President of Ukraine

The President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Президент України, Prezydent Ukrayiny) is the Ukrainian head of state. The president represents the nation in international relations, administers the foreign political activity of the state, conducts negotiations and concludes international treaties. The president is directly elected by the citizens of Ukraine for a five-year term of office (whether the presidential election is early or scheduled), limited to two terms consecutively.[3]

The president's official residence is the Mariyinsky Palace, located in the Pechersk district of the capital Kyiv. Other official residences include the House with Chimaeras and the House of the Weeping Widow, which are used for official visits by foreign representatives. The Presidential Administration of Ukraine, unofficially known as "Bankova" in reference to the street it is located on, serves as the presidential administration, advising the president in the domestic, foreign and legal matters.

Since the office's establishment on 5 July 1991, there have been five presidents of Ukraine. Leonid Kravchuk was the inaugural president, serving three years from 1991 until his resignation in 1994. Leonid Kuchma was the only president to have served two consecutive terms in office. Both Viktor Yushchenko and Viktor Yanukovych served one term, with the latter being replaced by acting president Oleksandr Turchynov, who then also served as Chairman of the Ukrainian Parliament, on 21 February 2014.[4] Oleksandr Turchynov was the only acting president in Ukraine's modern history. Unlike in the US, where the vice president immediately receives all powers of the presidency upon assumption of the presidential office, in Ukraine the powers of an acting president are severely limited. On 18 June 2015, Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of president of Ukraine.[5] The Government of Ukraine utilizes a semi-presidential system in which the roles of the head of state and head of government are separate, thus the president of Ukraine is not the nation's head of government.[6] The prime minister serves as the head of government,[7] a role currently filled by Volodymyr Groysman who was appointed to the position in April 2016.

The current president is Petro Poroshenko who took the oath of office on 7 June 2014.[8] He is set to be succeeded by Volodymir Zelensky after the latter won the 2019 Ukrainian presidential election[9]; Zelensky's term is expected to begin on 3 June 2019.

President of Ukraine
Президент України
Flag of the President of Ukraine
Official portrait of Petro Poroshenko
Incumbent
Petro Poroshenko

since 7 June 2014
ResidenceMariyinsky Palace (ceremonial)
13 other available for use
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFive years
renewable once, consecutively
Inaugural holderAndriy Livytskyi,
16 July 1948[d]
(in exile)
Salary~11,000, annual[1][2]
Websitepresident.gov.ua

Overview

The president is also the commander-in-chief of the Ukrainian Army and heads the National Security and Defense Council, which advises the President, co-ordinates and controls the activity of bodies of executive power in the sphere of national security and defense.[10] According to the Constitution of Ukraine, the president is the guarantor of the state's sovereignty, territorial indivisibility, the observance of the Constitution of Ukraine and human and citizens' rights and freedoms.

As with the separation of powers, the president has checks on the authority of parliament and the judicial system. For instance, any law passed by the parliament can be vetoed by the president; however, parliament can override his veto with a 2/3 constitutional majority vote. The president has limited authority to disband the Verkhovna Rada (parliament), and nominates candidates for the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defense in the Ukrainian Cabinet of Ministers. Six out of eighteen of the Constitutional Court judges are appointed by the president. Decisions of the president are subject to review by Ukraine's courts with the Constitutional Court having the sole authority and power to declare decrees of the president unconstitutional. While in office, the president enjoys the right of immunity.

Ukrainian presidents are frequently asked by individual citizens for help in solving their personal problems (sometimes successfully); in 2012, (then) president Yanukovych received about 10,000 to 12,000 letters from people every month.[11] By-passing local governments is an ages-old practice in Ukraine.[11]

History

Hrushevskyi Mykhailo XX
President of the Central Council Mykhailo Hrushevskyi (1917–18)
Vynnychenko
President of the Directorate Volodymyr Vynnychenko (1918–19)
Симон Петлюра 1922
President of the Directorate Symon Petliura (1919–1926)
Andrij Liwycki
President of the Directorate Andriy Livytskyi (1926–1948)

Timeline

Pro-Russian administration

Early formation

Prior to the formation of the modern Ukrainian presidency, the previous Ukrainian head of state office was officially established in exile by Andriy Livytskyi. At first the de facto leader of nation was the president of the Central Rada at early years of the Ukrainian People's Republic, while the highest governing body was the General Secretariat headed by its chairman. With the proclamation of the last universal of the UPR dated 25 January 1918 due to a military aggression, the Central Rada (council) of the UPR proclaimed its independence from the Russia. On 29 April 1918, the Rada elected Mykhailo Hrushevskyi as the first President of the Central Rada of the Ukrainian People's Republic,[12] in effect making him the de facto leader of the republic. Although a rather widespread misconception, the state leadership position title varied and none of them had an official "presidential" title.

