President of the Senate

President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer of a senate. It corresponds to the speaker in some other assemblies.

The senate president often ranks high in a jurisdiction's succession for its top executive office: for example, the president of the Senate of Nigeria is second in line for succession to the presidency, after only the vice president of the Federal Republic, while in France, which has no vice president, the Senate president is first in line to succeed to the presidential powers and duties.

Africa

Burundi

The president of the Senate of Burundi, since 17 August 2005, is Molly Beamer of the CNDD-FDD. The president is assisted in his work by two vice-presidents.

Liberia

While the vice president of Liberia serves as president of the Senate, the senators also elect from among their number a president pro tempore to lead the chamber's day-to-day business.

Nigeria

The president of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Senate of Nigeria, elected by its membership.

The president of the Senate since 11 June 2019 is Ahmed Ibrahim Lawan, who represents the Yobe North constituency.

South Africa

The Senate of South Africa was the upper house of Parliament between 1910 and 1981, and between 1994 and 1997. During both periods, the Senate was led by a president.

For a listing, see: Senate of South Africa#Presidents of the Senate of South Africa (1910-1980) and (1994-1997)

Asia and Oceania

Australia

The president of the Australian Senate is a senator, traditionally a member of the governing party or coalition, elected by the Senate at the beginning of each parliament as the first item of business. They are assisted by a deputy president who is traditionally a member of the largest opposition party.[1] The current president is Scott Ryan, a Liberal senator from Victoria, who has held the office since 13 November 2017.[2]

Cambodia

The Senate of Cambodia is led by a 12-person permanent commission (bureau), which is in turn chaired by the president of the Senate, currently Say Chhum. He is assisted by a first and a second vice-president.[3] The president and vice-presidents are elected as the first item of business at the start of every legislative session.[4]

Fiji

The members of the former Senate of Fiji (abolished in 2012) used to elect from among their number both a president and vice-president, whose roles were similar to those of the speaker and deputy speaker of the House of Representatives, respectively.

The last persons to hold those positions were President Kinijoji Maivalili an Vice-President Hafiz Khan. The military coup of 5 December 2006 brought their terms to a premature end.

Malaysia

The Senate of Malaysia elects a president from its members, who is comparable to the speaker of the House of Representatives. The position is partisan and has usually been held by a member of the Government party.

Philippines

See President of the Senate of the Philippines

Sri Lanka

The Senate of Ceylon was the upper house of Parliament between 1947 and 1971. During this periods, the Senate was led by a president.

Europe

Belgium

The presiding officer of the Belgian Senate is elected by the senators at the beginning of each parliamentary term. The president of the Senate is customarily a member of a majority party with a great deal of political experience. The president presides over the plenary assembly of the Senate, guides and controls debates in the assembly, is responsible for ensuring the democratic functioning of the Senate, maintains order and security in the assembly and for enforcing the rules of the Senate, and represents the Senate at both the national (to the other institutions) and the international level.

The president of the Senate, together with the president of the Chamber of Representatives, ranks immediately behind the king in the order of precedence. The elder of the two takes the second place in the order of precedence. The presidents of the Senate and the Chamber rank above the prime minister.

Danzig

In the Free City of Danzig (1920–1939, 1945), the Senate (or Senat in German) was the executive branch, with Senators (Senatoren) being the holders of ministerial portfolios. In Danzig the president of the Senate (präsident des Senats) was an office equivalent to that of prime minister in other countries.

France

The Senate of France elects a president from among its own number. The president of the French Senate stands first in line of succession in case of death or resignation of the president of the Republic, becoming acting president until a presidential election can be held. This most recently occurred with Alain Poher, who was senate president from 1968 to 1992 and who served as interim president on two occasions: following Charles de Gaulle's resignation in 1969, and following Georges Pompidou's death in office in 1974.

Since 2014, the position has been held by Gérard Larcher of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP).

Germany

In the German states of Bremen (Senate of Bremen) and Hamburg (Senate of Hamburg), the Senates (or Senate in German) are the executive branch, with Senators (Senatoren) being the holders of ministerial portfolios. In these Länder, the president of the Senate (Präsident des Senats) is an office equivalent to that of minister-president in other German Länder.

Italy

The Senate of Italy holds its first sitting no later than 20 days after a general election. That session, presided by the oldest senator, proceeds to elect the president of the Senate for the following parliamentary period. On the first two attempts at voting, an absolute majority (a majority of all senators) is needed; if a third round is needed, a candidate can be elected by a majority of the senators present and voting. If this third round fails to produce a winner, a final ballot is held between the two senators with the highest votes in the previous ballot. In the case of a tie, the elder senator is deemed the winner.

