President of the Republic of Texas

The President of the Republic of Texas (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Texas) was the head of state and head of government while Texas was an independent republic between 1836 and 1845.

President of the Republic of Texas
Seal of the Republic of Texas (colorized)
Seal of The Republic of Texas (1839–45)
PrecursorPolitical Chief (Mexico)
Formation16 March 1836
(Interim)
22 October 1836
(Constitutional)
First holderSam Houston
(David G. Burnet, Interim March–October 1836)
Final holderAnson Jones
SuccessionGovernor of Texas

History and duties

Seal of the Republic of Texas (1836)
(1837–1839)
Seal of the Republic of Texas (colorized)
(1839–1845)

The Republic of Texas was formed in 1836. In the midst of the Texas Revolution, Texan settlers elected delegates to the Convention of 1836, which issued the Texas Declaration of Independence and elected David G. Burnet as interim president of the new country. In May 1836 Burnet and Mexican President Antonio López de Santa Anna, who was at the time a Texan prisoner-of-war, signed the Treaties of Velasco officially recognizing Texas's break from Mexico.

The authority and responsibilities of the president was similar to that of the President of the United States: to serve the people of Texas, and to serve as the head of the military and the state. These were detailed in the Constitution of the Republic of Texas of 1836. The Constitution specified a term of two years for the first elected president (Sam Houston) and terms of three years thereafter; the president could not succeed himself, but there were otherwise no term limits. The president was elected separately from the vice president, by popular vote, and there was no requirement to be native-born. A strict reading of the Constitution provided for women's suffrage (that is, both men and women were citizens and could vote for Congress, president, and other offices), but women and preachers or priests were not allowed to serve as president or in Congress. Indians and Africans and those of African descent could not be citizens.

The president lived in different towns during the life of the Republic, as the capital was relocated, especially during and immediately after the Texas Revolution. Washington-on-the-Brazos was Texas' first capital in 1836 (provisional), followed quickly by Harrisburg 1836 (provisional), Galveston 1836 (provisional), Velasco 1836 (provisional), Columbia 1836–37, Houston, 1837–39, and finally Austin, the modern capital, 1839–46.

The position was abolished with the annexation of Texas, largely due to President Anson Jones, who received the nickname "The architect of Annexation" and served only one year and three months. The amount of power wielded by occupants of the office varied tremendously during the nine years of Texas' independence. Particularly in the beginning, there was a larger military need than in the 1840s, and the president therefore had considerably more power and influence than during years of relative peace. However, there is no record of any president violating or changing the Texas Constitution.

As the United States and other countries such as France recognized Texan independence, presidential power functioned without interference from the outside world, though the Republic generally allied itself informally with the United States. Several presidents supported annexation of the Republic by the United States, with direct admission as a state.

Under the Constitution the vice president was to succeed the president in the event of the latter's death, resignation or removal by impeachment; however this never happened. The vice president was also the President of the Senate, and had a casting vote in the event of a tie.

Oath of office

The oath or affirmation of office for the president was established in the Constitution of the Republic of Texas and was mandatory for a president 'before entering upon the duties' of the office. The wording, very similar to that of the United States' version, was prescribed by Article VI of the Constitution, as follows:

"I, A. B., President of the Republic of Texas, do solemnly and sincerely swear [or affirm, as the case may be] that I will faithfully execute the duties of my office, and to the best of my ability preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the Republic."

List of presidents and vice presidents

Presidents and Vice Presidents of the Republic of Texas
Presidency President Prior office Party Term Vice President
March 16, 1836

October 22, 1836
Davidgburnet2 David G. Burnet
1788–1870
(Lived: 82 years)

Delegate to the
Convention of 1833
Unaffiliated Interim
[1]
Lorenzo de Zavala
1 October 22, 1836

December 10, 1838
SHouston 2 Sam Houston
1793–1863
(Lived: 70 years)