On 29 April 1918 the Central Rada was arrested and liquidated during a coup d'état initiated by the local German administration to install Hetman Pavlo Skoropadsky who barely spoke a word of the Ukrainian language. In November of the same year the directorate government of the UPR was established as the opposition movement to the Skoropadsky's regime. The Ukrainian People's Republic was soon re-established in December 1918 with Volodymyr Vynnychenko as the Directorate's chairman, serving as the republic's de facto second "President" from 19 December 1918 to 10 February 1919.[13] Although really the Directorate was the temporary governing body until the new Ukrainian Constituent Assembly would elect its president. Symon Petliura assumed the representation of the state after Vynnychenko's resignation on 11 February 1919 and until Petlyura's assassination in Paris on 25 May 1926.

In exile

After the Soviet offensive in 1920 and brought control of the Ukrainian territory under the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic, the Ukrainian People's Republic was forced into exile. Upon the assassination of Petliura, the control over the state affairs were transferred to the former Prime Minister Andriy Livytskyi who in 1948 created the office of the President of Ukraine. Livytskyi served as the first president (in exile) until January 1954. Stepan Vytvytskyi served after Livytskyi from January 1954 until his death on 9 October 1965. Following Vytvytskyi's death, Ivan Bahrianyi temporarily carried out the presidential authority until the third president-in-exile Mykola Livytskyi (son of the first president-in-exile) was sworn into office.[14] Livytskyi served from 1967 until his death in December 1989.

Mykola Plaviuk was the last president-in-exile (and the fourth), serving from December 1989 until his resignation on 22 August 1992 when he ceremonially gave in his presidential authority and state symbols to the newly elected Ukrainian president Leonid Kravchuk at his inauguration ceremony.[15][16] In his declaration, it is stated that the current Ukrainian state is the legal successor following the state traditions of the Ukrainian People's Republic,[14][15] establishing the continuity of the republic.

Viktor Yanukovych has claimed to be the legitimate president of Ukraine stating that the events of the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution amounted to a coup and that the impeachment process has not been properly carried out. On 3 October 2014, a Ukrainian official said that Viktor Yanukovych and other former top officials have obtained Russian citizenship in a "secret decree" signed by Vladimir Putin. If this actually turned out to be true, it would suggest that Yanukovich had given up his claims for presidency as Ukrainian law does not allow for dual citizenship.[17] However, this would not negate the claim that the change of government in March 2014 was a political coup d'état.

Modern presidency

The modern Ukrainian presidency was established on 5 July 1991 by the Verkhovna Rada of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which formed the office of "president of the Ukrainian SSR" (Ukrainian: Президент Української РСР).[18][19] During the transitional period until the presidential elections, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (then held by Leonid Kravchuk) was empowered with a presidential authority. With the proclamation of Ukrainian independence from the Soviet Union, the office's official title was changed to "President of Ukraine" on 24 August. In the current Constitution, the Ukrainian presidency is defined in Chapter V, Articles 102–112.

RIAN archive 41059 CIS heads of state
The first Ukrainian President Leonid Kravchuk (left) along with other heads of states of the newly formed Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991.

So far, five presidential elections have been conducted. The first election in 1991 was held at the same time as Ukrainians voted to support the Declaration of Independence in the independence referendum. Leonid Kravchuk was elected Ukraine's first president on 1 December 1991. He was elected by a record number of voters with over 19.5 million who wanted him to see as the leader of the state. That number has not been beaten yet. His major opponents were the leader of Rukh Vyacheslav Chornovil and the author of the Declaration of Independence. President Kravchuk remained in office until he resigned as part of a political compromise. A snap election was held in 1994, which was won by Ukraine's former Prime Minister Leonid Kuchma. Kuchma was re-elected for a second term of office in 1999.

