President of the French Republic

The President of the French Republic (French: Président de la République française, French pronunciation: ​[pʁezidɑ̃ də la ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛːz]) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic. In French terms, the presidency is the supreme magistracy of the country.

The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, as well as their relation with the Prime Minister and Government of France, have over time differed with the various constitutional documents since the French Second Republic. The President of the French Republic is also the ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra, Grand Master of the Legion of Honour and the National Order of Merit. The officeholder is also honorary proto-canon of the Basilica of St. John Lateran in Rome, although some have rejected the title in the past.

The current President of the French Republic is Emmanuel Macron, who succeeded François Hollande on 14 May 2017.[3]

President of the French Republic
Président de la République française
Faisceau de licteur
Presidential emblem
Macron Digital Summit (cropped)
Incumbent
Emmanuel Macron

since 14 May 2017
Executive branch in French Politics
StyleMr. President
(informal)
His Excellency[1]
(international correspondence)
StatusHead of State
Highest executive officer
Member ofEuropean Council
Council of Ministers
ResidenceÉlysée Palace
SeatParis
NominatorPolitical Parties
AppointerDirect popular vote (two rounds if necessary)
Term lengthFive years, renewable once
Constituting instrumentFifth Republic Constitution
Formation
First holderLouis-Napoléon Bonaparte
as President in the Second Republic (20 December 1848)
Charles de Gaulle
as President in the Fifth Republic (8 January 1959)
Salary179,000 annually [2]
Websitewww.elysee.fr (in French)

History

The presidency of France was first publicly proposed during the July Revolution of 1830, when it was offered to the Marquis de Lafayette. He demurred in favor of Prince Louis Phillipe, who became king of the French. Eighteen years later, during the opening phases of the Second Republic, the title was created for a popularly elected head of state, the first of whom was Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, nephew of Emperor Napoleon. Bonaparte served in that role until he staged an auto coup against the republic, proclaiming himself Napoleon III, Emperor of the French.

Under the Third Republic and Fourth Republic, which were parliamentary systems, the office of President of the Republic was a largely ceremonial and powerless one. The Constitution of the Fifth Republic greatly increased the President's powers. A 1962 referendum changed the constitution, so that the President would be directly elected by universal suffrage and not by the Parliament.

In 2000, a referendum shortened the presidential term from seven years to five years. A maximum of two consecutive terms was imposed after the 2008 constitutional reform.

Election

Since the referendum on the direct election of the President of the French Republic in 1962, the officeholder has been directly elected by universal suffrage; he was previously elected by an electoral college.

After the referendum on the reduction of the mandate of the President of the French Republic, 2000, the length of the term was reduced to five years from the previous seven; the first election to a shorter term was held in 2002. President Jacques Chirac was first elected in 1995 and again in 2002. At that time, there was no limit on the number of terms, so Chirac could have run again, but chose not to. He was succeeded by Nicolas Sarkozy on 16 May 2007.

Following a further change, the constitutional law on the modernisation of the institutions of the Fifth Republic, 2008, a President cannot serve more than two consecutive terms. François Mitterrand and Jacques Chirac are the only Presidents to date who have served a full two terms (14 years for the former, 12 years for the latter).

In order to be admitted as an official candidate, potential candidates must receive signed nominations (informally known as parrainages, for "sponsors") from more than 500 elected officials, mostly mayors. These officials must be from at least 30 départements or overseas collectivities, and no more than 10% of them should be from the same département or collectivity.[4] Furthermore, each official may nominate only one candidate.[5] There are exactly 45,543 elected officials, including 33,872 mayors.

Spending and financing of campaigns and political parties are highly regulated. There is a cap on spending, at approximately 20 million euros, and government public financing of 50% of spending if the candidate scores more than 5%. If the candidate receives less than 5% of the vote, the government funds €8,000,000 to the party (€4,000,000 paid in advance).[6] Advertising on TV is forbidden, but official time is given to candidates on public TV. An independent agency regulates election and party financing.

French presidential elections are conducted via run-off voting, which ensures that the elected president always obtains a majority: if no candidate receives a majority of votes in the first round of voting, the two highest-scoring candidates arrive at a run-off. After the president is elected, he or she goes through a solemn investiture ceremony called a "passation des pouvoirs" ("handing over of powers").[7]

Powers

The French Fifth Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike many other European presidents, the French President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of France, the Government as well as the Parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs, especially in domestic issues, the French President wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy.

