapers of London. In December 2015, Cision Inc. acquired the company.

Porsche

Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG, usually shortened to Porsche AG (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔɐ̯ʃə] (listen); see below), is a German automobile manufacturer specializing in high-performance sports cars, SUVs and sedans. Porsche AG is headquartered in Stuttgart, and is owned by Volkswagen AG, which is itself majority-owned by Porsche Automobil Holding SE. Porsche's current lineup includes the 718 Boxster/Cayman, 911, Panamera, Macan and Cayenne.

Public relations

Public relations (PR) is the practice of deliberately managing the spread of information between an individual or an organization (such as a business, government agency, or a nonprofit organization) and the public. Public relations may include an organization or individual gaining exposure to their audiences using topics of public interest and news items that do not require direct payment. This differentiates it from advertising as a form of marketing communications. Public relations is the idea of creating coverage for clients for free, rather than marketing or advertising. But now advertising is also a part of greater PR Activities.

An example of good public relations would be generating an article featuring a client, rather than paying for the client to be advertised next to the article. The aim of public relations is to inform the public, prospective customers, investors, partners, employees, and other stakeholders and ultimately persuade them to maintain a positive or favorable view about the organization, its leadership, products, or political decisions. Public relations professionals typically work for PR and marketing firms, businesses and companies, government, and public officials as PIOs and nongovernmental organizations, and nonprofit organizations. Jobs central to public relations include account coordinator, account executive, account supervisor, and media relations manager.Public relations specialists establish and maintain relationships with an organisation's target audience, the media, relevant trade media, and other opinion leaders. Common responsibilities include designing communications campaigns, writing news releases and other content for news, working with the press, arranging interviews for company spokespeople, writing speeches for company leaders, acting as an organisation's spokesperson, preparing clients for press conferences, media interviews and speeches, writing website and social media content, managing company reputation (crisis management), managing internal communications, and marketing activities like brand awareness and event management Success in the field of public relations requires a deep understanding of the interests and concerns of each of the company's many stakeholders. The public relations professional must know how to effectively address those concerns using the most powerful tool of the public relations trade, which is publicity.

SkyTeam

SkyTeam is an airline alliance. Founded in June 2000, SkyTeam was the last of the three major airline alliances to be formed, the first two being Star Alliance and Oneworld. As of January 2019, SkyTeam consists of 19 carriers from five continents and operates with the slogan "Caring more about you". It also operates a cargo alliance named SkyTeam Cargo, which partners ten carriers, all of them SkyTeam members. Its centralised management team, SkyTeam Central, is based at the World Trade Center Schiphol Airport on the grounds of Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands.In 2004, the alliance had its biggest expansion when Continental Airlines, Northwest Airlines and KLM simultaneously joined as full members. In 2010, the alliance celebrated its 10th anniversary with the introduction of a special livery, the joining or upgrading status of four airlines, followed by the announcements of Aerolíneas Argentinas, China Airlines, and Garuda Indonesia to become full members. In January 2011 (2011-01), incorporated both Saudi Arabian Airlines and Middle East Airlines during 2012; these events effectively took place in May and June 2012 (2012-06), respectively, whereas Aerolíneas Argentinas and Xiamen Airlines memberships were activated in August and November the same year, respectively. Garuda Indonesia entered the alliance in March 2014 (2014-03).

As of November 2018, SkyTeam flies to more than 1,000 destinations in more than 170 countries and operates more than 17,000 daily flights. The alliance and its members have 750 lounges worldwide.

Thomson Reuters

Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian multinational mass media and information firm. The firm was founded in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, where it is headquartered at 333 Bay Street in Downtown Toronto. Thomson Reuters shares are cross listed on the Toronto Stock Exchange (TSX: TRI) and the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE: TRI).

Thomson Reuters was created by the Thomson Corporation's purchase of the British company Reuters Group in April 2008, and is majority owned by The Woodbridge Company, a holding company for the Thomson family. Thomson Reuters was ranked as Canada's "leading corporate brand" in the 2010 Interbrand Best Canadian Brands ranking. Thomson Reuters operates in more than 100 countries, and has more than 45,000 employees.

