Press TV

Press TV (stylised as PRESSTV) is a 24-hour English- and French-language[1][2] news and documentary network affiliated with Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB).[3] Press TV is headquartered in Tehran and is extensively networked with bureaus in various cities.[4] The service is aimed at the overseas market, similar to DD India, WION, BBC World News, DW, France 24, RT, and Sputnik.

Press TV
PressTV
Launched8 July 2007
Owned byIslamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting
Picture format576i, 16:9 (SDTV)
1080i (HDTV)
SloganNews Anew
CountryIran
LanguageEnglish
French
Broadcast areaWorldwide
HeadquartersTehran, Iran
Sister channel(s)Al-Alam News Network
HispanTV
Websitewww.presstv.com
Availability
Terrestrial
JamaranCH43 UHF Digital (SD)
AlvandCH34 UHF Digital (Full HD)
Satellite
Intelsat 902
Middle East
11555 / 30000 / 2/3 V
ArabSat 5C
Africa, Middle East, Europe
3913 / 12911 / 5/6 V
3964 / 30000 / 3/4 R
Badr 4
Middle East & Africa
12054 / 27500 3/4 V
Badr 5
Middle East & Central Asia
12303 / 27500 / 3/4 H
11881 / 27500 5/6 H
Nilesat 201
Middle East
11823 / 27500 / 5/6 V
Paksat-1R
Asia & Africa
4060 / 23000 / 5/6 H
ST-2
Middle East & Asia
11051 / 30000 / 1/2 V
Thaicom 5
Africa, Middle East, Europe, Asia, Australia
3574 / 6510 / 2/3 H
Optus D2
Australia, New Zealand
12519 / 22500 / 3/4 V
Intelsat 20
Europe & Africa
12602 / 26657 / 2/3 H
Eutelsat 3B
Europe
11605 / 11852 / 3/4 V
Ekspress AM44
Europe
11109 / 9479 / 3/4 H
Galaxy 19
North & Central America
11960 / 22000 / 3/4 V
Streaming media
Live WebcastFree
(Flash, Silverlight)
Video On DemandVOD
(Free)
LivestationFree
Play TVFree
BlackberryFree App
Nokia SymbianFree App
YouTube channelPressTVGlobalNews (until 2013)
PressTVbroadcast (2013–2014)
VideosPTV (2014–present)
LiveLeak channelPressTV

Background

Iran's first international English-language TV channel was established in 1976.[5] Later in 1997, Sahar TV started its work, broadcasting in multiple languages including English.[5] Iran's Press TV was launched in July 8, 2007 to compete with other 24-hour English-language satellite channels like the BBC, CNN and Al Jazeera International.[6]

Press TV CEO Mohammad Sarafraz said in a June 2007 press conference that, "Since September 11, Western bias has divided the media into two camps: those that favour their policies make up one group and the rest of the media are attached to radical Islamic groups like Al-Qaeda. We want to show that there is a different view. Iran, and the Shi'as in particular, have become a focal point of world propaganda. From the media point of view, we are trying to give a second eye to Western audiences."[7]

The network's official vision is "to heed the voices and perspectives of the people of the world; build bridges of cultural understanding; encourage human beings of different nationalities, races and creeds to identify with one another; bring to light untold and overlooked stories of individuals who have experienced political and cultural divides firsthand."[8] Sarafraz explained that "our experience tells us that pictorial reflection of news and the use of images are more effective than discussion and analysis."[9]

History of website and satellite TV launch

The network's website launched in late January 2007.[10] Test satellite transmissions were conducted in late April 2007. The channel launched on 3 July 2007.[11][12] On 18 March 2009, Press TV launched a new website with a modified graphical user interface.[13] Press TV upgraded to 16:9 widescreen format on 17 November 2011,[14] being the first Iranian network to upgrade its feed to this format, and the second international news network based in the Middle East to do so, after Al Jazeera English.

Funding and management

Press TV is state-funded[15] and is a division of the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), the only legal TV and radio broadcaster inside the country.[16] IRIB is independent of the Iranian government and its head is appointed directly by the supreme leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei; according to The Guardian, it is close to the country's conservative political faction, especially the elite Revolutionary Guards.[17] Press TV's headquarters are located in Tehran.

As of 2009, the annual budget of Press TV is 250 Billion rials (more than US$8.3 million).[18]

Coverage

Press TV offers round-the-clock news bulletins every half-hour, a series of repeating commentary programmes and round-table panel discussions, as well as documentary-style political films. In May 2009, Press TV CEO Mohammad Sarafraz announced that Press TV would "provide viewers with more newscasts while cutting down on its news analysis programs."[9]

Press TV was created for the purpose of presenting news, images and arguments, especially on Middle Eastern affairs, to counter the news coverage that appears on broadcasts such those of BBC World News, CNN International and Al Jazeera English.[19]

According to mediachannel.org, "the government aims to use Press TV to counter what it sees as a steady stream of Western propaganda against Iran as well as offer an alternative view of world news."[20]

By launching an English-language television network to promote an Iranian perspective of the world, together with an Arab-language station, the Al-Alam News Network, the Iranian government said it hoped "to address a global audience exposed to misinformation and mudslinging as regards the Islamic Republic of Iran."[21] The two networks focus on "difficult issues in the Middle East such as the United States’ occupation of neighbouring Iraq and the Shiite question."[22]

Currently, viewers can watch Press TV and the English, Arabic, and Spanish-language versions of its sister networks iFilm and Hispan TV on numerous free-to-air satellites worldwide. Official satellite footprint maps[23] and satellite enthusiast-maintained transponder change notifications[24] are also available and may at times be necessary to consult.

