President pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations

The President Pro Tempore of the Union of South American Nations is the head position and representative of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR). At international meetings, the declarations and concerted opinions of the supranational organism are presented by the President Pro Tempore. The office is exercised for a one-year period on a pro tempore basis by one of the heads of state of each UNASUR Member State, the succession following alphabetical order.[1] The most recent president was the President of Bolivia, Evo Morales, who served, as acknowledged by, between 17 April 2018 and April 16, 2019.

The attributions of the President Pro Tempore are:[1]

To organize, invite members, and preside over UNASUR meetings, present to the Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs the annual plan of activities of UNASUR and the meetings agenda, in coordination with the Secretary General, represent UNASUR in international meetings, with the approval of the Member States and sign declarations and agreements with third parties, after approval from the pertaining Unasur institutions.

The presidency pro témpore directs the eight ministerial councils of the Unasur: South American Council of Health, South American Council of Social Development, South American Council of Infrastructure and Planning, South American Council of Education, Culture, Science, Technology and Innovation; South American Council of Fight against the South American Narcotráfico, Council of Defense South American, South American Council of Economy and Finances, and South American Council.

President Pro Tempore of the
Union of South American Nations
Emblem of the Union of South American Nations

since 16 April 2019
Term length1 year; states (alphabet) rotation
Inaugural holderMichelle Bachelet

List of Presidents Pro Tempore

President pro tempore Portrait State National party Took office Left office
1 Michelle Bachelet
Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria
Bachelet09122006  Chile Socialist Party of Chile 23 May 2008 10 August 2009
The first President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Chile.
2 Rafael Correa
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado
Rafaelcorrea08122006  Ecuador PAIS Alliance 10 August 2009 26 November 2010
The second President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Ecuador.
3 Bharrat Jagdeo Guyana.BharratJagdeo.01  Guyana People's Progressive Party 26 November 2010 29 October 2011
The third President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Guyana.
4 Fernando Lugo
Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez
Lugo2008  Paraguay Guasú Front 29 October 2011 22 June 2012
The fourth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Paraguay. Lugo resigned after being Impeached as the President of Paraguay.
5 Ollanta Humala
Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso
Ollanta Humala (Brasilia, March 2006).jpeg  Peru Peruvian Nationalist Party 29 June 2012 30 August 2013
The fifth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Peru.
6 Dési Bouterse
Desiré Delano Bouterse
President Bouterse  Suriname National Democratic Party 30 August 2013 4 December 2014
The sixth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Suriname.
7 José Mujica
José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano
Pepemujica2  Uruguay Movement of Popular Participation 4 December 2014 1 March 2015
The seventh President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Uruguay.
8 Tabaré Vázquez
Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas
Tabaré26022007  Uruguay Socialist Party of Uruguay 1 March 2015 17 April 2016
The eighth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Uruguay.
9 Nicolás Maduro
Nicolás Maduro Moros
Nicolás Maduro, president of Venezuela (2016) cropped  Venezuela United Socialist Party of Venezuela 17 April 2016 17 April 2017
The ninth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Venezuela.
10 Mauricio Macri Mauricio Macri (cropped)  Argentina Republican Proposal 17 April 2017 17 April 2018
The tenth President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Argentina.
11 Evo Morales Evo Morales 2011  Bolivia Movement for Socialism 17 April 2018 16 April 2019
The eleventh President of the Union of South American Nations and co-serving as the President of Bolivia.


  1. ^ a b UNASUR, Tratado Constitutivo de la Unasur
2008 unrest in Bolivia

The 2008 unrest in Bolivia began with protests against President Evo Morales and calls for greater autonomy for the country's eastern departments. Demonstrators escalated the protests by seizing natural gas infrastructure and government buildings. Violence between supporters of Morales and opponents resulted in at least 30 deaths.

Bharrat Jagdeo

Bharrat Jagdeo (born 23 January 1964) is a Guyanese politician who was President of Guyana from 11 August 1999 to 3 December 2011. He holds a number of global leadership positions in the areas of sustainable development, green growth and climate change.

Jagdeo, a member of the People's Progressive Party (PPP), served as Minister of Finance in the 1990s, becoming President in 1999 after Janet Jagan resigned for health reasons. Subsequently, he won two elections, in 2001 and 2006. He was the first President of Guyana to relinquish office in accordance with term limits he signed into the Guyanese Constitution.