The 2004 presidential election was marked by controversy with allegations of electoral fraud in the conduct of the second round runoff ballot between opposition candidate Viktor Yushchenko and the government-backed candidate and former Prime Minister Viktor Yanukovych. After mass nationwide protests, colloquially known as the "Orange Revolution," a new election was held on 26 December 2004 in which Victor Yushchenko was declared the winner with 52% of the vote and was subsequently sworn into office on 23 January 2005. Victor Yanukovych again served as Prime Minister.

The 2010 election took place on 17 January, with a run-off on 7 February due to a 13 May Constitutional Court ruling striking down 25 October date that the parliament called in April 2009.[20] As a result of this election Viktor Yanukovych was elected the fourth modern president of Ukraine.

After Viktor Yanukovych was removed from power in early 2014 as a result of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution the chairman of parliament Oleksandr Turchynov was appointed to the role of acting president by the Verkhovna Rada in accordance with article 112 of the Constitution of Ukraine. Oleksandr Turchynov served as the acting president from 23 February until 7 June 2014 and was the only person in Ukrainian history to serve in the role. The acting president of Ukraine lacks many of the executive powers of a president and is only meant to serve for a short time before a new election can take place. During his tenure Oleksandr Turchynov was addressed as "acting president" by other Ukrainian politicians and the media.

The 2014 election took place on 25 May, with businessman Petro Poroshenko winning over 54 percent of the vote; Yulia Tymoshenko was the runner up with around 13 percent.[21][22][23][24][3] Poroshenko was sworn in as president on 7 June 2014.[8]

On 18 June 2015 Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of President of Ukraine.[5]

The Government of Ukraine is based on a semi presidential system. The president of Ukraine is the head of state while the prime minister is the head of government with the current prime minister being Volodymyr Groysman. Ukraine is somewhat unusual in that while many countries use a similar system typically the role of one leader is relegated to being ceremonial, in Ukraine however both the prime minister and the president have great power and responsibility assigned to their roles. Because the president of Ukraine must approve the appointment of the prime minister the post of president is generally thought of as the more powerful role.[25]

Election and eligibility

Вибори Президента України 2014
Results of 25 May 2014 early presidential election; a majority of the electoral districts voted for Petro Poroshenko. Districts in gray were not voting due to the pro-Russian conflict. Districts in white are territories invaded by Russia.[26]

The Ukrainian president is elected by direct popular vote by Ukrainian citizens who are 18 years and over. The President is elected for a 5-year term of office, limited to two terms consecutively. [b]

Ukraine's electoral law provides for a two-round electoral system to elect the President; a candidate must win an absolute majority of all votes cast. If no candidate obtains an absolute majority in the first round of voting then the two highest polling candidates contest a run-off second ballot.[27]

According to Chapter V, Article 103 of the Constitution, to be elected president a candidate must be a Ukrainian citizen who has attained the age of 35, has the right to vote, and has resided in the country for the past 10 years[28] and has full command of the Ukrainian state language. Per the Constitution, regular presidential elections are scheduled to be held on the last Sunday of the last month of the fifth year of the incumbent President's term. If the President's authority has ended pre-term, then the elections must be held within 90 days of the incumbent President's end of term.

Candidates seeking election are required to pay a nomination deposit of 2,500,000 hryvnias (approx. 90,000 US Dollars) which is refunded only to those candidates that progress to the second round of voting.[29]

The last presidential elections took place on 21 April 2019.[30][31][32]

Oath and term of office

According to Article 104 of the Constitution, the President of Ukraine assumes office no later than in thirty days after the official announcement of the election results, from the moment of taking the oath to the people at a ceremonial meeting of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Ukrainian parliament. If the President is elected following special elections in the event of the previous president's resignation, impeachment or death, the President-elect must take oath of office within five days after the publication of the official election results.