Controversies

In 2012, the Anti-Defamation League (ADL) issued a report alleging that Press TV has been broadcasting what the ADL says are examples of anti-Semitic conspiracy theories and opinions.[25] The report criticizes Press TV for interviewing or providing commentary space for a number of individuals (such as David Duke) described by the report as "American anti-Semites, conspiracy theorists and Holocaust deniers, who help amplify the Iranian regime's hateful messages".[25]

The station has been criticized for "anti-Americanism" and "uncritical embrace of conspiracy theories". For British journalist Nick Cohen the station is "a platform for the full fascist conspiracy theory of supernatural Jewish power"[26] and for commentator Douglas Murray it is the "Iranian government’s propaganda channel".[27] In a 2011 interview on Press TV, George Galloway, one of the station's presenters and a British politician, responded to Cohen and others, stating that Press TV "challenges the prevailing orthodoxy" by providing an outsider perspective on "the truth and a voice for the otherwise voiceless".[28] Mehdi Hasan of the New Statesman has argued that "engaging with Iran, no matter who is in charge in Tehran, is a prerequisite for peace and progress in the region. The very fact that Press TV is Iranian-owned makes it the ideal English-language platform on which to do so."[29]

The BBC journalist Linda Pressly has described Press TV as pro-Palestinian, opposed to sanctions against Iran, and critical of Western foreign policy.[30] Nick Ferrari, a former presenter of one of Press TV's shows, told The Times that Press TV's news coverage had been "reasonably fair" until the 2009 election—but not any longer.[31]

Removal from Western and Asian satellites

On 3 April 2012, Munich-based media regulator Bayerische Landeszentrale für neue Medien (BLM), announced it was removing Press TV from the SES Astra satellite, as it did not have a licence to broadcast in Europe.[32][33] However, the channel's legal team submitted documents to the court that proved Press TV could broadcast under German law. Munich's Administrative Court announced on Friday 15 June that the ban was illegal.[34] As of September 2012 the channel became unavailable on Astra 19.2E after the High Administrative Court of Bavaria had overturned the urgent ruling and confirmed the regulatory authority's decision.

In November 2012, the Hong Kong-based AsiaSat took Iranian channels off air in East Asia, and in October 2012 Eutelsat and Intelsat stopped broadcasting several Iranian satellite channels, though the Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting managed to resume broadcasts after striking deals with smaller companies that are based in other countries.[35] In July 2013 Press TV and other Iranian channels were removed from several European and American satellites (amongst others those of Eutelsat and Intelsat), allegedly because of the sanctions on Iran, even though an EU spokesperson told the channel that these sanctions do not apply to media.[36][35]

Potential designation as a 'terrorist entity'

On June 26, 2008, the United States House of Representatives has attempted to declare Press TV, the Arabic Al-Alam News Network and several IRIB-affiliated channels as a "Specially Designated Global Terrorist entity" proposed by Florida congressman Gus Bilirakis. The proposed resolution calls the broadcast of 'incitement to violence' against Americans in Middle Eastern media while Bilirakis claimed that as Iranian state-run TV channels broadcast 'the coverage of rallies and speeches in which Iranian leaders, clerics, children, and mass audience have declared 'Death to America!' due to broadcasting incitement of violence against Americans. [37][38][39]

Maziar Bahari and UK licence revocation

In June 2010, Channel 4, the British broadcaster, transmitted a programme featuring Maziar Bahari, a documentary maker and Newsweek contributor, who was arrested while covering the Iranian presidential election in 2009, and held in custody for 118 days. He alleged that a Press TV 10 second interview and 'confession' had been preceded by torture, and was given under the threat of execution.[40] Bahari, now a British resident, complained to Ofcom, the regulatory authority for the telecommunication industries in the United Kingdom.[40]

In May 2011, Ofcom ruled that Press TV was responsible for a serious breach of UK broadcasting rules by airing the 10 second interview with Maziar Bahari, accepting that it had been obtained under duress while he was held in a Tehran jail.[41] Press TV rejected Ofcom's findings and accused Bahari of being "an MI6 contact person".[42] A fine of £100,000 was eventually imposed in November 2011, reversing an initial decision to revoke Press TV's licence.[43] Press TV responded: "The British royal family exercises an overarching power over all branches in the political system of the UK, including the government and the parliament, as well as on Ofcom."[43] On 20 January 2012, Press TV's licence to broadcast in the UK was revoked by Ofcom.[44][45] The investigation into the Bahari case had revealed the applying company's direct connection to Tehran, and that editorial control came from there. An invitation to change this in the licence had not been taken up by Press TV.[46] The unpaid fine was not the reason why Ofcom ended Press TV's licence.[47]