Following the PPP's electoral defeat in 2015, Jagdeo became Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly.

Dési Bouterse

Desiré Delano Bouterse (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdesɪ ˈbʌutərsə]; born 13 October 1945) is a Surinamese politician who has been President of Suriname since 2010. From 1980 to 1987 he was Suriname's de facto leader after conducting a military coup and establishing a period of military rule.

Bouterse is the chairman of the Surinamese political alliance Megacombinatie ("Mega combination") and the leader of the National Democratic Party (NDP), which is part of the Megacombination. On 19 July 2010, Bouterse was elected as President of Suriname with 36 of 50 parliament votes and on 12 August 2010 he was inaugurated.Bouterse is a controversial figure, held responsible by some for numerous human rights violations committed during the military rule in the 1980s. Most notable was the December murders in 1982 of fifteen leading opposition figures. He was prosecuted for the murders and a trial was initiated, but the National Assembly extended amnesty to him in 2012. He is also suspected of having directed the Moiwana massacre in 1986 during the civil war by the Maroons, led by his former bodyguard.

In 2000, Bouterse was sentenced in absentia in the Netherlands to 11 years' imprisonment after being convicted of trafficking 474 kg (1,045 lb) of cocaine. Bouterse always claimed innocence; he claimed that the star witness in the case, Patrick van Loon, was bribed by the Dutch government.

According to WikiLeaks cables released in 2011, Bouterse was active in the drug trade until 2006. Europol has issued an arrest warrant for him. As Suriname's president, he enjoys national immunity from arrest in his country. Because Bouterse was convicted of the drug offense before his election in 2010 as head of state, he enjoys no international immunity on these charges.

Evo Morales

Juan Evo Morales Ayma (born October 26, 1959), commonly known as Evo Morales (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈeβo moˈɾales]), is a Bolivian politician and cocalero activist who has served as President of Bolivia since 2006. Widely regarded as the country's first president to come from the indigenous population, his administration has focused on the implementation of leftist policies, poverty reduction, and combating the influence of the United States and multinational corporations in Bolivia. A socialist, he is the head of the Movement for Socialism (MAS) party.

Born to an Aymara family of subsistence farmers in Isallawi, Orinoca Canton, Morales undertook a basic education before mandatory military service, in 1978 moving to Chapare Province. Growing coca and becoming a trade unionist, he rose to prominence in the campesino ("rural laborers") union. In that capacity he campaigned against U.S. and Bolivian attempts to eradicate coca as part of the War on Drugs, denouncing these as an imperialist violation of indigenous Andean culture. His involvement in anti-government direct action protests resulted in multiple arrests. Morales entered electoral politics in 1995, became the leader of the MAS and was elected to Congress in 1997. Coupled with populist rhetoric, his campaign focused on issues affecting indigenous and poor communities, advocating land reform and the redistribution of gas wealth. He gained increased visibility through the Cochabamba protests and gas conflict. In 2002 he was expelled from Congress for encouraging anti-government protesters, although he came second in that year's presidential election.

Once elected in 2005, Morales increased taxation on the hydrocarbon industry to bolster social spending, emphasising projects to combat illiteracy, poverty, racism, and sexism. Vocally criticizing neoliberalism and reducing Bolivia's dependence on the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, his administration oversaw strong economic growth while following a policy termed "Evonomics" which sought to move from a liberal economic approach to a mixed economy. Scaling back U.S. influence in the country, he built relationships with leftist governments in the Latin American pink tide and signed Bolivia into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas. Attempting to moderate the left-indigenous activist community, his administration also opposed the right-wing autonomist demands of Bolivia's eastern provinces. Winning a recall referendum in 2008, he instituted a new constitution that established Bolivia as a plurinational state and was re-elected in 2009. His second term witnessed the continuation of leftist policies and Bolivia's joining of the Bank of the South and Community of Latin American and Caribbean States; he was again reelected in the 2014 general election.