Commander-in-Chief
of the Texian Army

(1836)
Unaffiliated 1
(1836)
Mirabeau B. Lamar
2 December 10, 1838

December 13, 1841
Mirabeaulamar 2 Mirabeau B. Lamar
1798–1859
(Lived: 61 years)
1st
Vice President of the
Republic of Texas
Unaffiliated 2
(1838)
David G. Burnet
3 December 13, 1841

December 9, 1844
SHouston 2 Sam Houston
1793–1863
(Lived: 70 years)
1st
President of the
Republic of Texas
Unaffiliated 3
(1841)
Edward Burleson
4 December 9, 1844

February 19, 1846
Anson jones Anson Jones
1798–1858
(Lived: 59 years)
11th
Secretary of State
of the Republic of Texas

(1841–1844)
Unaffiliated 4
(1844)
Kenneth Lewis Anderson
December 9, 1844 – July 3, 1845
(Died in office)
Office vacant
(Balance of Anderson's term)

References

  1. ^ Selected by the Convention of 1836.

External links

1857 Texas gubernatorial election

The 1857 Texas gubernatorial election was held on August 3, 1857 to elect the Governor of Texas. The election pitted Lieutenant Governor Hardin Richard Runnels against former President of the Republic of Texas Sam Houston and Lieutenant Governor hopeful French Smith. Runnels won the election with 53% of the vote, becoming the only person to ever defeat Sam Houston in a political contest.

Anson, Texas

Anson is a city in and the county seat of Jones County, Texas, United States. The population was 2,430 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Abilene, Texas metropolitan area. Originally named "Jones City", the town was renamed "Anson" in 1882 in honor of Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic of Texas.

Anson Jones

Anson Jones (January 20, 1798 – January 9, 1858) was a doctor, businessperson, member of Congress, and the fourth and last President of the Republic of Texas, sometimes called the "Architect of Annexation".

Burnet, Texas

Burnet ( BUR-net) is a city in and the county seat of Burnet County, Texas, United States. The population was 5,987 at the 2010 census.Both the city and the county were named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. He also served as Vice President during the administration of Mirabeau B. Lamar.

Burnet County, Texas

Burnet County ( BUR-nit) is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,750. Its county seat is Burnet. The county was founded in 1852 and later organized in 1854. It is named for David Gouverneur Burnet, the first (provisional) president of the Republic of Texas. The name of the county is pronounced with the emphasis or accent on the first syllable, just as its namesake David Burnet.

Daniel Miller

Daniel Miller may refer to:

Daniel Miller (anthropologist) (born 1954), anthropologist at University College London

Daniel Miller (basketball) (born 1991), American professional basketball player

Daniel Miller (cricketer) (born 1983), cricketer for Surrey County Cricket Club

Daniel Miller (music producer) (born 1951), also known as The Normal, founder of Mute Records

Daniel Miller (engineer) (1825–1868), Scottish civil engineer and inventor

Daniel C. Miller (born 1956), politician in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania

Daniel F. Miller (1814–1895), U.S. Representative from Iowa

Daniel H. Miller (died 1846), U.S. Representative from Pennsylvania

Daniel J. Miller (1924–2006), United States Air Force officer

Daniel Miller, weekend evening news anchor for WISH-TV Indianapolis

Daniel Miller, footballer for Preston Lions FC

Daniel Miller, president of the Republic of Texas (group)

Daniel Miller, the fictional character from the television series Every Witch Way

Edward Burleson

Edward Burleson (December 15, 1798 – December 26, 1851) was the third Vice President of the Republic of Texas. After Texas was annexed to the United States, he served in the State Senate. Prior to his government service in Texas, he was a commander of Texian Army forces during the Texas Revolution. Before moving to Texas, he served in militias in Alabama, Missouri, and Tennessee, and fought in the War of 1812. Burleson was the soldier that was given Santa Anna's sword when he surrendered.