Geoffrey Alderman, the British historian and occasional Press TV contributor, attacked the Ofcom decision, and called for it to be reversed. He described the action by Ofcom as "thoroughly deplorable as well as palpably cynical".[48] Defenders of Press TV, including Alderman and the broadcaster's legal representative, Farooq Bajwa,[49] have referred to a formerly secret American diplomatic cable dated 4 February 2010. Later released by WikiLeaks, it says the British Government was at time "exploring ways to limit the operations of the IRIB's Press TV service". This 'exploration' was in response to the jamming by the Iranian government of broadcasts by the BBC Persian Service and the Voice of America, also mentioned in the document[50] and mentioned by Alderman.

UK base

Press TV began its activities in London during 2007. Roshan Muhammed Salih was Press TV's London news editor and chief correspondent.[51]

Notable presenters

Current presenters

  • Derek Conway, a former British Conservative Member of Parliament, presents Epilogue and Comment, on occasion.
  • Lembit Öpik, presents A Simple Question.[52]

Former presenters

  • George Galloway, a former UK parliamentarian and past leader of the far-left Respect Party, presented Comment and The Real Deal.[53]
  • Andrew Gilligan, a journalist who resigned from Press TV after he said that "taking the Iranian shilling was inconsistent with my opposition to Islamism".[54] Prior to his departure, Gilligan hosted The Forum that consisted of a "regular discussion show on the station, in which Islamism, and the policies of the Iranian government, were often debated and challenged."[54]
  • Ken Livingstone, a former Mayor of London.[55] He hosted Epilogue, a monthly book review programme, and Comment on occasion.[56]
  • Lauren Booth, presented Between the Headlines (until 2009), Remember Palestine and The Diaspora.[57]
  • Nick Ferrari, LBC 97.3 host who used to present The Forum until 2009 prior to the Iranian Elections.
  • Tariq Ramadan, presented Islam & Life (until early 2014).[58]
  • Yvonne Ridley, a British journalist.[59]

External contributors

Current programmes

  • A Simple Question – A show where your views matter. Presented by Lembit Öpik.[61]
  • Africa Today – Analytical weekly review of political, economic and social events in Africa, the world's second largest continent.[62]
  • Coffee In Palestine – A show that talks about Politics in Palestine where the audiences opinion gets heard. Filmed in Ramallah.[63]
  • Economic Divide – A show recorded in Tehran and hosted by news anchor Kaveh Taghvai. The show takes a look at world economies: the power of major banks, the stock markets, and its effect on democracy, and the distribution of wealth around the world.[64]
  • Face To Face – 25 min weekly show with interviews with people from different backgrounds.[65]
  • Hollywood Cut – A show investigating Hollywood's role.
  • Infocus – 25-minute twice-weekly show with a report documentary from a Press TV correspondent.[66]
  • Inside Out – A 25-minute magazine show exploring the U.S, produced and presented by Susan Modaress[67]
  • Iran – A 25-minute weekly show covering topical issues on Iran plus reports and interviews on major cultural events held in the country over the week.
  • Iran Today – A twice-weekly analysis of major political, economic, cultural and social events concerning Iran. It was formerly produced by Joobin Zarvan and Amir Tajik.[68]
  • Islamic Awakening – Show hosted by Ahmad Haneef.[69]
  • Middle East Files – A show that talks about the politics in the Middle East. The format is that there are 3 files per episode.[70]
  • Press Plus – A show that gives the latest technology updates. Presented by Reza Nayebi.[71]
  • Reporters' File – A weekly reportage-oriented programme, dealing with various Iranian and world stories, from a local correspondent's perspective. The show was formerly produced & hosted by Joobin Zarvan; it is now produced and presented by Saeed Pourreza.[72]
  • Spotlight – A show about developments that affected peoples lives.[73]
  • The Chronicles – A book review show with interviews with the author and critics. Presented by Derek Conway.[74]
  • The Debate – A 25-minute debate show presented by the news anchors.[75]
  • The Monarchy – A show all about Britain's Politics.[76]
  • The Sun Will Rise – A show all about Palestine. Presented by Roshan Mohammed Salih.[77]