Morales has been praised for significantly reducing poverty and illiteracy in Bolivia and has been internationally decorated with various awards. His supporters have lauded him as a champion of indigenous rights, anti-imperialism, and environmentalism. Alternately, a number of leftist, indigenous, and environmentalist critics have accused him of failing to live up to many of his espoused values, while right-wing opponents have accused him of being excessively radical and authoritarian and claimed that his defence of coca contributes to illegal cocaine production.

Fernando Lugo

Fernando Armindo Lugo Méndez (Spanish pronunciation: [feɾˈnando aɾˈmindo ˈluɣo ˈmendes]; born 30 May 1951) is a Paraguayan politician who was President of Paraguay from 2008 to 2012. Previously he was a Roman Catholic priest and bishop, serving as Bishop of the Diocese of San Pedro from 1994 to 2005. He was elected as president in 2008, an election that ended 61 years of rule by the Colorado Party.In 2012, he was removed from office through an impeachment process that neighboring countries deemed a coup d'état. He was elected to the Senate of Paraguay in the 2013 general elections.

José Mujica

José Alberto "Pepe" Mujica Cordano (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse muˈxika]; born 20 May 1935) is a Uruguayan politician who served as the 40th President of Uruguay from 2010 to 2015. A former guerrilla with the Tupamaros, he was imprisoned for 12 years during the military dictatorship in the 1970s and 1980s. A member of the Broad Front coalition of left-wing parties, Mujica was Minister of Livestock, Agriculture, and Fisheries from 2005 to 2008 and a Senator afterwards. As the candidate of the Broad Front, he won the 2009 presidential election and took office as President on 1 March 2010.

He has been described as "the world's humblest head of state" due to his austere lifestyle and his donation of around 90 percent of his $12,000 monthly salary to charities that benefit poor people and small entrepreneurs.

Mauricio Macri

Mauricio Macri (Spanish pronunciation: [mauˈɾisjo ˈmakɾi]; born February 8, 1959) is the current President of Argentina and has been in office since 2015. A former civil engineer, Macri won the first presidential runoff ballotage in Argentina's history (the runoff system had been introduced in 1994) and is the first democratically-elected non-Radical or Peronist president since 1916. He was chief of government of Buenos Aires from 2007 to 2015, and represented the city in the lower house of the Congress of Argentina from 2005 to 2007. The reintegration of Argentina into the global market economy is central to Macri's agenda.

Born in Tandil, Buenos Aires Province, Macri is the son of Franco Macri, a prominent Italian businessman in the industrial and construction sectors, and was raised in an upper class home. He received a bachelor's degree in civil engineering from the Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina and studied at Columbia Business School in New York City. Macri became president of Boca Juniors, one of Argentina's two most popular football clubs, in 1995. In 2005, he created the centre-right Republican Proposal party (Propuesta Republicana, also known as PRO).Although Macri was a potential presidential candidate in the 2011 general elections, he ran instead for re-election as mayor. He received about 47 percent of the vote in the mayoral election, which led to a runoff election on 31 July 2011 against Daniel Filmus in which Macri was re-elected for a second consecutive term. On 22 November 2015, after a tie in the first round of the presidential elections on 25 October, he received 51.34 percent of the vote to defeat Front for Victory candidate Daniel Scioli and was inaugurated on 10 December 2015 in the Argentine Congress.

Macri ended the sovereign default and removed currency controls, but inflation remained high and the 2018 Argentine monetary crisis led to a loan from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), its largest ever awarded. By April 2019, inflation had reached 55%. Prices for public utilities, fixed since 2002 despite the high inflation, were gradually restored to market figures. In the international arena, the country left the pink tide and was a vocal critic of Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro during the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis. The party won the most districts during the 2017 midterm elections, and Macri announced that he would run for a second term in 2019.

In 2016, Macri was named one of the world's 100 most influential people and the most powerful president in Latin America by US news magazine Time.

Michelle Bachelet

Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria (Spanish: [beˈɾonika miˈtʃel βatʃeˈle ˈxeɾja]; born 29 September 1951) is a Chilean politician who served as President of Chile from 2006 to 2010 and again from 2014 to 2018, the first woman to occupy the position. After leaving the presidency in 2010 and while not immediately reelectable, she was appointed the first executive director of the newly created United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UN Women). In December 2013, Bachelet was reelected with over 62% of the vote, bettering the 54% she obtained in 2006. She was the first President of Chile to be reelected since 1932.In August 2018, the United Nations nominated her to become the next High Commissioner for Human Rights, replacing Zeid Raad Al Hussein.Bachelet, a physician with studies in military strategy, was Health Minister and Defense Minister under her predecessor, Ricardo Lagos. She is a separated mother of three and describes herself as an agnostic. Aside from her native Spanish, she also speaks, with varying levels of fluency, English, German, Portuguese and French. She is a member of the Socialist Party of Chile.