Fanthorp Inn State Historic Site

Fanthorp Inn State Historic Site is a historic hotel in Anderson, Texas. The Texas Parks and Wildlife Department acquired the 6-acre (2.4 ha) site by purchase in 1977 from a Fanthorp descendant. Ten years were spent researching and restoring the Inn to its 1850 look. The site was opened to the public on October 4, 1987.The clapboard-covered log house was built in 1834 by an English immigrant, Henry Fanthorp, as a home for his third wife, Rachel Kennard. He bought 1,100 acres (450 ha) and built his house in 1834 along the road that crossed his land. The building was enlarged in about 1850 to accommodate its usage as a hotel and store.Henry Fanthorp was appointed postmaster by the Provisional Texas Government in 1835. The building was the first post office in the region. Fanthorp Inn became a well-known stopping place for stagecoaches, travelers, and the community.

On July 3, 1845, Kenneth Lewis Anderson, vice-president of the Republic of Texas died from illness at the Inn while en route home from Washington-on-the-Brazos.

Houston County, Texas

Houston County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,732. Its county seat is Crockett. Houston County was one of forty-six prohibition or entirely dry counties in the state of Texas, until voters in a November 2007 special election legalized the sale of alcohol in the county.

Houston County was the first new county created under the 9-year Republic of Texas on June 12, 1837. The original boundaries of Houston County also included all of present-day Anderson and Trinity Counties, and portions of present-day Henderson and Polk Counties.

The county is named for Sam Houston, a president of the Republic of Texas and Governor of Texas. Other than being named for the same person, Houston County is not related to the City of Houston, which is located approximately 100 miles (160 km) to the south, in Harris County.

A county historical museum is located in a former railroad depot, located on First Street in Crockett.

Hyde Park, Montrose, Houston

Hyde Park is a historic community located in the Montrose neighborhood of Houston, Texas. Its southeast boundary is the intersection Montrose Boulevard and Westheimer. The neighborhood was established in the late 1800s on the summer farm of the second President of the Republic of Texas, Mirabeau Lamar. In the 1970s, Hyde Park became a central part of the Gay Rights Movement in Houston. Like much of Montrose, the neighborhood is now experiencing significant gentrification, and is home to an abundance of restaurants, including Mexican, Italian, Greek, American, Lebanese, coffee houses, and numerous bars.

John Alexander Greer

John Alexander Greer (July 18, 1802 – July 4, 1855) was a Texan politician, and the second Lieutenant Governor of Texas serving under Governors George T. Wood and Peter H. Bell.

Greer was born at Shelbyville, Tennessee on July 18, 1802. He was in Kentucky before moving to Texas in 1830. He represented San Augustine as a senator in the Congress of the Republic of Texas from 1837–1845. Anson Jones, the last president of the Republic of Texas, appointed him as secretary of the treasury in July 1845. He was the Lieutenant Governor of Texas from 1847–1851. He died on July 4, 1855.John A. Greer is the namesake of Greer County, Oklahoma.

Jones County, Texas

Jones County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 20,202. Its county seat is Anson. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1881. Both the county and its county seat are named for Anson Jones, the fifth president of the Republic of Texas.Jones County is included in the Abilene, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Kenneth Anderson

Ken or Kenneth Anderson may refer to:

Ken Anderson (animator) (1909–1993), art director, writer, and animator at Disney

Ken Anderson (basketball) (born 1933), American basketball coach

Ken Anderson (politician) (1909–1985), Australian senator

Ken Anderson (filmmaker) (1917–2006), Christian filmmaker

Ken Anderson (motorsport), motorsport engineer and principal of the US F1 Formula One team

Ken Anderson (quarterback) (born 1949), American football quarterback

Ken Anderson (Texas prosecutor), Texas prosecutor in Michael Morton case

Kenny Anderson (boxer) (born 1983), Scottish boxer

Kenneth Anderson (footballer) (1875–1900), Scottish footballer (Queen's Park, national team)

Kenneth Anderson (jurist), law professor at Washington College of Law and blogger

Kenneth Anderson (musician) (born 1958), musician and choir director of the Gospel tradition

Kenneth Anderson (writer) (1910–1974), Indian writer and hunter

Kenneth Anderson (British Army officer) (1891–1959), British World War II general

Kenneth Lewis Anderson (1805–1845), lawyer, last vice president of the Republic of Texas