Former programmes

  • Alternate Reality Video clips from around the world showing the iniquities of globalisation, looking at power, money and injustice.[78]
  • American Dream A weekly programme giving a warts-and-all picture of life in the USA from ghettos to gated communities to the White House.[79]
  • Autograph 25min weekly interview with academics, authors, politicians and dignitaries encompassing a whole range of different topics from cultural to highly political issues. The program was produced and hosted by Susan Modaress.[80]
  • Behind The Talks – The program that took a look at Iran’s proposals on the objectives of talks with the 5+1 in Istanbul and Baghdad.[81]
  • Between the Headlines – A review of the day's headlines hosted by Mark Watts, Lauren Booth, Afshin Rattansi, Amina Taylor[82] and Jan Fossgard, aired live from London.
  • Big Story – A show that explores the truth about Britain. Hosted by Amina Taylor.[83]
  • Canon – A 25-minute weekly show debating the legal perspective on the social and political issues around the world.[84]
  • CinePolitics – A weekly 25-minute show. The show examined current cinematic releases, and explored the underlying political and social issues that shaped them.[85]
  • Comment – A live show from London hosted by George Galloway. The format allows a studio audience to ask the presenter questions or argue with him.[86]
  • Diaspora – Programme presented by Ken Livingston and Derek Conaway.This Program pursued the life of Palestinian refugees who are now residing in Britain. Each episode shows hardships imposed on different individuals who have different stories.[87]
  • Double Standards – Programme presented by Afshin Rattansi.This Program was talking all about politics. Broadcast from the heart of London.[88]
  • Energy World – A 25-minute weekly show, dealing with current energy issues together with their political undercurrents, presented by former Russia Today host Amanda Burt.[89]
  • Epilogue – A 25-minute weekly programme on literature, featuring interviews with writers and critics, hosted by Derek Conway, Bob Stewart, Hugo de Burgh and James Whale.[90]
  • EuroFocus – Presented by Roshan Muhammed Salih and Fareena Alam, offers a weekly round-up of news and features from all over Europe.[90]
  • 4Corners – 25 minutes of live daily news commentary panel discussion. The show covered critical news stories from across the globe. The show was presented by Shahb Mossavat and Joobin Zarvan.[91]
  • Fine Print – Twice weekly show on on-line media. The show was presented by Amir Arfa.[92]
  • Hart of the Matter – A show where veteran broadcast journalist Alan Hart engages a host of intellectuals, investigative journalists and activists, amongst others, in conversation.[93]
  • Hearts and Minds[94] – 45-minute Panel Discussion on U.S. foreign policy produced in New York City. For several months, Hearts and Minds was presented by Alan Weisman[95] (former producer of the Charlie Rose Show, and author of biographies of retired CBS newsman Dan Rather and defence expert Richard Perle[95]) After Weisman, Stephanie Woods, a former reporter for the MTV News political news program Street Team '08,[96] assumed the role of host in June 2009 until the program's last broadcast on 30 September 2009.[97]
  • Inside Bahrain A show that gave the latest updates on Bahrain.[98]
  • Interaction A show that reviewed the latest Press TV programmes, news and feedback.[99]
  • Islam & Life A show presented by Tariq Ramadan that dealt with the challenges and opportunities facing Muslims, especially in the west.[100]
  • Middle East Today – 25 minutes of daily panel discussion on the region's most news-making events, broadcast live from Tehran and presented by Chris Gelken, Joobin Zarvan and Marzieh Hashemi . It is also aired on weekends, from Beirut by Mariam Saleh and Marlin Dick and Zeinab Safar.[101]
  • Minbar – A weekly Q&A about Islam presented by Ahmad Haneef.[102]
  • Money Trail – A 25 minutes weekly expose of the pay to play underworld of money and power produced and hosted by Amir Arfa.[103]
  • My Journey to Islam –A show that interviews famous personalities journey to Islam.[104]
  • Off The Cuff – Another audience-driven programme hosted by James Whale and Mike Mendoza. The show focuses on controversial issues where the presenter asks the questions around the theme and the audience express their views.
  • On The Edge With Max Keiser – The show focuses on financial issues. Presented by Max Keiser.[105]
  • Outside the Box – A weekly 25-minute show hosted by Tina Richards.
  • Women's Voice – A programme made by women for women. The show scrutinizes the status of women in the West and deals with their common issues, challenges and upheavals.
  • World Week Watch – Half-hour round-up of world events by Oscar Reyes and Kristiane Backer.
  • The Link – A weekly debate-driven talk show incorporating both experts and a studio audience dealing with a wide range of political, social, economic, environmental, sports and cultural issues affecting the world at large. The show was presented by Amir Arfa and Joobin Zarvan.