The Chairman of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine administers the oath of office. The President-elect recites the Ukrainian oath of office with his hand on the Constitution and the Peresopnytsia Gospels:[33][c] The Ukrainian text of the oath according to the article 104 is:

Я, (ім'я та прізвище), волею народу обраний Президентом України, заступаючи на цей високий пост, урочисто присягаю на вірність Україні. Зобов'язуюсь усіма своїми справами боронити суверенітет і незалежність України, дбати про благо Вітчизни і добробут Українського народу, обстоювати права і свободи громадян, додержуватися Конституції України і законів України, виконувати свої обов'язки в інтересах усіх співвітчизників, підносити авторитет України у світі.

Official English translation:

I, (name and surname), elected by the will of the people as the President of Ukraine, assuming this high office, do solemnly swear allegiance to Ukraine. I pledge with all my undertakings to protect the sovereignty and independence of Ukraine, to provide for the good of the Motherland and the welfare of the Ukrainian people, to protect the rights and freedoms of citizens, to abide by the Constitution of Ukraine and the laws of Ukraine, to exercise my duties in the interests of all compatriots, and to enhance the prestige of Ukraine in the world.[34]

After conducting the oath, the President signs the text of the oath of office and transfers it over to the Chairman of the Constitutional Court.[33]

Duties and powers

Pres-adm-ukraine-2008
The building of the Presidential Administration (unofficially called "Bankova") in central Kyiv is located on the pedestrian Bankova Street.

According to Article 102 of the Constitution, the President is the guarantor of state sovereignty and territorial indivisibility of Ukraine, the observer of the Constitution and human rights and freedoms. As stated in Article 106, the President ensures state independence, national security and the legal succession of the state. Unlike in other semi-presidential systems of government, the President of Ukraine does not belong to the executive branch of government. The Prime Minister is Ukraine's head of government. Thus, the President serves to represent the country and government as a whole, and not any specific branch of government.[35] The President is obliged by the Constitution to prevent any actions of the executive, legislative and judicial branches from taking effect and interfering with the powers of the Constitution.[35] In addition, the President is barred by the Constitution from heading a political party.[36]

The President has the power to submit a proposal for the nomination of the Prime Minister; the Verkhovna Rada, through a constitutional majority, has to support the candidacy.[37] Laws passed by the Verkhovna Rada have to be signed by the President to become officially promulgated.[38] The President also has the authority to create consultative, advisory and other subordinate government bodies for their authority with the use of the state budget. The President may address the nation and the Verkhovna Rada with his annual and special addresses on domestic and foreign issues of Ukraine. They may also call for the conduction of national referendums. The President appoints the heads of local state administrations nominated by the Prime Minister for the period of his presidency.[39]

The President represents the country and government as a whole in international affairs. The President has the authority to conduct negotiations and sign treaties on behalf of the Ukrainian government. The right to recognize foreign nations rests solely with the President. The President may appoint and dismiss heads of diplomatic missions of Ukraine to other states and to international organizations and accept the recall of diplomatic representatives to Ukraine of foreign states. Although the President does not head the executive branch of government, he has the right to nominate his candidates for Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister of Defence in the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine.

20080929-8 d-0665-4-515h President Yuschenko in USA
Then-President Viktor Yushchenko meeting with then-US President George W. Bush in 2008.

As per the checks and balances system of Ukrainian government, the President can veto laws adopted by the Verkhovna Rada (except constitutional amendments). The President wields high power in the legislative branch of government compared to other European heads of state. They may disband the parliament and call for early elections.[40] This power has only been used twice to date, both times by incumbent President Viktor Yushchenko (in 2007 and 2008). The legislative branches' check on the President includes the right to overturn a presidential veto with a two-thirds majority vote of the parliament.

The President can suspend acts passed by the Cabinet of Ministers if they contradict the intent of the Constitution and challenge such acts with the Constitutional Court, one-third of which can be appointed (and dismissed) by the President. Ukrainian law also allows the President to establish new jurisdictional districts and courts. In addition, the President can select the Prosecutor General and Head of the Security Service of Ukraine with the Verkhovna Rada's consent. One-half of the Council of the National Bank of Ukraine and the National Council of Ukraine on Television and Radio Broadcasting is reserved for the President to select.