The President's greatest power is his/her ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the French National Assembly has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the President is forced to name a Prime Minister who can command the support of a majority in the assembly. He or she has also the duty of abritrating the well-functioning of governmental authorities for efficient service, as the Head of State of France.

  • When the majority of the Assembly has opposite political views to that of the President, this leads to political cohabitation. In that case, the President's power is diminished, since much of the de facto power relies on a supportive Prime Minister and National Assembly, and is not directly attributed to the post of President.
  • When the majority of the Assembly sides with them, the President can take a more active role and may, in effect, direct government policy. The Prime Minister is then the personal choice of the President, and can be easily replaced if the administration becomes unpopular. This device has been used in recent years by François Mitterrand, Jacques Chirac, and François Hollande.

Since 2002, the mandate of the President and the Assembly are both five years, and the two elections are close to each other. Therefore, the likelihood of a "cohabitation" is lower. Among the powers of the government:

  • The President promulgates laws.
    • The President has a suspensive veto: when presented with a law, he or she can request another reading of it by Parliament, but only once per law.
    • The President may also refer the law for review to the Constitutional Council prior to promulgation.
  • The President may dissolve the French National Assembly.
  • The President may refer treaties or certain types of laws to popular referendum, within certain conditions, among them the agreement of the Prime Minister or the Parliament.
  • The President is the Chief of the French Armed Forces.
  • The President may order the use of nuclear weapons.
  • The President names but cannot dismiss the Prime Minister. The President names and dismisses the other ministers, with the agreement of the Prime Minister.
  • The President names most officials (with the assent of the cabinet).
  • The President names certain members of the Constitutional Council.
  • The President receives foreign ambassadors.
  • The President may grant a pardon (but not an amnesty) to convicted criminals; the President can also lessen or suppress criminal sentences. This was of crucial importance when France still operated the death penalty: criminals sentenced to death would generally request that the President commute their sentence to life imprisonment.

All decisions of the President must be countersigned by the Prime Minister, except dissolving the French National Assembly, choice of Prime Minister, dispositions of Article 19.

Detailed constitutional powers

The constitutional attributions of the president are defined in Title II of the Constitution of France.

Article 5 The President of the Republic shall see that the Constitution is observed. He shall ensure, by his arbitration, the proper functioning of the public authorities and the continuity of the State. He shall be the guarantor of national independence, territorial integrity and observance of treaties.

Article 8 The President of the Republic shall appoint the Prime Minister. He shall terminate the appointment of the Prime Minister when the latter tenders the resignation of the Government. On the proposal of the Prime Minister, he shall appoint the other members of the Government and terminate their appointments.

Article 9 The President of the Republic shall preside over the Council of Ministers.

Article 10 The President of the Republic shall promulgate Acts of Parliament within fifteen days following the final adoption of an Act and its transmission to the Government. He may, before the expiry of this time limit, ask Parliament to reconsider the Act or sections of the Act. Reconsideration shall not be refused. While the president has to sign all acts adopted by parliament into law, he cannot refuse to do so and exercise a kind of right of veto; his only power in that matter is to ask for a single reconsideration of the law by parliament and this power is subject to countersigning by the Prime minister.

Article 11 The President could submit laws to the people in a referendum with advice and consent of the cabinet.

Article 12 The President of the Republic may, after consulting the Prime Minister and the Presidents of the assemblies, declare the National Assembly dissolved. A general election shall take place not less than twenty days and not more than forty days after the dissolution. The National Assembly shall convene as of right on the second Thursday following its election. Should it so convene outside the period prescribed for the ordinary session, a session shall be called by right for a fifteen-day period. No further dissolution shall take place within a year following this election.

Article 13 The President of the Republic shall sign the ordinances and decrees deliberated upon in the Council of Ministers. He shall make appointments to the civil and military posts of the State. [...]

Article 14 The President of the Republic shall accredit ambassadors and envoys extraordinary to foreign powers; foreign ambassadors and envoys extraordinary shall be accredited to him.

Article 15 The President of the Republic shall be commander-in-chief of the armed forces. He shall preside over the higher national defence councils and committees.