See also

References

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External links

Media related to Press TV at Wikimedia Commons

Videos
2011–12 Saudi Arabian protests

The protests in Saudi Arabia were part of the Arab Spring that started with the 2011 Tunisian revolution. Protests started with a self-immolation in Samtah and Jeddah street protests in late January 2011. Protests against anti-Shia discrimination followed in February and early March in Qatif, Hofuf, al-Awamiyah, and Riyadh. A Facebook organiser of a planned 11 March "Day of Rage", Faisal Ahmed Abdul-Ahad, was allegedly killed by Saudi security forces on 2 March, with several hundred people protesting in Qatif, Hofuf and al-Amawiyah on the day itself. Khaled al-Johani demonstrated alone in Riyadh, was interviewed by BBC Arabic Television, was detained in `Ulaysha Prison, and became known online as "the only brave man in Saudi Arabia". Many protests over human rights took place in April 2011 in front of government ministry buildings in Riyadh, Ta'if and Tabuk and in January 2012 in Riyadh. In 2011, Nimr al-Nimr encouraged his supporters in nonviolent resistance.Anti-government protests demanding release of prisoners held without charge or trial continued in April and May 2011 in Qatif, al-Awamiyah and Hofuf in the Eastern Province, and extended to calls for the Peninsula Shield Force to be withdrawn from Bahrain and for the Eastern Province to have a constitution and a legislature. Four protesters were shot dead by Saudi authorities in late November in Qatif region protests and funerals, two on 12/13 and 26 January 2012, and two on 9 and 10 February 2012. In the early 2012 demonstrations, protesters chanted slogans against the House of Saud and Minister of Interior, Nayef, calling Nayef a "terrorist", "criminal" and "butcher" and throwing an effigy of Nayef at tanks. Police described two of the fatal shootings as responses to unidentified gunmen who had shot first. Eastern Province protests intensified after Sheikh Nimr al-Nimr was wounded in the leg and arrested by police on 8 July. Four men were killed in a protest immediately following the arrest, and on 13 July, with several funerals and protests following, including calls for the downfall of the House of Saud. While detained, al-Nimr was tortured and started a hunger strike, he was later executed in the 2016 mass execution. Protest organisers insisted on the use of nonviolent resistance and called for all Shia and Sunni detainees to be freed. A protester and a soldier were fatally shot in Qatif during a 3–4 August protest, leading to more protests.Protests and sit-ins calling for political prisoners to be released spread beyond the Eastern Province to protests at the Ministry of Interior in Riyadh on 20 March and in Riyadh and Buraidah in December 2011, and in July and August 2012 in front of the Ministry in Riyadh, in Mecca in Ta'if, in Buraidah, and near al-Ha'ir Prison.Women organised a Facebook women's suffrage campaign called "Baladi", stating that Saudi Arabian law gives women electoral rights. In April 2011, women in Jeddah, Riyadh and Dammam tried to register as electors for the 29 September municipal elections despite officials stating that women could not participate. In May and June, Manal al-Sharif and other women organised a women's right-to-drive campaign, with the main action to take place on 17 June. In late September, Shaima Jastania was sentenced to 10 lashes for driving in Jeddah, shortly after King Abdullah announced women's participation in the 2015 municipal elections and eligibility as Consultative Assembly members; King Abdullah overturned the sentence. Al-Sharif and Samar Badawi filed lawsuits against Saudi authorities in the Grievances Board, a non-Sharia court, because of the rejection of their driving licence applications. Women university students protested in King Khalid University (KKU) in Abha in March 2012 and were attacked by security forces, leading to one death. Other university protests followed in Taibah University in Medina and Tabuk University in March and April. KKU students called for the university president to be dismissed. He was replaced on 1 July 2012.

Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi

Abdul-Malik Badreddin al-Houthi (Arabic: عبد الملك بدر الدين الحوثي‎) is a leader of the Zaidi revolution movement Ansar Allah (Houthis). His brothers Yahia Badreddin al-Houthi and Abdul-Karim Badreddin Al-Houthi are also leaders of the group, as was his late brother Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi. Abdul-Malik Houthi is the leading figure in a revolution starting in the Sa'dah province in northern Yemen, which has been continuing from 2004 to the present day. The uprising has been called the Houthi Rebellion due to his leadership. The Zaidi community comprises around half of the population of Yemen, concentrated in the north. In traditional Zaidi religious belief, if there is no clear leader for the Zaidi community, an Imam/Caliph can emerge through armed struggle. Yemen was formerly ruled by a Zaidi Imamah/Caliphate, which ended in 1962.

Andrew Gilligan

Andrew Paul Gilligan (born 22 November 1968) is a British policy adviser and journalist, currently transport adviser to the Prime Minister. Until July 2019 he was senior correspondent of The Sunday Times and had also served as head of the Capital City Foundation at Policy Exchange. Between 2013 and 2016 he also worked as cycling commissioner for London. He is best known for a 2003 report on BBC Radio 4's The Today Programme in which he described a British government briefing paper on Iraq and weapons of mass destruction (the September Dossier) as 'sexed up'.He was awarded Journalist of the Year in 2008 for his investigative reports on Ken Livingstone. and was shortlisted for the award again in 2015 for investigations which helped cause the downfall of politician Lutfur Rahman. He has also been a nominee for the Paul Foot Award, the Orwell Prize, the British Journalism Awards and Foreign Reporter of the Year at the British Press Awards.

Associated Press Television News

Associated Press Television News, often abbreviated AP Television News or APTN, is a global video news agency operated by the Associated Press.