Nicolás Maduro

Nicolás Maduro Moros (; Spanish pronunciation: [nikoˈlas maˈðuɾo ˈmoɾos] (listen); born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician serving as president of Venezuela since 2013, with his presidency being disputed with Juan Guaidó since January 2019.

Beginning his working life as a bus driver, Maduro rose to become a trade union leader before being elected to the National Assembly in 2000. He was appointed to a number of positions under President Hugo Chávez and was described in 2012 by the Wall Street Journal as the "most capable administrator and politician of Chávez's inner circle". He served as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as vice president of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013 under Chávez. After Chávez's death was announced on 5 March 2013, Maduro assumed the presidential powers and responsibilities. A special presidential election was held in 2013, which Maduro won with 50.62% of the vote as the United Socialist Party of Venezuela candidate. He has ruled Venezuela by decree since 19 November 2013 through powers granted to him by the pre-2015 Venezuela legislature.Shortages in Venezuela and decreased living standards led to protests beginning in 2014 that escalated into daily marches nationwide, repression of dissent and a decline in Maduro's popularity. According to The New York Times, Maduro's administration was held "responsible for grossly mismanaging the economy and plunging the country into a deep humanitarian crisis" and attempting to "crush the opposition by jailing or exiling critics, and using lethal force against antigovernment protesters". An opposition-led National Assembly was elected in 2015 and a movement toward recalling Maduro began in 2016; Maduro maintained power through the Supreme Tribunal, the National Electoral Council and the military. The Supreme Tribunal removed power from the elected National Assembly, resulting in a constitutional crisis and protests in 2017. Maduro called for a rewrite of the constitution, and the Constituent Assembly of Venezuela was elected in 2017, under what many—including Venezuela's chief prosecutor Luisa Ortega and Smartmatic, the company that ran the voting machines—considered irregular voting conditions; the majority of its members were pro-Maduro. On 20 May 2018, presidential elections were called prematurely; opposition leaders had been jailed, exiled or forbidden to run, there was no international observation, and tactics to suggest voters could lose their jobs or social welfare if they did not vote for Maduro were used. The majority of nations in the Western world did not recognize the Constituent Assembly election or the validity of Maduro's 2018 reelection; the Canadian, Panamanian, and the United States governments sanctioned Maduro.Maduro has been described as a "dictator", and an Organization of American States (OAS) report determined that crimes against humanity have been committed during his presidency. Maduro allies including China, Cuba, Russia, Iran, and Turkey support and denounce what they call interference in Venezuela's domestic affairs. AP News reported that "familiar geopolitical sides" had formed in the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, with allies Russia, China, Iran, Syria, and Cuba supporting Maduro, and the US, Canada, and most of Western Europe supporting Guaidó as interim president. Amid widespread condemnation, President Maduro was sworn in on 10 January 2019, and the president of the National Assembly, Guaidó, was declared the interim president by that body on 23 January 2019. Maduro's government states that the crisis is a "coup d'état led by the United States to topple him and control the country's oil reserves." Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement.

Ollanta Humala

Ollanta Moisés Humala Tasso (Spanish pronunciation: [oˈʝanta uˈmala]; born 27 June 1962) is a Peruvian politician who served as the 65th President of Peru from 2011 to 2016. A former army officer, Humala lost the 2006 presidential election and eventually won the 2011 presidential election in a run-off vote. He was elected as President of Peru in the second round, defeating Keiko Fujimori.

The son of Isaac Humala, a labour lawyer, Humala entered the Peruvian Army in 1981. In the military he achieved the rank of Lieutenant Colonel; in 1991 he fought in the internal conflict against the Shining Path and three years later he participated in the Cenepa War against Ecuador. In October 2000, Humala attempted an unsuccessful coup d'etat by soldiers in the southern city of Tacna against President Alberto Fujimori; he was pardoned by the Peruvian Congress after the downfall of the Fujimori regime.