In addition to overseeing the business of the chamber, chairing and regulating debates, deciding whether motions and bills are admissible, representing the Senate, etc., the president of the Senate stands in for the president of the Republic when s/he is unable to perform his/her duties.[5]

The current president of the Senate is Maria Elisabetta Alberti Casellati. For a historical listing, see: List of presidents of the Senate of Italy.

Poland

See Marshal of the Senate of the Republic of Poland

Romania

The first session of the Senate is headed by the eldest senator. In that session the senators elect the Standing Bureau of the Romanian Senate. It consists of the president of the Senate, four vice-presidents, four secretaries, and four quaestors. The president of the Standing Bureau also serves as the president of the Senate. The president is elected, by secret ballot, for the duration of the legislative period.[6] The Senate president succeeds temporarily the president of Romania if the latter resigns, is suspended, incapacitated or dies in office. (He/she continues to be president of the Senate during the ad-interim presidency of the country. He/she acts as president until a new president is elected).

Spain

North America

Barbados

At the start of every parliamentary session, the Senate of Barbados elects a president and a vice president, neither of whom may be ministers or parliamentary secretaries. Prior to the January 2008 general election, the positions were held by Sir Fred Gollop and Dame Patricia Symmonds.

Belize

The senate of Belize elects both a president and a vice-president upon first convening after a general election. The person elected president may be a senator (provided he/she does not concurrently hold a ministerial position) or a person external to the Senate. The vice-president must be a member of the Senate who does not hold a ministerial portfolio. (Constitution, section 66.)[7]

The current president is Andrea Gill, with Juliet Thimbriel as vice-president.

Canada

While the speaker of the Senate of Canada, who serves as the presiding officer of the Senate of Canada, is not described as a "president" in English, the position is called président du Sénat in French. He is appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister.

Mexico

The Senate of Mexico, at the beginning of each annual legislative session, elects an Executive Board (Mesa Directiva) from among its 128 members. The Executive Board comprises a president, three vice-presidents, and four secretaries, elected by an absolute majority of the Senators. Members of the Executive Board may be re-elected for the following year without restriction. The president of the Executive Board also serves as the president of the Senate.

The president of the Senate for the current LXIV Legislature is Martí Batres, a former National Regeneration Movement (MORENA) deputy for the Federal District, and former president of MORENA.

Trinidad and Tobago

The president of the Senate of Trinidad and Tobago, who is generally elected from the government benches, chairs debates in the chamber and stands in for the country's president during periods of absence or illness (Constitution, section 27).[8] A Vice-President of the Senate is also elected from among the senators. The current president of the Senate is Christine Kangaloo.

United States

The vice president of the United States is assigned the responsibility of presiding over the Senate and designated as its president by the United States Constitution. The vice president, as president of the Senate, has the authority (ex officio, as he or she is not an elected member of the Senate) to cast a tie-breaking vote. Other than this, the rules of the Senate grant its president very little power (in contrast to the powerful office of speaker of the House of Representatives).

While vice presidents used to regularly preside over the Senate, modern vice presidents have done so only rarely, usually only when swearing in new senators, during joint sessions, announcing the result of a vote on a significant bill or confirmation, or when casting a tie-breaking vote. The Senate chooses a president pro tempore to preside in the vice president's absence. Modern presidents pro tempore, too, rarely preside over the Senate. In practice, the junior senators of the majority party typically preside in order to learn Senate procedure.

Vice presidents have cast 261 tie-breaking votes since the U.S. federal government was established in 1789. The vice president with the most tie breaking votes is John C. Calhoun (served 1825-1832) with 31. Vice President Mike Pence, in office since January 2017, has cast 13 tie-breaking votes.[9]

U.S. state senates

In state governments of the United States, the presiding officer of the state senate (the upper house) is a matter decided by the state's constitution. Some states designate the lieutenant governor as president of the senate, while in other states, the Senate elects its own president. The Tennessee Senate elects a senator speaker of the Senate, who is given the title of Lieutenant Governor.

Similarly, New Hampshire has no lieutenant governor, but the state senate elects a president who is the de facto lieutenant governor, given that in the event of the governor's death, resignation, or inability to serve, the president of the senate acts as governor until the vacancy is filled. New Jersey previously used the same system, but with the important proviso that the Senate president continued to serve in that position while also serving as acting governor. After Christine Todd Whitman resigned as governor, Donald DiFrancesco spent nearly a year as acting governor. As a result of his tenure, questions were raised about the propriety of such a system, particularly with regard to separation of powers–related issues. A constitutional amendment was enacted in 2005 to create the office of lieutenant governor effective at the 2009 election.