Derek Conway

Derek Leslie Conway TD (born 15 February 1953) is an English politician and television presenter. A member of the Conservative Party, Conway served as a Member of Parliament (MP) for the constituency of Shrewsbury and Atcham from 1983 to 1997, and Old Bexley and Sidcup from 2001 to 2010. He is currently a presenter of Epilogue, a book review programme on Press TV, an English-language international television news channel funded by the Iranian government.In January 2008, Conway announced that he would stand down at the next general election after a Commons standards committee found that he had employed his son Freddie, a full-time student at Newcastle University, as a political researcher using public funds, despite there being no record of his son doing any work at Westminster. As a result, Conservative Party leader David Cameron withdrew the whip from Conway, effectively expelling him from the Parliamentary Conservative group. He received considerable criticism from the press concerning the misuse of funds.

Fajr International Film Festival

The Fajr International Film Festival (Persian: جشنواره بین‌المللی فیلم فجر‎) and Fajr Film Festival (little: FIFF; Persian: جشنواره فیلم فجر‎) are Iran's annual film festivals, held every February and April in Tehran, Iran.

The festival, started in 1982, is under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance in Iran. It takes place every year on the anniversary of the Iranian revolution. There were 90 feature films submitted for the 29th edition of the festival in 2011.

The festival has been promoted both locally and abroad through television, radio and webinars with previous speakers coming from the United States, United Kingdom and Germany.

Organizations contributing to the event include the Farabi Cinema Foundation, Iran film foundation, Press TV, HispanTV and Iran's multi-lingual film channel IFilm (TV channel).

From 2015 on, the festival has been separated into a national festival in February and an international one in April, with the national one being notable for premieres of the most important domestic movies.

George Galloway

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George Galloway (born 16 August 1954) is a British politician, broadcaster and writer. Between 1987 and 2015, except for a period between 2010 and 2012, he was a Member of Parliament for four constituencies, firstly for the Labour Party and later the Respect Party. After becoming the youngest ever chair of the Scottish Labour Party in 1981, he was general secretary of the London-based charity War on Want from 1983 until elected as MP for Glasgow Hillhead (later Glasgow Kelvin) at the 1987 general election. In 2003, Galloway was expelled from the Labour Party for bringing the party into disrepute, including having called on Arabs to fight British troops.In 2004, he became a member of Respect–The Unity Coalition, later known as the Respect Party, becoming party leader by late 2013. Having decided not to seek re-election for Glasgow Kelvin, he stood for Respect in the 2005 general election for Bethnal Green and Bow, defeating the sitting Labour MP, Oona King, and served for one parliamentary term. He did not fight the 2010 General Election and returned to the House of Commons at the Bradford West by-election in 2012, but lost his seat at the 2015 general election. Galloway stood as a Respect candidate in the 2016 London mayoral election, but lost to the Labour nominee, Sadiq Khan; finishing in seventh place with 1.4% of the vote. He stood as an independent for election to parliament in 2017, in the Manchester Gorton constituency, gaining 5.7% of the vote.

Galloway was initially an opponent of Saddam Hussein, but has been accused by David Aaronovitch and Christopher Hitchens of supporting the Iraqi leader when it became Western policy not to, a charge he denies. Galloway testified to the United States Senate in 2005 over alleged illicit payments from the United Nations' Oil for Food Program. Galloway supports the Palestinian side in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict, opposes Zionism, and was involved in the Viva Palestina aid convoys.Galloway has supported Jeremy Corbyn since his election campaign and subsequent election victory in September 2015. In the 2016 EU membership referendum, he advocated a "Leave" vote, campaigning with the cross-party, pro-Brexit organisation Grassroots Out, while before the 2019 European Parliament election he announced on Twitter that, "for one-time only", he would support Nigel Farage's Brexit Party.

Houthi insurgency in Yemen

The Houthi insurgency in Yemen, also known as the Houthi rebellion, Sa'dah War, or Sa'dah conflict, was a military rebellion pitting Zaidi Shia Houthis (though the movement also includes Sunnis) against the Yemeni military that began in Northern Yemen and has since escalated into a full-scale civil war. The conflict was sparked in 2004 by the government's attempt to arrest Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, a Zaidi religious leader of the Houthis and a former parliamentarian on whose head the government had placed a $55,000 bounty. Initially, most of the fighting took place in Sa'dah Governorate in northwestern Yemen, but some of the fighting spread to neighbouring governorates Hajjah, 'Amran, al-Jawf and the Saudi province of Jizan. Since 2014 the nature of the insurgency has changed with the Houthi takeover in Yemen and then into the ongoing Yemeni civil war (2015–present) with a major Saudi-led intervention in Yemen beginning in 2015.General Ali Mohsen al-Ahmar commanded the Yemeni security forces during the conflict and led all the government offensives from 2004 until 2011, when he resigned his post to defend protesters during the Yemeni Revolution.A Houthi power grab in Sanaʽa escalated on 20 January 2015, when the rebels attacked the president's residence and swept into the presidential palace. President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi was inside the residence as it came under "heavy shelling" for half an hour, but he was unharmed and protected by guards, according to Information Minister Nadia Al-Sakkaf. Presidential guards surrendered the residence after being assured that Hadi could safely evacuate. The U.N. Security Council called an emergency meeting about the unfolding events. United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon expressed concern over the "deteriorating situation" in Yemen and urged all sides to cease hostilities. On 22 January, President Abed Rabbo Mansour Hadi and Prime Minister Khaled Bahah tendered their resignations to parliament, which reportedly refused to accept them.