Kenny Anderson (basketball) (born 1970), American basketball point guard

Kenny Anderson (born 1967), Scottish musician known by the stage name King Creosote

Ken Anderson (defensive lineman) (1975–2009), American football defensive lineman

Ken Anderson (wrestler) (born 1976), American professional wrestler

Kenny Anderson (footballer) (born 1992), Dutch-Scottish footballer

Lamar, Texas

Lamar is a small, unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Aransas County, Texas, United States, 10 miles (16 km) north of Rockport and 40 miles (64 km) north of Corpus Christi. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 636. The community was named for Mirabeau B. Lamar, the second president of the Republic of Texas. This was a new CDP for the 2010 census.Lamar was founded in 1839 at Lookout Point, on the channel entrance to Copano Bay. President Lamar agreed to relocate the custom house here, and the town thrived as a port and the site of a salt works. This prosperity ended abruptly on February 11, 1864, when the town was bombarded and practically obliterated by the Union Navy.

For most of the 20th century the population was less than 200, but by the 2010 census it was over 600. The restored cemetery is a Texas historical landmark. Goose Island State Park is within the CDP.

Lamar County, Texas

Lamar County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas, in the Northeast Texas region of the state. As of the 2010 census, its population was 49,891. Its county seat is Paris. The county was formed by the Congress of the Republic of Texas on December 17, 1840 and organized the next year. It is named for Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, the second president of the Republic of Texas.Lamar County comprises the Paris, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area.

The majority-white population supported the Democratic Party well into the late 20th century, when it was nearly a one-party state. But in the early 21st century, most have shifted to the Republican Party. Lamar County is now represented in the Texas House of Representatives by Gary VanDeaver of New Boston, Texas. Republican US Representative Marsha Farney, reared in Lamar County, represents District 20, which includes the northern portion of Williamson County in the Austin suburbs.

Mirabeau B. Lamar

Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar (August 16, 1798 – December 19, 1859) was an attorney born in Georgia, who became a Texas politician, poet, diplomat and soldier. He was a leading Texas political figure during the Texas Republic era. He was elected as the second President of the Republic of Texas after Sam Houston. He was known for waging war against bands of Cherokee and Comanche peoples to push them out of Texas, and for establishing a fund to support public education.

Peter W. Grayson

Peter Wagener Grayson (1788–1838) was an attorney, diplomat, cabinet officer, and presidential candidate in the Republic of Texas. He was the son of Benjamin and Caroline (Taylor) Grayson, and was born in Bardstown, Virginia (later Kentucky), in 1788. He owned a plantation near Matagorda, Texas.

Grayson helped raise United States volunteers for the Texas Revolution, and he was appointed by President Sam Houston as Texas attorney general in February 1837 and as naval agent to the United States in December 1837.

In 1838, Grayson was the Houston party candidate for president of the Republic of Texas. On July 9 of that year he fatally shot himself.

Scanlan Building

The Scanlan Building, located at 405 Main Street in Houston, Texas, is an eleven-story, 76,403sq.ft building completed in 1909. Built on the site of the first official home of the president of the Republic of Texas, it was the first building of its size and type to be designed by a major national architect to be built in Houston, and set the style for future construction in the area. It is the only known office building in Houston which was designed by D.H. Burnham & Company of Chicago. The building was the first to be built higher than ten stories, breaking the limit preferred by Houston developer Jesse H. Jones.The building was first envisioned by Thomas Howe Scanlan, two-time mayor of Houston, to be built on the property he owned at Main and Preston streets. After his death in 1906, his seven daughters built the building as a memorial to him. Approximately 85 feet by 101 feet, the building was among the first in Houston to use a fireproof steel skeleton.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on May 23, 1980.

Zavalla, Texas

Zavalla is a city in Angelina County, Texas, United States. The population was 713 at the 2010 census. The town is named for Lorenzo de Zavala, a Mexican rancher, politician, and signer of the Texas Declaration of Independence who served as the first Vice-President of the Republic of Texas. Its city limits stretch several miles south of town into a heavily wooded area.

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