Many state legislatures, act almost as like miniature versions of the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate. In the Senate, Mike Pence is the president of the senate. In most state legislatures, the lieutenant governor acts almost like the vice president. An example of this is in the State of Kansas: Governor Laura Kelly acts as like a president, Lieutenant Governor Lynn Rogers acts as like a vice president and is the president of the Kansas Senate. Both chambers of Kansas legislature also have minority and majority leaders, and a speaker of the House.

Puerto Rico

See: Senate of Puerto Rico#Presidents of the Puerto Rico Senate

South America

Argentina

The Argentine Senate is presided over by the vice-president of the Republic, currently Gabriela Michetti. This was a recent expansion of the vice-president's powers introduced as part of the 1994 constitutional amendments (Constitution, Art. 57). The vice-president may only cast a vote to break a tied Senate vote.

Brazil

The current president of Brazil's Federal Senate is Davi Alcolumbre.

The president of the Federal Senate is the third in order to succeed the president (only below the vice president and the president of the Chamber of Deputies). It is also the president of the National Congress, which includes the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies.

Chile

The president of the Senate of Chile is elected from among the country's senators. The current holder of the position, since March 2019, is Jaime Quintana.

Colombia

The president of the Senate – Ernesto Macías Tovar for the 2018-19 period – also serves as the president of the Congress of Colombia.

Peru

Peru had a bicameral Congress from 1829 until 1992. The president of the Senate was elected by the Senate members to preside over the sessions for one year.

Uruguay

The vice president of Uruguay presides over the country's 30-member Senate.

See also

References

  1. ^ "The President of the Senate". Parliament of Australia. October 2009. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  2. ^ Gartrell, Adam (13 November 2017). "Scott Ryan resigns from Turnbull ministry to replace Stephen Parry as Senate president". The Sydney Morning Herald. Fairfax Media. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  3. ^ L'organisation et le fonctionnement du Snat Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ Rglement Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ senato.it - Parliament
  6. ^ Pagina oficiala a Senatului României Archived 2008-02-16 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ :: belizelaw.org - welcome :: Archived 2007-10-14 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Constitution of Trinidad and Tobago - Updated to 2003 Archived 2008-04-08 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ "U.S. Senate: U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 115th Congress - 1st Session".
Gérard Larcher

Gérard Philippe René André Larcher (born 14 September 1949) is a French politician serving as President of the Senate since 2014, previously holding the position from 2008 to 2011. A member of The Republicans, he was a Senator for the Yvelines department from 1986 to 2004 and has been again since 2007. He served as Minister of Labour from 2004 to 2007 under President Jacques Chirac.

List of governors of Arkansas

The governor of Arkansas is the head of government of the U.S. state of Arkansas. The governor is the head of the executive branch of the Arkansas government and is charged with enforcing state laws. They have the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the Arkansas General Assembly, to convene the legislature, and to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment.The state has had 46 elected governors, as well as 11 acting governors who assumed powers and duties following the resignation or death of the governor. Before becoming a state, Arkansas Territory had four governors appointed to it by the President of the United States. Orval Faubus (1955-1967) served the longest term as state governor, being elected six times to serve 12 years. Bill Clinton (1979-1981; 1983-1992), elected five times over two distinct terms, fell only one month short of twelve years and Mike Huckabee (1996-2007) served 10 years for two full four-year terms. The shortest term for an elected governor was the 38 days served by John Sebastian Little before his nervous breakdown; one of the acting successors to his term, Jesse M. Martin, took office only three days before the end of the term, the shortest term overall. The current governor is Republican Asa Hutchinson, who took office on January 13, 2015.

List of presidents of the Senate (Belgium)

This is a list of presidents of the Senate (Belgium). The President of the Senate (Dutch: Voorzitter van de Senaat, French: Président du Sénat) is the presiding officer of the upper house of the Federal Parliament of Belgium. The current President of the Senate is Sabine Laruelle of the Reformist Movement (MR).

It is custom that the president gets its portrait painted by an artist, in the collection of art of the Senate sone famous works can be found like portraits painted by Alfred Cluysenaar.