In addition to serving as the head of state, the President is the Ukrainian Army's Supreme Commander-in-Chief[41] (Article 106) and the Head of the National Security and Defense Council,[42] which advises the President regarding national security policy on domestic and international matters. The president can submit a declaration of war to the parliament and order the use of the Ukrainian Army and military formations in defense of aggression. Martial law can also be declared on the territory of Ukraine if state independence is deemed in danger. With the confirmation of the Verkhovna Rada, a state of emergency or zones of ecological emergency can also be adopted by the President.

Unconditional pardon is reserved exclusively for the President; however, this right cannot be exercised by an acting president. The President can also confer citizens with state orders such as the Hero of Ukraine or confer high military, diplomatic and other ranks and class orders. Citizenship and political asylum in Ukraine can be granted and revoked by the President of Ukraine and as regulated by law.

The President of Ukraine appoints heads of regional state administrations (oblderzhadministratsia) after a nomination by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine,[43] presidential representatives to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, Verkhovna Rada, and others. The President does not act as an ex officio head of state of Crimea. The President can revoke any laws passed by the Council of Ministers of Crimea that are deemed to contradict the Ukrainian Constitution and can provide thei presidential consent on a nominee for Prime Minister of Crimea.

The Constitution of Ukraine states that the title of President of Ukraine is preserved by law for the lifetime of the holder, if the president is not removed from the post by impeachment proceedings.[44]

List of presidential appointments

Supporting agencies

Viktor Yuschenko bodyguards
State Security bodyguards surround Viktor Yushchenko (far left) in Gdańsk, 2004.

Security agencies

  • Pardons Commission[49]

Administrative agencies

Impeachment and succession

In order to impeach the President, they must be suspected of treason to the state or other crimes.[51] A majority in the Verkhovna Rada (226 ayes) must support a procedure of impeachment for it to begin.[51] A temporary investigative commission is established by the parliament for the impeachment investigation.[51] The commission's final conclusions are considered at a parliamentary meeting.

To adopt an impeachment resolution, a minimum two-thirds of the parliament (300 members) must support the impeachment procedure. To remove the President from office, a minimum three-quarters of parliament (338 members) must support the resolution.[51] The Constitutional and the Supreme Court of Ukraine's conclusions and decisions are considered at the parliamentary meetings.[51]

In the event that a President is incapable of committing his/her duties as President, the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada becomes the acting president until a new president is elected.[51] The acting president is not given the authority to address the nation and parliament, dismiss the legislative branch and appoint candidates for parliamentary approval of government and judicial posts. The acting president cannot call for a referendum, grant military ranks and state orders and exercise their right of pardon. There are no constitutional provisions for presidential succession in case both the president and chairman's posts are vacant.

Privileges

An election as President of Ukraine garners many privileges of office to an individual. Full legal immunity is granted from all prosecutions and legal proceedings, excluding parliament's right to impeach the president. The title of President of Ukraine itself is protected by law and is reserved for the president for life, unless they have been impeached from office. According to Article 105 of the Constitution, offending the honor and dignity of the President is punishable by law, although no such law has yet been enacted.[52] The President's personal security is provided by the Directory of State Security of Ukraine and a separate presidential regiment provided by the Ministry of Interior.

For their services to the state, the president is allotted a yearly gross salary of 336,000 ($13,500, 2016).[53][54][55] All official and state visits made by the president are operated by the Ukraine Air Enterprise presidential airplanes.[56] All required aviation transportation is provided by the State Aviation Company "Ukraina" (Ukraine Air Enterprise), the headquarters of which is located in Boryspil.[57][58]

Buildings

The Presidential Administration of Ukraine is an administrative body set up to provide analytical, advisory and legal assistance to the President. It is colloquially known as "Bankova", because it is located on Bankova Street in a massive building across from the House with Chimaeras. The head of the administration, the Chief Secretary, acts as the gray cardinal for the president in Ukrainian politics. Around fourteen state residences are allocated for official Presidential use, many of which remain from the Kuchma-era presidency.[59] The official ceremonial residence is the Mariyinsky Palace in Kyiv. Other state residences include the House with Chimaeras and the House of the Weeping Widow in Kyiv, the Yusupov Palace in Crimea and Synehora in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast. In addition, each former president has been allotted a state-owned dacha in the former forest preserve in Koncha-Zaspa.[60]

A lot of additional material-technical, social-communal, health care provision support is offered by the State Department of Affairs (abbreviated as DUS) that is created for state officials and subordinated to the President of Ukraine.[61] DUS is a supporting state agency that was restructured in 2000 out of the Presidential Directory of Affairs. Primarily the agency is designated for the President and its administration, while also provides support for the Cabinet of Ministers, parliament, and other state agencies if budget permits.