Toyota

Toyota Motor Corporation (Japanese: トヨタ自動車株式会社, Hepburn: Toyota Jidōsha KK, IPA: [toꜜjota], English: ) is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi, Japan. In 2017, Toyota's corporate structure consisted of 364,445 employees worldwide and, as of September 2018, was the sixth-largest company in the world by revenue. As of 2017, Toyota is the world's second-largest automotive manufacturer. Toyota was the world's first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it also reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization (worth more than twice as much as #2-ranked SoftBank) and by revenue.Toyota is the world's market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, and one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Toyota is also a market leader in hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017. Its Prius family is the world's top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017.The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and its first passenger car in 1936, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Hino, Lexus, Ranz, and Daihatsu. It also holds a 16.66% stake in Subaru Corporation, a 5.9% stake in Isuzu, as well as joint-ventures with two in China (GAC Toyota and Sichuan FAW Toyota Motor), one in India (Toyota Kirloskar), one in the Czech Republic (TPCA), along with several "nonautomotive" companies. TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in Japan.

Toyota is listed on the London Stock Exchange, New York Stock Exchange and Tokyo Stock Exchange.

Toyota Corolla

The Toyota Corolla (Japanese: トヨタ・カローラ, Toyota Karōra) is a line of subcompact and compact cars manufactured by Toyota. Introduced in 1966, the Corolla was the best-selling car worldwide by 1974 and has been one of the best-selling cars in the world since then. In 1997, the Corolla became the best selling nameplate in the world, surpassing the Volkswagen Beetle. Toyota reached the milestone of 40 million Corollas sold over eleven generations in July 2013. The series has undergone several major redesigns.

The name Corolla is part of Toyota's naming tradition of using names derived from the Toyota Crown for sedans, with "corolla" Latin for "small crown". The Corolla has always been exclusive in Japan to Toyota Corolla Store locations, and manufactured in Japan with a twin, called the Toyota Sprinter until 2000. From 2006 to 2018 in Japan and much of the world, the hatchback companion has been called the Toyota Auris.

Early models were mostly rear-wheel drive, while later models have been front-wheel drive. Four-wheel drive versions have also been produced. The Corolla's traditional competitors have been the Nissan Sunny, introduced the same year as the Corolla in Japan and the later Honda Civic and Mitsubishi Lancer. The Corolla's chassis designation code is "E", as described in Toyota's chassis and engine codes.

VMware

VMware, Inc. is a publicly traded software virtualization company listed on the NASDAQ under stock ticker VMW. Dell Technologies is a majority share holder. VMware provides cloud computing and platform virtualization software and services. It was one of the first commercially successful companies to virtualize the x86 architecture.VMware's desktop software runs on Microsoft Windows, Linux, and macOS, while its enterprise software hypervisor for servers, VMware ESXi, is a bare-metal hypervisor that runs directly on server hardware without requiring an additional underlying operating system.

Yandex

Yandex N.V. (; Russian: Яндекс, IPA: [ˈjandəks]) is a Russian multinational corporation specializing in Internet-related products and services, including search and information services, eCommerce, transportation, navigation, mobile applications, and online advertising. Yandex provides over 70 services in total.

Incorporated in the Netherlands, Yandex primarily serves audiences in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States. The company founders and most of the team members are located in Russia. The company has 18 commercial offices worldwide.It is the largest technology company in Russia and the largest search engine on the internet in Russian, with a market share of over 52%. The Yandex.ru home page is the 4th most popular website in Russia. It also has the largest market share of any search engine in the Commonwealth of Independent States and is the 5th largest search engine worldwide after Google, Baidu, Bing, and Yahoo!.

Yandex's main competitors on the Russian market are Google, Mail.ru, and Rambler.

According to the company, one of its biggest advantages for Russian-language users is the ability to recognize Russian inflection in search queries.Yandex has invested in companies including Vizi Labs, Face.com, Blekko, Seismotech, Multiship, SalesPredict, and Doc+.

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