Houthi movement

The Houthi movement (; Arabic: الحوثيون‎ al-Ḥūthiyyūn [ħuːθijˈjuːn]), officially called Ansar Allah (ʾanṣār allāh أنصار الله "Supporters of God") and colloquially simply Houthis, is an Islamic political and armed movement that emerged from Sa'dah in northern Yemen in the 1990s. The movement was called Houthis because its founder is from the Houthi tribe. They are of the Zaidi sect, though the movement reportedly also includes Sunnis. Under the leadership of Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, the group emerged as an opposition to former Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh, whom they charged with massive financial corruption and criticized for being backed by Saudi Arabia and the United States at the expense of the Yemeni people and Yemen's sovereignty. Resisting Saleh's order for his arrest, Hussein was killed in Sa'dah in 2004 along with a number of his guards by the Yemeni army, sparking the Houthi insurgency in Yemen. Since then, except for a short intervening period, the movement has been led by his brother Abdul-Malik al-Houthi.The Houthi movement attracts its Zaidi-Shia followers in Yemen by promoting regional political-religious issues in its media, including the overarching U.S.–Israeli conspiracy and Arab "collusion". In 2003, the Houthis' slogan "God is great, death to the US, death to Israel, curse the Jews, and victory for Islam", became the group's trademark. Houthi officials, however, have rejected the literal interpretation of the slogan.The movement's expressed goals include combating economic underdevelopment and political marginalization in Yemen while seeking greater autonomy for Houthi-majority regions of the country. They also claim to support a more democratic non-sectarian republic in Yemen. The Houthis have made fighting corruption the centerpiece of their political program.The Houthis took part in the 2011 Yemeni Revolution by participating in street protests and by coordinating with other opposition groups. They joined the National Dialogue Conference in Yemen as part of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) initiative to broker peace following the unrest. However, the Houthis would later reject the November 2011 GCC deal's provisions stipulating formation of six federal regions in Yemen, claiming that the deal did not fundamentally reform governance and that the proposed federalization "divided Yemen into poor and wealthy regions". Houthis also feared the deal was a blatant attempt to weaken them by dividing areas under their control between separate regions. In late 2014, Houthis repaired their relationship with the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and with his help, they took control of the capital and much of the north.In 2014–2015, Houthis took over the government in Sanaʽa with the help of the former president Ali Abdullah Saleh, and announced the fall of the current government of Abdrabbuh Mansur Hadi. Houthis have gained control of most of the northern part of Yemen's territory and since 2015 have been resisting the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen that claims to seek to restore the internationally recognized Yemeni government to power. Additionally, the Islamic State militant group has attacked all of the conflict's major parties including Houthis, Saleh forces, the Yemeni government, and the Saudi Arabian-led coalition forces.

James H. Fetzer

James Henry Fetzer (born December 6, 1940) is a former professor of the philosophy of science at the University of Minnesota Duluth and a conspiracy theorist. In the late 1970s, Fetzer worked on assessing and clarifying the forms and foundations of scientific explanation, probability in science, philosophy of mind, and philosophy of cognitive science, especially artificial intelligence and computer science.In the early 1990s, Fetzer began to promote John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories, later 9/11 conspiracy theories, Holocaust denial, conspiracy theories regarding the 2002 death of Senator Paul Wellstone and Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting conspiracy theories since the multiple fatalities in 2012. He cofounded Scholars for 9/11 Truth in 2005, and claims that the United States government, Israeli government and Israeli Mossad are involved in these and other conspiracies. Fetzer's allegations and speculations have drawn strong criticism.

Lauren Booth

Lauren Booth (born Sarah Jane Booth; 22 July 1967) is an English broadcaster, journalist and activist holding a VIP Palestinian Authority passport as well as a British Passport.

Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel

The Lockheed Martin RQ-170 Sentinel is an American unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) developed by Lockheed Martin and operated by the United States Air Force for the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). While the USAF has released few details on the UAV's design or capabilities, defense analysts believe that it is a stealth aircraft fitted with aerial reconnaissance equipment.

Mark Levine (politician)

Mark H. Levine (born May 7, 1966) is the Democratic Delegate to the Virginia House of Delegates from Virginia's 45th district, which encompasses the eastern half of Alexandria, some of the northern West End, parts of South Arlington, and the Alexandria portion of Fairfax County. A Constitutional lawyer, Levine served as legislative counsel to Congressman Barney Frank (D-MA) from 2001 to 2003 and was an early advocate in the "Marriage Equality" movement. Since 2003, Levine has hosted a nationally syndicated progressive public policy radio program and worked as a TV pundit. Levine was elected as a Democrat to the Virginia House of Delegates in 2015.