Presidential Palace Ukraine

The rear facade of the Mariyinsky Palace, the president's ceremonial residence.

Square in front of House with Chimaeras

The House with Chimaeras is located across from the presidential administration.

House of the Weeping Widow front façade

The House of the Weeping Widow is used to house official state visitors.

Official symbols

The President's official state symbols consists of the Presidential Standard of the Ukrainian Flag, the Seal of the President of Ukraine, the Presidential ID Card, the Presidential Sign (collar), and the Bulava of the President of Ukraine.[62] The presidential symbols, along with other important Presidential documents and media, are contained in the Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, the country's main academic library. For the President's use, the library prepares documents and analytical materials.[63]

Family

The president's spouse is recognized as the First Lady, much in the similar fashion as in other countries, although such a title holds no official and legal responsibility and is often undisclosed. However, during the Yushchenko Presidency, his marriage to Kateryna Yushchenko and their private life drew a lot of attention from the media. Apart from Kateryna Yushchenko, little else is known about the other presidential spouses.

The tradition of the Ukrainian "First family" was established by Kuchma, who became the in-law to his daughter's husband and politician Viktor Pinchuk. During the presidency of Viktor Yanukovych, the "first family" meaning was taken to the next level whose son Viktor became a parliamentarian of Verkhovna Rada with the same political party affiliation.

List of presidents

Living presidents

Leonid Kravchuk

1st
Leonid Kravchuk

(1991–1994)

Kuchmaukraine

2nd
Leonid Kuchma

(1994–2005)

Wiktor Juschtschenko, Präsident der Ukraine, in der Universität Zürich

3rd
Viktor Yushchenko

(2005–2010)

Viktor Yanukovych Greece 2011 (cropped)

4th
Viktor Yanukovych

(2010–2014)

Oleksandr Turchynov 2012-10-19

Acting
Oleksandr Turchynov
(2014)

Official portrait of Petro Poroshenko

5th
Petro Poroshenko

(2014–present)

Timeline (since 1991)

See also

Notes

a.^ As President of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.

b.^ Per Chapter V, Article 103 of the Constitution, the President is allowed to serve a maximum of two full 5-year terms. However, in 2003, the Constitutional Court of Ukraine permitted then-President Leonid Kuchma to run for a third term in the 2004 presidential election (he chose not to run). "Summary to the Decision no. 22-rp/2003 of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine as of 25 December 2003". Constitutional Court of Ukraine. 25 December 2003. Archived from the original (Microsoft Word document) on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2009.

C.^ Official Ukrainian text of the oath: "Я, (ім'я та прізвище), волею народу обраний Президентом України, заступаючи на цей високий пост, урочисто присягаю на вірність Україні. Зобов'язуюсь усіма своїми справами боронити суверенітет і незалежність України, дбати про благо Вітчизни і добробут Українського народу, обстоювати права і свободи громадян, додержуватися Конституції України і законів України, виконувати свої обов'язки в інтересах усіх співвітчизників, підносити авторитет України у світі." Source: Стаття 104. Constitution of Ukraine (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 13 December 2008.

D.^ Although Leonid Kravchuk's official inauguration ceremony was conducted on 22 August 1992, he carried out most of the presidential responsibilities temporarily ceded to him as Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada until 5 December 1991 when he became President.

References

Citations
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External links

17th Tank Brigade (Ukraine)

The 17th Tank Brigade is a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. The full name of the Brigade is the 17th Separate Kryvyi Rih Tank Brigade. It was formerly known as 17th Guards Tank Division. The Brigade is located in Kryvyi Rih.