Article 16 Where the institutions of the Republic, the independence of the Nation, the integrity of its territory or the fulfilment of its international commitments are under serious and immediate threat, and where the proper functioning of the constitutional public authorities is interrupted, the President of the Republic shall take the measures required by these circumstances, after formally consulting the Prime Minister, the Presidents of the assemblies and the Constitutional Council. He shall inform the Nation of these measures in a message. The measures must stem from the desire to provide the constitutional public authorities, in the shortest possible time, with the means to carry out their duties. The Constitutional Council shall be consulted with regard to such measures. Parliament shall convene as of right. The National Assembly shall not be dissolved during the exercise of the emergency powers.

Article 16, allowing the President a limited form of rule by decree for a limited period of time in exceptional circumstance, has been used only once, by Charles de Gaulle during the Algerian War, from 23 April to 29 September 1961.

Article 17 The President of the Republic has the right to grant pardon.

Article 18 The President of the Republic shall communicate with the two assemblies of Parliament by means of messages, which he shall cause to be read and which shall not be the occasion for any debate. He can also give an address in front of the Congress of France in Versailles. Outside sessions, Parliament shall be convened especially for this purpose.[8]

Article 19 Acts of the President of the Republic, other than those provided for under articles 8 (first paragraph), 11, 12, 16, 18, 54, 56 and 61, shall be countersigned by the Prime Minister and, where required, by the appropriate ministers.

Article 49 Para 3 allows the President to adopt a law on his authority. To this end, the Prime Minister goes before the Lower and Upper houses, reads out the bill to the legislators and closes with "the administration engages its responsibility" on the foregoing. Deprived of Gaullist party support halfway into his seven-year term spanning 1974 to 1981, president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing relied heavily on this provision to stalemate Paris mayor Jacques Chirac's attempt to bring him back under Gaullist control.

Presidential amnesties

There is a tradition of so-called "presidential amnesties", which are something of a misnomer: after the election of a president, and of a National Assembly of the same party, parliament traditionally votes a law granting amnesty for some petty crimes. This practice has been increasingly criticized, particularly because it is believed to incite people to commit traffic offences in the months preceding the election. Such an amnesty law may also authorize the president to designate individuals who have committed certain categories of crimes to be offered amnesty, if certain conditions are met. Such individual measures have been criticized for the political patronage that they allow. Still, it is argued that such amnesty laws help reduce prison overpopulation. An amnesty law was passed in 2002; none have yet been passed as of January 2008.

The difference between an amnesty and a presidential pardon is that the former clears all subsequent effects of the sentencing, as though the crime had not been committed, while pardon simply relieves the sentenced individual from part or all of the remainder of the sentence.

Criminal responsibility and impeachment

Articles 67 and 68 organize the regime of criminal responsibility of the President. They were reformed by a 2007 constitutional act,[9] in order to clarify a situation that previously resulted in legal controversies.[10]

The President of the Republic enjoys immunity during his term: he cannot be requested to testify before any jurisdiction, he cannot be prosecuted, etc. However, the statute of limitation is suspended during his term, and enquiries and prosecutions can be restarted, at the latest one month after he leaves office.

The President is not deemed personally responsible for his actions in his official capacity, except where his actions are indicted before the International Criminal Court (France is a member of the ICC and the President is a French citizen as another following the Court's rules) or where impeachment is moved against him. Impeachment can be pronounced by the Republican High Court, a special court convened from both houses of Parliament on the proposal of either House, should the president have failed to discharge his duties in a way that evidently precludes the continuation of his term.

Succession and incapacity

Upon the death, removal, or resignation of the President, the President of the Senate takes over as acting president.[11] Alain Poher is the only person to have served in this temporary position, and has done so twice: the first time in 1969 after Charles de Gaulle's resignation and a second time in 1974 after Georges Pompidou's death. In this situation, the President of the Senate becomes Acting President of the Republic; he or she does not become the new President of the Republic as elected and therefore does not have to resign from his or her position as President of the Senate. In spite of his title as Acting President of the Republic, Poher is regarded in France as a former President and is listed in the presidents' gallery on the official presidential website. This is in contrast to acting presidents from the Third Republic.