In 2005 he founded the Peruvian Nationalist Party and registered to run in the 2006 presidential election. The nomination was made under the Union for Peru ticket as the Nationalist party did not achieve its electoral inscription on time. He passed the first round of the elections, held on April 9, 2006, with 30.62% of the valid votes. A runoff was held on June 4 between Humala and Alan García of the Peruvian Aprista Party. Humala lost this round with 47.47% of the valid votes versus 52.62% for García. After his defeat, Humala remained an important figure within Peruvian politics.

In February 2016, amidst the Peruvian Presidential Race, a report from the Brazilian Federal Police implicated Humala as recipient of bribes from Odebrecht, a Brazilian construction company, in exchange of assigned public works. President Humala rejected the implication and has avoided speaking to the media on the matter.Humala was arrested by Peruvian authorities in July 2017 and awaits a corruption trial.

President pro tempore

A president pro tempore or speaker pro tempore is a constitutionally recognized officer of a legislative body who presides over the chamber in the absence of the normal presiding officer. The phrase pro tempore is Latin "for the time being".In Argentina, a similar role is carried by the Provisional President of the Argentine Senate in the absence of the Vice President of Argentina. By the 1994 amendment to the 1853 Constitution, the Vice President is designated as the Senate President.

Rafael Correa

Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado (Spanish pronunciation: [rafaˈel βiˈcente koˈre.a ðelˈɣaðo]; born 6 April 1963) is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who served as President of Ecuador from 2007 to 2017. The leader of the PAIS Alliance political movement, Correa is a democratic socialist and his administration focused on the implementation of left-wing policies. Internationally, he served as president pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations.

Born to a lower middle-class mestizo family in Guayaquil, Correa studied economics at the Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, the University of Louvain (UCLouvain), and the University of Illinois, where he received his PhD. Returning to Ecuador, in 2005 he became the Minister for the Economy under President Alfredo Palacio, successfully lobbying Congress for increased spending on health and education projects.

Correa won the presidency in the 2006 general election on a platform criticizing the established political elites. Taking office in January 2007, he sought to move away from Ecuador's neoliberal economic model by reducing the influence of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund. He declared Ecuador's national debt illegitimate and announced that the country would default on over $3 billion worth of bonds; he pledged to fight creditors in international courts and succeeded in reducing the price of outstanding bonds by more than 60%. He oversaw the introduction of a new constitution, being re-elected in 2009 and again 2013 general election.

During Correa's presidency, he was part of the wider Latin American pink tide, a turn toward leftist governments in the region, allying himself with Hugo Chávez's Venezuela and brought Ecuador into the Bolivarian Alliance for the Americas in June 2009. Using its own form of 21st century socialism, Correa’s administration increased government spending, reducing poverty, raising the minimum wage and increasing the standard of living in Ecuador. By the end of Correa's tenure, reliance on oil, public expenditures, 2016 earthquakes (more than 650 deaths and damage estimated at the equivalent of about 3% of GDP), and international pressure caused Ecuador's economy to enter a recession, resulting in government spending being slashed.Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36.7% to 22.5% and annual per capita GDP growth was 1.5 percent (as compared to 0.6 percent over the prior two decades). At the same time, inequalities, as measured by the Gini index, decreased from 0.55 to 0.47.On 3 July 2018, a judge in Ecuador ordered the arrest of Correa after he failed to appear in court during a trial surrounding the kidnapping of a political opponent. Correa, who lived in Belgium at the time, denied the allegations regarding the kidnapping.

Tabaré Vázquez

Tabaré Ramón Vázquez Rosas (Spanish pronunciation: [taβaˈɾe raˈmom ˈbaskes ˈrosas]; born 17 January 1940) is a Uruguayan politician serving as the 41st and current President of Uruguay since 2015. He previously served as President from 2005 to 2010 as the 39th officeholder. A physician (oncologist), he is a member of the leftist Broad Front coalition.

Vázquez was first elected President on 31 October 2004, took office on 1 March 2005, and relinquished the office on 1 March 2010. José Mujica was then elected, serving from 2010 to 2015. Vázquez was re-elected to take office for the second time in 2015.


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