Awards and decorations of the Ukrainian Armed Forces

Awards and decorations of the Ukrainian Armed Forces are military decorations issued by the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine to soldiers who achieve a variety of qualifications, who have completed classroom training standards stipulated in their military occupational specialty and accomplishments while serving on active and reserve duty in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. Together with military badges, medals are a means to outwardly display the highlights of a service member's career.

These badges are worn in order of precedence (Master the highest). Only badge of the highest degree worn.On May 30, 2012 President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych issued a decree enacted new regulations on departmental awards. During 2012-2013 the Ministry of Defence of Ukraine has developed a new system of incentive awards.

Bulava of the President of Ukraine

The presidential mace is made of gold-plated silver and weighs 750 grams. It consists of two hollow parts: a handle and a top, the so-called apple. It contain a “secret” – a three-edged damask blade bearing the engraving “Omnia revertutur”, Latin for Everything returns. The top of the mace is adorned with golden ornamental medallions and crowned with an enameled and gemmed golden wreath. The mace is fitted with a total of 64 emeralds and garnets, mounted in gold. The blade can be extracted from the mace by means of a button decorated with a Yakut emerald. The mace is kept in a mahogany carved coffer.

Chief of Local State Administration (Ukraine)

In Ukraine, the title Head (Chief) of Local State Administration (Ukrainian: Голова місцевої державної адміністрації) refers to the chief executive of each of the administrative divisions of Ukraine: oblast (region/province), raion (district) or city, in case of Kiev and Sevastopol.

Informally the position of the head of Regional State Administration or more commonly Oblast State Administration (for oblasts) is referred to as governor. However, its function is very different from a traditional gubernatorial position.

The Head of Local State Administrations are appointed and dismissed by the President of Ukraine on the submission of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine for the term of office of the Head of the State.

Collar of the President of Ukraine

The sign (collar) of the President of Ukraine weighs about 400 grams. President’s collar is not obligatory, but most European heads of state have such a decoration: for instance, the President’s collar (male jewelry like a female necklace) is one of the symbols of state power in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Bulgaria. Some countries grant another collar to new head of the state, and the previous one passes to the national museums. An open-work chain with a historical relic – an amulet which, as the legend reads, belonged to Ukrainian Hetman Ivan Mazepa – was among the attributes of the President of Ukraine (in exile).

The collar is made of white and yellow gold. Kiev artists have painted its seven medallions. They represent miniatures of Vladimir the Great’s Trident, the coat of arms of the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia and that of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, “The Cossack with a Musket” sign, Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky’s patrimonial Syrokomla coat of arms and the Ukrainian People's Republic’s coat of arms as the first attempt to establish independent Ukraine in the 20th century. The painted medallions alternate with jewelry ones: above laurel wreathes of white gold there are guelder rose leaves of yellow gold gemmed with 96 garnets each one and a half millimeters.

Both, the seal and the collar are kept in leather cases with the velvet lodgement and the imprinted image of the lesser Emblem of Ukraine.

Flag of the President of Ukraine

The Flag (Standard) of the President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Прапор (штандарт) Президента України) is the official flag of the President of Ukraine.

Hero of Ukraine

Hero of Ukraine (HOU) (Ukrainian: Герой України, Heroy Ukrayiny) is the highest national title that can be conferred upon an individual citizen by the President of Ukraine. The title was created in 1998 by President Leonid Kuchma and as of 6 March 2019 the total number of awards is 445. The title is granted to two different order recipients, a civilian Order of State and a military Order of Gold Star. The first foreigner awarded the award was Belarusian Mikhail Zhyzneuski in June 2017.There has been controversy over some of the awards, including allegations that they have either been politically motivated or given to those undeserving of the award.

Korrespondent

Korrespondent (Russian: Корреспондент; Ukrainian: Кореспондент; literally: Correspondent) is a weekly printed magazine published in Ukraine in the Russian and Ukrainian languages. It is part of United Media Holding group, created by Boris Lozhkin and owned by Serhiy Kurchenko.

Ministry of Defence (Ukraine)

The Ministry of Defence of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Міністерство оборони України) was established on 24 September 1991, one month after Ukraine's declaration of independence resolution. The ministry was in charge of all Soviet military forces reorganization on the territory of Ukrainian jurisdiction.President of Ukraine (currently Petro Poroshenko) is Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.