The first round of a new presidential election must be organized no sooner than twenty days and no later than thirty-five days following the vacancy of the presidency. Because fifteen days can separate the first and second rounds of a presidential election, this means that the President of the Senate can only act as President of the Republic for a maximum period of fifty days. During this interim period, acting presidents are not allowed to dismiss the national assembly nor are they allowed to call for a referendum or initiate any constitutional changes.

If there is no president of the senate, the powers of the president of the republic are exercised by the "Gouvernement", meaning the Cabinet. This has been interpreted by some constitutional academics as meaning first the Prime Minister and, if he is himself not able to act, the members of the cabinet in the order of the list of the decree that nominated them. This is in fact unlikely to happen, because if the president of the Senate is not able to act, the Senate will normally name a new president of the Senate, that will act as President of the Republic.

During the Third French Republic the President of the Council of Ministers acted as President whenever office was vacant.[12] According to article 7 of the Constitution, if the presidency becomes vacant for any reason, or if the president becomes incapacitated, upon the request of the gouvernement, the Constitutional Council may rule, by a majority vote,[13] that the presidency is to be temporarily assumed by the President of the Senate. If the Council rules that the incapacity is permanent, the same procedure as for the resignation is applied, as described above.

If the President cannot attend meetings, including meetings of the Council of Ministers, he can ask the Prime Minister to attend in his stead (Constitution, article 21). This clause has been applied by presidents travelling abroad, ill, or undergoing surgery.

During the Second French Republic, there was a Vice President. The only person to ever hold the position was Henri Georges Boulay de la Meurthe.

Died in office

Four French presidents have died in office:

Pay and official residences

The President of the Republic is paid a salary according to a pay grade defined in comparison to the pay grades of the most senior members of the French Civil Service ("out of scale", hors échelle, those whose pay grades are known as letters and not as numeric indices). In addition he is paid a residence stipend of 3%, and a function stipend of 25% on top of the salary and residence indemnity. This gross salary and these indemnities are the same as those of the Prime Minister, and are 50% higher than the highest paid to other members of the government,[14] which is itself defined as twice the average of the highest (pay grade G) and the lowest (pay grade A1) salaries in the "out of scale" pay grades.[15] Using the 2008 "out of scale" pay grades,[16] it amounts to a monthly pay of 20,963 euros, which fits the 19,000 euros quoted to the press in early 2008.[17] Using the pay grades starting from 1 July 2009,[18] this amounts to a gross monthly pay of 21,131 €.

The salary and the residence stipend are taxable for income tax.[19]

The official residence and office of the president is the Élysée Palace in Paris. Other presidential residences include:

  • the Hôtel de Marigny, standing next to the Élysée Palace, houses foreign official guests;
  • the Château de Rambouillet is normally open to visitors when not used for (rare) official meetings;
  • the Domaine national de Marly is normally open to visitors when not used for (rare) official meetings;
  • the Fort de Brégançon, in Southeastern France, the official presidential vacation residence until 2013, became a national monument and opened to the public in 2014. The French President's private quarters there are still available for his (rare) use. La Lanterne became the official presidential vacation residence at that time.

Latest election

 Summary of the 23 April and 7 May 2017 French presidential election results
Candidate Party 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Emmanuel Macron En Marche! EM 8,656,346 24.01 20,743,128 66.10
Marine Le Pen National Front FN 7,678,491 21.30 10,638,475 33.90
François Fillon The Republicans LR 7,212,995 20.01
Jean-Luc Mélenchon La France Insoumise FI 7,059,951 19.58
Benoît Hamon Socialist Party PS 2,291,288 6.36
Nicolas Dupont-Aignan Debout la France DLF 1,695,000 4.70
Jean Lassalle Résistons! 435,301 1.21
Philippe Poutou New Anticapitalist Party NPA 394,505 1.09
François Asselineau Popular Republican Union UPR 332,547 0.92
Nathalie Arthaud Lutte Ouvrière LO 232,384 0.64
Jacques Cheminade Solidarity and Progress S&P 65,586 0.18
Total 36,054,394 100.00 31,381,603 100.00
Valid votes 36,054,394 97.43 31,381,603 88.48
Blank ballots 659,997 1.78 3,021,499 8.52
Null ballots 289,337 0.78 1,064,225 3.00
Turnout 37,003,728 77.77 35,467,327 74.56
Abstentions 10,578,455 22.23 12,101,366 25.44
Registered voters 47,582,183 47,568,693