List of presidents of the Senate of France

The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament. It is presided over by a president. Although there had been Senates in both the First and Second Empires, these had not technically been legislative bodies, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life. The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was renamed the Council of the Republic, but its function was largely the same. With the new constitution of the Fifth Republic in 1959, the older name of Senate was restored.

Majority leader

In U.S. politics, the majority floor leader is a partisan position in a legislative body.In the federal Congress, the role of the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives and the Majority Leader of the United States Senate differ slightly. In the United States Senate, the majority leader is the chief spokesperson for the majority party, as the president of the Senate is also the Vice-President of the United States, and the President pro tempore, though technically a substitute for the president of the Senate, is in reality a largely ceremonial position.

In the United States House of Representatives, the majority leader is elected by U.S. Congresspeople in the political party holding the largest number of seats in the House. While the responsibilities vary depending upon the political climate, the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives typically sets the floor agenda and oversees the committee chairmen.

Given the two-party nature of the U.S. system, the majority leader is almost inevitably either a Republican or a Democrat.

The majority leader is often assisted in their role by whips, whose job is to enforce party discipline on votes deemed to be crucial by the party leadership and to ensure that members do not vote in a way not approved of by the party. Some votes are deemed to be so crucial as to lead to punitive measures (such as demotion from choice committee assignments) if the party line is violated; decisions such as these are often made by the majority leader in conjunction with other senior party leaders.

In the states, the majority leader of a state legislative chamber usually performs a similar role to the Majority Leader of the United States House of Representatives. State senate presidents pro tempore are typically not ceremonial, but more akin to the Majority Leader of the United States Senate.

.

Oklahoma Senate

The Oklahoma Senate is the upper house of the two houses of the Legislature of Oklahoma, the other being the Oklahoma House of Representatives. The total number of senators is set at 48 by the Oklahoma Constitution.Senators approve or reject gubernatorial appointments, and contribute to the creation of both state law and an annual state budget. Every ten years, they aid in drawing new boundaries for Oklahoma's electoral districts. The Oklahoma Senate also serves as a court of impeachment.

The presiding officer of the Senate is the Lieutenant Governor of Oklahoma, who is the President of the Senate. Since the 1960s, the President Pro Tempore of the Senate has presided over daily work. Prior to that time, the President of the Senate took a leading role in the Senate, including appointing committees and members to those committees. The President of the Senate may cast a vote only in the instance of a tie vote and may not vote to create a tie.

President of the Dewan Negara

The President of the Senate (Malay: Yang di-Pertua Dewan Negara) is the presiding officer of the Dewan Negara, the upper house of the Parliament of Malaysia.

The President of the Senate is created under Article 56 of the Constitution of Malaysia. The office is similar to the Speaker of the Dewan Rakyat: the president is elected by the members of the Senate and is expected to be politically impartial. If a member of the Dewan Negara is elected as the president and is a member of a state legislative assembly, he must resign from the assembly before exercising the functions of the office. As the president may hold different titles while in office, it also changes the style. The current president is Datuk SA. Vigneswaran. Therefore, while in session, the senators will call him as 'Datuk Yang di-Pertua' (Datuk President) or 'Tuan Yang di-Pertua' (Mr. President).

President of the Senate (Australia)

The President of the Senate is the presiding officer of the Australian Senate, the upper house of the Parliament of Australia.

The position is provided for by Section 17 of the Constitution of Australia. The Senate elects one of its members as president at the start of each new term, or whenever the position is vacant. This is usually—though not necessarily—a member of the party or coalition that holds the most seats in the Senate. The largest party in the Senate is not always the governing party, as government is determined by the House of Representatives. The President of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives may consequently be from different parties.

The President of the Senate's primary task is to maintain parliamentary procedure in the chamber during legislative sessions. Unlike the Speaker of the House, he or she votes as an ordinary member during general debate, and has no casting vote in the case of a tie. The President of Senate has also various administrative and ceremonial duties, sharing responsibility for the management of Parliament House and other parliamentary facilities and services with the Speaker of the House.

President of the Senate (Netherlands)

The President of the Senate (Dutch: Voorzitter van de Eerste Kamer der Staten-Generaal) is one of the 75 members of the Senate of the Netherlands and is elected to lead its meetings and be its representative. The officeholder also chairs the Internal Committee (Huishoudelijke Commissie), the Committee of Senior Members (College van Senioren) as well as the joint sessions of both houses of the States General, the so-called Verenigde Vergadering.The office has been held by Jan Anthonie Bruijn of the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) since 2 July 2019.