In 1994 Ukraine has voluntarily given up all nuclear weapons. The Ministry spent significant funds eliminating former nuclear powers, military bases and man-power equipment to meet Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe requirements.

National Academy for Public Administration under the President of Ukraine

The National Academy of State Administration (Ukrainian: Національна академія державного управління) of the President of Ukraine is the main state higher educational establishment in Ukraine for preparation, over-preparation and improvement of qualification of state service personnel and officials of local self-administration. It was founded in 1995 as the Ukrainian Academy of State Administration.

National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine

The National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Рада національної безпеки і оборони України) or NSDC (Ukrainian: РНБО / RNBO[U]), is an advisory state body to the President of Ukraine.

It is a state agency tasked with developing a policy of national security on domestic and international matters in advising the President of Ukraine (currently Petro Poroshenko). All the sessions of the council take place in the Presidential Administration Building. The council is currently headed by Oleksandr Turchynov.

Order of Merit (Ukraine)

The Order of Merit (Ukrainian: Орден «За заслуги») (Distinguished service) first, second or third class, is the Ukrainian order of merit, given to individuals for outstanding achievements in economics, science, culture, military or political spheres of activity. It was first established by Ukrainian president Leonid Kuchma on September 22, 1996.

There are 3 grades, the highest being the first grade honours.

Those who are awarded the Order of Merit have the official title Chevalier of the Order of Merit.

The order can be granted posthumously.

President of Ukraine (in exile)

President of the Ukrainian People's Republic in exile (Ukrainian: Президент УНР в екзилі) was an official position of the Ukrainian government-in-exile after World War II. The post was basically transformed out of the position of chairman of Directorate of Ukraine.

Presidential Administration of Ukraine

The Presidential Administration (Ukrainian: Адміністрація Президента) or unofficially Bankova (Ukrainian: Банкова, literally "Bank Street", Bankova means "Bank" as adjective) is an administrative body set up to assist the President of Ukraine. The main purpose of the Administration is to provide administrative, advisory, analytical, and legal assistance to the President. The Administration arranges communication and official statements between the President and Ukrainian parliament, the Verkhovna Rada, the Cabinet of Ministers, the Constitutional Court, local government bodies, and other institutions.

Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea

The Permanent Representative of the President of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Ukrainian: Постійний Представник Президента України в АР Крим) represents the President of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea.

Originally created in 1992 as the Presidential representative of Ukraine in Crimea was not appointed until March 1994. The first representative was appointed Valeriy Horbatov who worked as a head of the Krupskaya collective farm in Nyzhnohirskyi Raion, Crimean Oblast.

Representatives of the President of Ukraine

Representatives of the President of Ukraine (Ukrainian: Представники Президента України) are five chief offices that are directed by a presidential representative. Given that the President of Ukraine is head of state, the President faces the need to represent his/her interests in different political and judicial bodies of power in the country.

Seal of the President of Ukraine

The official seal of the President of Ukraine is ring-shaped. There is an image of the lesser Coat of Arms of Ukraine in the center of the stamp hemmed with “The President of Ukraine” inscription. Below the National Emblem is an image of the Order of Prince Yaroslav the Wise. The handle of the new seal is garnished with a lapis lazuli ball. The neck or central part of the seal is gilded; its colors are that of the national Flag of Ukraine – blue above and yellow below. The seal is made of silver and weighs next to half a kilogram. Kiev jeweler Mykhailo Cheburakhin made it using sketches by Oleksiy Rudenko just for a week.

State symbols of the President of Ukraine

The official symbols of the head of state (Ukrainian: Oфіційні символи глави держави) are the state insignia of the President of Ukraine. Pursuant to presidential decree of November 29, 1999, they include four items: colour (standart), collar, bulawa and official seal. Some of the items of the set are adopted from the Cossack regalia (Kleinodien) that once were accepted from the King of Poland Stefan Batory.

Ukrainian presidential elections

Ukrainian presidential elections determine who will serve as the President of Ukraine for the next five years.Since the establishment of the position of the President of Ukraine in 1991, the presidential elections have taken place six times: in 1991, 1994, 1999, 2004, 2010 and 2014. The 2019 presidential election is ongoing.

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