Official results published by the Constitutional Council1st round result  · 2nd round result

Living former Presidents of France

There are four living former French Presidents:

WDK 6198 28

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
(age 93)
(1974–1981)

Jacques Chirac 2

Jacques Chirac
(age 86)
(1995–2007)

Flickr - europeanpeoplesparty - EPP Summit October 2010 (105)

Nicolas Sarkozy
(age 64)
(2007–2012)

François Hollande - 2017 (27869823159) (cropped 2)

François Hollande
(age 64)
(2012–2017)

According to French law, former Presidents of the Republic have guaranteed lifetime pension defined according to the pay grade of the Councillors of State,[20] a courtesy diplomatic passport,[21] and, according to the French Constitution (Article 56), membership of the Constitutional Council.

They also get personnel, an apartment and/or office, and other amenities, though the legal basis for these is disputed.[22] In 2008, according to an answer by the services of the Prime Minister to a question from René Dosière, a member of the National Assembly,[23] the facilities comprised: a security detail, a car with a chauffeur, first class train tickets and an office or housing space, as well as a two people service the space. In addition, funds are available for seven permanent assistants.

President Hollande announced a reform of the system in 2016. Former Presidents of France will no longer receive a car with chauffeur; the personnel in their living space were cut as well. Additionally, the number of assistants available for their use has been reduced, but a state flat or house remains available for former officeholders. Train tickets are also available if the trip is justified by the office of the former officeholder as part of official business. The security personnel around former Presidents of France remained unchanged.[24]

The most recent President of the French Republic to die was François Mitterrand (served 1981–1995) on 8 January 1996, aged 79.

Lists relating to the Presidents of France

References

  1. ^ United Nations Heads of State Protocol and Liaison Service Heads of Government - Public List Ministers For Foreign Affairs
  2. ^ Président de la République : 14 910 € bruts par mois, Le Journal Du Net
  3. ^ "Emmanuel Macron takes office as French president". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  4. ^ Loi no 62-1292 du 6 novembre 1962 relative à l'élection du Président de la République au suffrage universel, article 4.
  5. ^ Décret no 2001-213 du 8 novembre 2001 portant application de la loi no 62-1292 du 6 novembre 1962 relative à l'élection du Président de la République au suffrage universel, article 6.
  6. ^ Dépenses de campagne: énorme ardoise pour LO, la LCR s'en tire sans déficit, Metro France, 24 April 2007 (in French)
  7. ^ "Elysee". Archived from the original on 10 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2005.
  8. ^ From 1875 to 2008, the President was prohibited from entering the houses of Parliament.
  9. ^ Loi constitutionnelle no 2007-238 du 23 février 2007 portant modification du titre IX de la Constitution (in French).
  10. ^ For all this section, see Articles 67 and 68 and La responsabilité pénale du président de la République, Revue française de droit constitutionnel, n° 49 –2002/1, P.U.F., ISBN 978-2-13-052789-3
  11. ^ The exact title is "President of the Senate, exercising provisionally the functions of the President of the Republic"; see how Alain Poher is referred to on signing statutes into law, e.g. law 69-412
  12. ^ Loi du 25 février 1875 relative à l'organisation des pouvoirs publics, article 7: "In case of a vacancy due to a decease or for any cause, the two houses of Parliament elect a new president. In the meantime, the executive power is vested in the council of ministers."
  13. ^ Ordonnance no 58-1067 du 7 novembre 1958 portant loi organique sur le Conseil constitutionnel (in French).
  14. ^ Loi no 2002-1050 du 6 août 2002 de finances rectificative pour 2002 as amended.
  15. ^ Décret no 2002-1058 du 6 août 2002 relatif au traitement des membres du Gouvernement, article 1 (in French).
  16. ^ Grille de salaires de la fonction publique.
  17. ^ Le salaire du Premier ministre a doublé depuis 2002, citing an interview given by Nicolas Sarkozy to Le Parisien.
  18. ^ Décret no 2009-824 du 3 juillet 2009 portant majoration à compter du 1er juillet 2009 de la rémunération des personnels civils et militaires de l'État, des personnels des collectivités territoriales et des établissements publics d'hospitalisation et portant attribution de points d'indice majoré (in French).
  19. ^ "General tax code, art. 80 undecies A" (in French). Legifrance.gouv.fr. Retrieved 9 June 2011.
  20. ^ Loi no 55-366 du 3 avril 1955 relative au développement des crédits affectés aux dépenses du ministère des finances et des affaires économiques pour l'exercice 1955.
  21. ^ Arrêté du 11 février 2009 relatif au passeport diplomatique, article 1.
  22. ^ The current system for providing personnel and other amenities to the former French presidents was devised in 1981 by Michel Charasse, then advisor to President François Mitterrand, in order to care for former President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing and the widow of former President Georges Pompidou. See Senate, 19 June 2008 Proceedings
  23. ^ Question #140, answer published in the Journal officiel de la République française on 24 June 2008 page: 5368.
  24. ^ (in French) Hollande rabote les privilèges des anciens présidents, Le Monde, Octobre, 5, 2016.