President of the Senate of Puerto Rico

The President of the Senate of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Presidente del Senado) is the highest-ranking officer and the presiding officer of the Senate of Puerto Rico. The president has voting powers as it is elected amongst the own members of the Senate as established by Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico. The Constitution, however, does not establish its functions and since the Senate is the only body authorized by the Constitution to regulate its own internal affairs, the functions of the president vary from session to session—save being called "President" as the Constitution establishes. The president is typically elected during the Senate's inaugural session.When absent, the president is substituted by the President pro tempore. Its counterpart in the House is the Speaker.

The current president is Thomas Rivera Schatz, senator at-large from the New Progressive Party.

President of the Senate of Romania

The President of the Senate of Romania is the senator elected to preside over the Senate meetings. The president of the Senate is also the president of the Standing Bureau of the Senate, and the first person in the presidential line of succession.

President of the Senate of the Philippines

The President of the Senate of the Philippines (Filipino: Pangulo ng Senado ng Pilipinas), or more popularly known as the Senate President, is the presiding officer and the highest-ranking official of the Senate of the Philippines, and third highest and most powerful official in the Government of the Philippines. He/she is elected by the entire body to be their leader. The Senate President is second in line in succession for the presidency, behind the Vice President of the Philippines and in front of the Speaker of the House of Representatives of the Philippines.

The current Senate President of the 17th Congress of the Philippines is Tito Sotto, who was elected on May 21, 2018.

Presiding Officer of the United States Senate

The Presiding Officer of the United States Senate is the person who presides over the United States Senate and is charged with maintaining order and decorum, recognizing members to speak, and interpreting the Senate's rules, practices, and precedents. Senate presiding officer is a role, not an actual office. The actual role is usually performed by one of three officials: the Vice President; an elected United States Senator; or, in special cases, the Chief Justice. Outside the constitutionally mandated roles, the actual appointment of a person to do the job of presiding over the Senate as a body is governed by Rule I of the Standing Rules.

The Vice President is assigned the responsibility by the Constitution of presiding over the Senate and designated as its president. The vice president has the authority (ex officio, for they are not an elected member of the Senate) to cast a tie-breaking vote. Early vice presidents took an active role in regularly presiding over proceedings of the body, with the president pro tempore only being called on during the vice president's absence. During the 20th century, the role of the vice president evolved into more of an executive branch position. Now, the vice president is usually seen as an integral part of a president's administration and presides over the Senate only on ceremonial occasions or when a tie-breaking vote may be needed.The Constitution also provides for the appointment of one of the elected senators to serve as President pro tempore. This senator presides when the vice president is absent from the body. The president pro tempore is selected by the body specifically for the role of presiding in the absence of (as the meaning of pro tempore, literally "for the time being") the actual presiding officer. By tradition, the title of President pro tempore has come to be given more-or-less automatically to the most senior senator of the majority party. In actual practice in the modern Senate, the president pro tempore also does not often serve in the role (though it is their constitutional right to do so). Instead, as governed by Rule I, they frequently designate a junior senator to perform the function.

When the Senate hears an impeachment trial of the President of the United States, by the procedure established in the Constitution, the Chief Justice is designated as the presiding officer.

Scott Ryan (Australian politician)

Scott Michael Ryan (born 12 May 1973) is an Australian politician who has been a Senator for Victoria since 2008, representing the Liberal Party. He has been the President of the Senate since 2017, having previously been a minister in the Turnbull Government from 2016 to 2017.

Senate (France)

The Senate (French: Sénat; pronunciation: [seˈna]) is the upper house of the French Parliament. Indirectly elected by elected officials, it represents territorial collectivities of the Republic and French citizens living abroad. The Senate enjoys less prominence than the lower house, the directly elected National Assembly; debates in the Senate tend to be less tense and generally receive less media coverage.

The Senate is housed inside the Luxembourg Palace in the 6th arrondissement of Paris. It is guarded by Republican Guards. In front of the building lies the Senate's garden, the Jardin du Luxembourg, open to the public.

Senate (Trinidad and Tobago)

The Senate is the appointed upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago. The Senate currently sits at Tower D, International Waterfront Centre in Port of Spain as the traditional seat, the Red House is undergoing restoration. The Senate has 31 members all appointed by the President: 16 Government Senators appointed on the advice of the Prime Minister, 6 Opposition Senators appointed on the advice of the Leader of the Opposition and 9 Independent Senators appointed in the discretion of the President from outstanding persons who represent other sectors of civil society. The presiding officer, the President of the Senate, is elected from among the Senators who are not Ministers or Parliamentary Secretaries. A senator must be at least 25 years old and a citizen of Trinidad and Tobago.