Meet the Press

Meet the Press is a weekly American television news/interview program broadcast on the network NBC. It is the longest-running program in television history, though the current format bears little resemblance to the debut episode on November 6, 1947. Meet the Press specializes in interviews with leaders in Washington, D.C., across the country and even the world on issues of politics, economics, foreign policy and other public affairs, along with panel discussions that provide opinions and analysis. It originates from NBC's bureau in Washington, D.C. (WRC-TV).

The longevity of Meet the Press is attributable in part to the fact that the program debuted during what was only the second official "network television season" for American television. It was the first live television network news program on which a sitting President of the United States appeared; this occurred on the November 9, 1975 broadcast, which featured Gerald Ford.

The program has been hosted by 12 different moderators to date, beginning with creator Martha Rountree. The show's moderator since 2014 is Chuck Todd, who also serves as political director for NBC News.Currently, the hour-long program airs in most markets on Sundays at 9:00 a.m. live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay elsewhere. Meet the Press is also occasionally pre-empted due to network coverage of sports events held outside the U.S. The program is also rebroadcast on Sundays at 2:00 p.m., and Mondays at 2:00 a.m. and sometimes 4:00 a.m. Eastern Time on MSNBC, whose audio feed is also simulcast on Sirius/XM Satellite Radio. The program is also syndicated by Westwood One to various radio stations around the United States, as well as on C-SPAN Radio as part of its replays of the Sunday morning talk shows.

Mike Mendoza

Michael David Mendoza (born 1 November 1948) is a British radio presenter and former politician best known for the overnight radio shows he presented on Talksport between 2004 and 2008, initially on weeknights before being moved to weekends in 2006. Mike joined TalkSport after eleven years as overnight presenter with London's LBC. He is also known for fearing Talkradio presenter Iain Lee. Mendoza later joined his former Talksport colleague George Galloway on the Iranian government-funded news channel Press TV, presenting a thirteen-week television series entitled Off the Cuff.

Mendoza was a Conservative councillor sitting on Adur District Council in West Sussex and was chairman of the council. He owned a magazine called What's Happening?, which he later sold. In August 2014 Mendoza joined Latest TV, a local TV station in Brighton & Hove, presenting news, political debate and newspaper reviews.

In October 2016 Mike Mendoza joined global news channel Arise New as a presenter/anchor, whilst continuing to present current affairs shows and news reading two days per week on Latest TV.

February 2016 Mendoza appeared in the Sinderfella alternative pantomime in Brighton in February 2016.

An illness in early 2017 prevented Mendoza working, he later returned to A rise News in June 2017 only to be taken ill again, this time with serious spinal problems.

In February 2018 Mike Mendoza joined Internet radio station Delux Radio.

NHK World Premium

NHK World Premium is the international broadcasting service of NHK (Nippon Hōsō Kyōkai – Japan Broadcasting Corporation), Japan's public broadcaster. The service is aimed towards overseas Japanese and the overseas market, similar to DD India, BBC World News, Press TV, DW-TV, France 24, Russia Today and broadcast through satellite and cable operators throughout the world.

NHK World Premium Television broadcast a mixture of news, sports and entertainment in Japanese worldwide via satellite as a subscription service. In Europe this service is broadcast under the name JSTV and in the US and Canada it is known as TV Japan. The programmes generally don't carry English subtitles while a few programmes, especially news, have bilingual audio.

Ofcom

The Office of Communications (Welsh: Y Swyddfa Gyfathrebiadau), commonly known as Ofcom, is the UK government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.

Ofcom has wide-ranging powers across the television, radio, telecoms and postal sectors. It has a statutory duty to represent the interests of citizens and consumers by promoting competition and protecting the public from harmful or offensive material.Some of the main areas Ofcom presides over are licensing, research, codes and policies, complaints, competition and protecting the radio spectrum from abuse (e.g. pirate radio stations).

The regulator was initially established by the Office of Communications Act 2002 and received its full authority from the Communications Act 2003.

Press TV controversies

Press TV has been the subject of several controversies. The station, a news and documentary network affiliated with the Islamic Republic of Iran, has been criticised for its uncritical embrace of provocative stances. The station has been criticised for its uncritical embrace of provocative stances. For British journalist Nick Cohen the station is "a platform for the full fascist conspiracy theory of supernatural Jewish power" and for commentator Douglas Murray it is the "Iranian government’s propaganda channel".Responding to Cohen and others, politician and Press TV presenter George Galloway has said the station "challenges the prevailing orthodoxy" by providing an outsider perspective on "the truth and a voice for the otherwise voiceless". Mehdi Hasan of the New Statesman has argued that "engaging with Iran, no matter who is in charge in Tehran, is a prerequisite for peace and progress in the region. The very fact that Press TV is Iranian-owned makes it the ideal English-language platform on which to do so."

Terrorist incidents in Pakistan in 2010

These are the list of Terrorist attacks in Pakistan in 2010.

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