Further reading

  • How Powerful Is France's President? A primer from the Council on Foreign Relations
  • John Gaffney. Political Leadership in France: From Charles de Gaulle to Nicolas Sarkozy (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012), ISBN 978-0-230-36037-2. Explores mythology and symbolism in French political culture through a study of the personas crafted by de Gaulle and his five successors.

External links

1962 French legislative election

French legislative elections took place on 18 November and 25 November 1962 to elect the second National Assembly of the Fifth Republic.

Since 1959 and the change of Algerian policy (Charles de Gaulle decided in favour of the "self-government" and "Algerian Algeria"), France had faced bomb attacks by the Secret Armed Organization (Organisation armée secrète or OAS) which opposed the independence of Algeria, negotiated by the FLN with the March 1962 Evian agreements and approved by referendum by the French people. This policy was disapproved by some members of the "Presidential Majority".

Simultaneously, when Georges Pompidou replaced Michel Debré as Prime minister, the center-right parties (MRP and CNIP) left the majority due to de Gaulle's eurosceptic declaration. Like the Left, they denounced the presidentialization of the regime.

On 22 August de Gaulle escaped from an assassination attempt by the OAS in Le Petit-Clamart. He subsequently announced a controversial referendum in which he proposed the election of the president of the French Republic under universal suffrage. The presidential majority composed of the UNR and the Independent Republicans (RI) (which came from a CNIP split) campaigned for a "yes", while all the other parties formed a "coalition of no" and brought down Pompidou's cabinet by a vote of no confidence (motion de censure).However, de Gaulle finally won the referendum and dissolved the National Assembly. During the legislative campaign, all the parties, except the UNR and the RI, criticized the "personal power" which they believed distorted France's Republican institutions. Indeed, in the French political culture and in their mind, Republicanism was inseparable from parliamentary democracy and the reinforcement of the presidential powers was associated with Bonapartism. Contrary to the previous legislative election, the left-wing parties finalized an electoral agreement. The subsequent legislative elections saw advances for the left-wing opposition. However, conservative voters sanctioned the center-right parties, preferring to vote for the Gaullist party. Pompidou became Prime Minister again.

1962 French presidential election referendum

A referendum on the direct election of the President was held in France on 28 October 1962. The question was whether to have the President of the French Republic elected by direct popular vote, rather than by an electoral college. It was approved by 62.3% of voters with a 77.0% turnout. However, the reform was controversial because it strengthened the executive at the expense of Parliament, and because of the disputed constitutionality of the procedure used.

2000 French constitutional referendum

A constitutional referendum was held in France on 24 September 2000. The proposals would result in the mandate of the President being reduced from seven years to five years in line with terms in office in other European countries. It was approved by 73.2% of voters, although turnout was just 30.2%.

Armorial of Presidents of France

Many of the Presidents of the French Republic have borne arms, either through inheritance or via membership in foreign orders of chivalry, particularly the Swedish Royal Order of the Seraphim and the Danish Order of the Elephant.

Bormes-les-Mimosas

Bormes-les-Mimosas is a commune in the Var department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.

It has a Mediterranean climate.

Bormes-les-Mimosas is a city in bloom and won the 2003 Gold Medal awarded by the Entente Florale. The Fort de Brégançon, located in the commune, is the official retreat for the President of the French Republic.