Senate of Puerto Rico

The Senate of Puerto Rico (Spanish: Senado de Puerto Rico) is the upper house of the Legislative Assembly of Puerto Rico, the territorial legislature of Puerto Rico. The Senate, together with the House of Representatives of Puerto Rico, control the legislative branch of the government of Puerto Rico.

The structure and responsibilities of the Senate are defined in Article III of the Constitution of Puerto Rico which vests all legislative power in the Legislative Assembly. Every bill must be passed by both, the Senate and the House, and signed by the Governor of Puerto Rico in order to become law.The Senate has exclusive power to try and to decide impeachments. The constitution also establishes that all secretaries appointed by the governor to the different executive departments, as well as all judges and the Comptroller, require the advice and consent of the Senate. Justices of the Supreme Court can not assume office until after confirmation by the Senate.The Senate normally has 27 members. Sixteen are elected from senatorial districts, with two senators per district, while an additional 11 which are elected at-large.The Senate has been meeting since 1917, after the enactment of the Jones–Shafroth Act established the body formally. The current session is the 26th Senate of Puerto Rico which has a supermajority from the New Progressive Party of Puerto Rico; giving the party control over the Senate without political opposition including constitutional amendments.The Senate, along with its members and staff, are housed in the eastern half of the Capitol of Puerto Rico, namely the Rafael Martínez Nadal Senate Annex Building, the Luis Muñoz Marín Office Building, the Antonio R. Barceló Building, the Luis A. Ferré Building, the Ramón Mellado Parsons Office Building and the Baltasar Corrada del Rio Office Building.

Senate of Spain

The Senate (Spanish: Senado) is the upper house of the Cortes Generales, which along with the Congress of Deputies—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the Kingdom of Spain. The Senate meets in the Palace of the Senate in Madrid.

The composition of the Senate is established in Part III of the Spanish Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators, each of whom represents a province, an autonomous city or an autonomous community. Each mainland province, regardless of its population size, is equally represented by four senators; in the insular provinces, the big islands are represented by three senators and the minor islands are represented by a single senator. Likewise, the autonomous cities of Ceuta and Melilla elect two senators each. This direct election results in the election of 208 senators by the citizens. In addition, the regional legislatures also designate their own representatives, one senator for each autonomous community and another for every million person, designating a total of 58 senators.

The Spanish Senate is constitutionally described as a territorial chamber. Its powers are similar to those of the Congress of Deputies. However, by virtue of its role as a territorial chamber, it is endowed with exceptional powers such as authorising the Government of the Nation to apply direct rule on a region or to dissolve city councils. The presiding officer of the Senate is the President of the Senate, who is elected by the members thereof.

Vice President of the United States

The vice president of the United States (VP or VPOTUS) is the second-highest officer in the executive branch of the U.S. federal government, after the president of the United States, and ranks first in the presidential line of succession. The vice president is also an officer in the legislative branch, as president of the Senate. In this capacity, the vice president is empowered to preside over Senate deliberations, but may not vote except to cast a tie-breaking vote. The vice president also presides over joint sessions of Congress.The vice president is indirectly elected together with the president to a four-year term of office by the people of the United States through the Electoral College. Section 2 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, ratified in 1967, created a mechanism for intra-term vice presidential succession, establishing that vice presidential vacancies will be filled by the president and confirmed by both houses of Congress. Previously, whenever a vice president had succeeded to the presidency or had died or resigned from office, the vice presidency remained vacant until the next presidential and vice presidential terms began.The vice president is also a statutory member of the National Security Council, and the Board of Regents of the Smithsonian Institution. The Office of the Vice President assists and organises the vice president's official functions. The role of the vice presidency has changed dramatically since the office was created during the 1787 constitutional Convention. Especially over the past 100 years, the vice presidency has evolved into a position of domestic and foreign policy political power, and is now widely seen as an integral part of a president's administration. As the vice president's role within the executive branch has expanded, his role within the legislative branch has contracted; for example, he presides over the Senate only infrequently.The Constitution does not expressly assign the vice presidency to any one branch, causing a dispute among scholars about which branch of government the office belongs to: 1) the executive branch; 2) the legislative branch; 3) both; or 4) neither. The modern view of the vice president as an officer of the executive branch (isolated almost totally from the legislative branch) is due in large part to the assignment of executive authority to the vice president by either the president or Congress.Mike Pence of Indiana is the 48th and current vice president of the United States. He assumed office on January 20, 2017.

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