The historic village is situated on the hills. Medieval houses are overgrown with bougainvillea flowers. Significant buildings include the church and the town hall.

Other parts of town include the seaside district of La Faviere with its marina.

Chamber of Deputies (France)

Chamber of Deputies (French: Chambre des députés) was a parliamentary body in France in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries:

1814–1848 during the Bourbon Restoration and the July Monarchy, the Chamber of Deputies was the Lower chamber of the French Parliament, elected by census suffrage.

1875–1940 during the French Third Republic, the Chamber of Deputies was the legislative assembly of the French Parliament, elected by universal suffrage. When reunited with the French Senate at Versailles, the French Parliament was called the National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) and carried out the election of the President of the French Republic.

Congress of the French Parliament

The Congress of the French Parliament (French: Congrès du Parlement français) is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French Parliament—the National Assembly and the Senate—meet at the Palace of Versailles to vote on revisions to the Constitution or to listen to an address by the President of the French Republic.

France–Greece relations

France–Greece relations, or Franco-Greek relations, are foreign relations between France and Greece. In modern times, both countries established diplomatic relations in 1833, three years after Greek Independence. France and Greece, due to strong cultural and historical ties, have had a strong and special relationship and strategic alliance for decades and today enjoy strong diplomatic relations.

The two countries are EU, UN and NATO member states and cooperate in many other multilateral organizations, such as the La Francophonie, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe and the Union for the Mediterranean.

French commemorative medal

The French commemorative medal (French: "Médaille commémorative française") is a French decoration intended to recognize civilians and soldiers who took part in specific missions ordered by the French government carried out outside of French national territory after March 1, 1991. It was established by decree 95-1098 on 9 October 1995 on the initiative of the then Defence Minister, François Léotard.

Frédéric François-Marsal

Frédéric François-Marsal (French: [fʁedeʁik fʁɑ̃swa maʁsal]; 16 March 1874 – 20 May 1958) was a French Politician of the Third Republic, who served briefly as Prime Minister in 1924. Due to his premiership he also served for two days (11–13 June 1924) as the Acting President of the French Republic between the resignation of Alexandre Millerand and the election of Gaston Doumergue.

Georges Pompidou

Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (French: [ʒɔʁʒ pɔ̃pidu]; 5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history—and later President of the French Republic from 1969 until his death in 1974. He had long been a top aide to president Charles de Gaulle. As president, he was a moderate conservative who repaired France's relationship with the United States and maintained positive relations with the newly independent former colonies in Africa.

He strengthened his political party, the Union of Democrats for the Republic ("Union des Democrates pour la Ve République" or UDR), to make it a bastion of the Gaullist movement. Pompidou's presidency is generally held in high esteem by French political commentators.

List of Presidents of France

Below is a list of Presidents of France. The first President of the French Republic is considered to be Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (later Napoleon III), who was elected in the 1848 election, under the Second Republic. The current officeholder has been Emmanuel Macron since 14 May 2017. He was elected in the 2017 election.

Jean Casimir-Perier spent the shortest time in office, resigning in 1895, six months and 20 days after taking office. Five other Presidents of France resigned before the end of their term: Patrice de MacMahon in 1879, Jules Grévy in 1887, Alexandre Millerand in 1924, René Coty in 1959 and Charles de Gaulle in 1969. François Mitterrand served the longest, nearly fourteen years from 1981 to 1995. Of the individuals elected as President of the French Republic, two died in office of natural causes (Félix Faure and Georges Pompidou) and two were assassinated (Sadi Carnot and Paul Doumer).

List of Presidents of the Senate of France

The Senate of France is the upper house of the French Parliament. It is presided over by a president. Although there had been Senates in both the First and Second Empires, these had not technically been legislative bodies, but rather advisory bodies on the model of the Roman Senate. France's first experience with an upper house was under the Directory from 1795 to 1799, when the Council of Ancients was the upper chamber. With the Restoration in 1814, a new Chamber of Peers was created, on the model of the British House of Lords. At first it contained hereditary peers, but following the July Revolution of 1830, it became a body to which one was appointed for life. The Second Republic returned to a unicameral system after 1848, but soon after the establishment of the Second Empire in 1852, a Senate was established as the upper chamber. In the Fourth Republic, the Senate was renamed the Council of the Republic, but its function was largely the same. With the new constitution of the Fifth Republic in 1959, the older name of Senate was restored.

List of spouses or partners of the President of France

Spouses and partners of the President of France often play a protocol role at the Élysée Palace and during official visits, though possess no official title. Brigitte Macron is the spouse of the current president, Emmanuel Macron, who took office on 14 May 2017.

Meilleur Ouvrier de France

Un des Meilleurs Ouvriers de France is a craftsmen competition in France, held every four years.

The title of Un des Meilleurs Ouvriers de France (shortened to MOF) is a unique and prestigious award in France according to category of trades in a contest among professionals. This contest is organized and recognized as a third-level degree by the French Ministry of Labour. The President of the French Republic is granted honorary membership with the title MOF honoris causa. The awarding of medals occurs at the Sorbonne, in Paris, during a large reunion followed by a ceremony at the Élysée in the presence of the President of the French Republic.

This award for special abilities is unique in the world. Created in 1924, initially between the best workers of the era aged 23 and over, this contest was given the title of Un Des Meilleurs Ouvriers de France (One of the Best Craftsmen of France). Today, by the diversity of specialities, the list of which is regularly updated, the award has also been awarded to more modern trades and high technology fields.

In this competition, the candidate is given a certain amount of time and basic materials not only to create a masterpiece, but to do so with a goal of approaching perfection. The chosen method, the organization, the act, the speed, the knowhow and the respect for the rules of the trade are verified by a jury just as much as is the final result. The winning candidates retain their title for life, with the indication of the specialty, the year following the one in which they obtain the title.

This prestigious title is equally recognized by professionals and the greater public in France, particularly among artisan-merchants such as pastrymakers, hairdressers, butchers, jewelers, and others whose trades are recognized, particularly those for more luxurious goods.

This competition requires months, sometimes years, of preparation. Technical skills, innovation, respect for traditions and other aspects are all practiced repeatedly to a level of refinement and excellence, effectiveness and quickness to succeed and be crowned by the jury, which makes its decision according to the distribution of points awarded during the entire process.

Mr. President (title)

The title "Mr. President" (m.) or Madam President (f.) may apply to a person holding the title of president, or presiding over certain other governmental bodies.Adopted in the 1790s by George Washington, the first President of the United States, as his official manner of address as head of state, "Mr. President" has subsequently been used by other governments to refer to their heads of state. It is the conventional translation of non-English titles such as Monsieur le Président for the President of the French Republic. It also has a long history of usage as the title of the presiding officers of legislative and judicial bodies. The Speaker of the House of Commons of Canada is addressed as Monsieur le Président in French, and Mr. Speaker in English.

National Order of Merit (France)

The National Order of Merit (French: Ordre national du Mérite) is a French order of merit with membership awarded by the President of the French Republic, founded on 3 December 1963 by President Charles de Gaulle. The reason for the order's establishment was twofold: to replace the large number of ministerial orders previously awarded by the ministries; and to create an award that can be awarded at a lower level than the Legion of Honour, which is generally reserved for French citizens. It comprises about 187,000 members worldwide.

Renault Nervastella

The Nervastella is a large automobile constructed by Renault between 1930 and 1937. It was used as a state car and pictures of the President of the French Republic sitting in a Nervastella can therefore be seen in newsreels from the mid-1930s.

The car was a smaller brother to the Renault Reinastella which had been launched a year earlier, but the Nervastella was technically more advanced, and with a 3,350 mm (131.9 in) wheelbase it was still, by the standards of the time and place, large.

In the early 1930s Renault introduced a number of models with names that ended in "-stella", which was a conscious reference to the Latin word for a "star".

Émile Loubet

Émile François Loubet (French: [emil lubɛ]; 30 December 1838 – 20 December 1929) was the 45th Prime Minister of France and later President of France.

Trained in law, he became mayor of Montélimar, where he was noted as a forceful orator. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1876 and the Senate in 1885. He was appointed as a Republican minister under Carnot and Ribot. He was briefly Prime Minister of France in 1892. As President (1899–1906), he saw the successful Paris Exhibition of 1900, and the forging of the Entente Cordiale with the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, resolving their sharp differences over the Boer War and the Dreyfus Affair.

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