The President of the Republic of Turkey (Turkish: Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state and head of government of the Republic of Turkey. Following the 2018 general election, the incumbent office-holder assumed the role of an Executive President and holds both ceremonial and executive status. In this capacity, the President represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation, as well as ensuring the implementation of the Constitution of Turkey and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the Constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties, and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on 29 October 1923. The President of Turkey is often referred to as the Cumhurbaşkanı, meaning 'President of the People'.
Often since 1950, the presidency has been a mostly ceremonial office. However, in a 2017 referendum, the Turkish people narrowly voted to make the presidency an executive post, effective with the 2018 general election.
The current office-holder is Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, who has held the office since 28 August 2014. Since 9 July 2018, Erdoğan has served as the first Executive President, with increased legislative and judicial powers.
|President of the Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanı
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan
since 28 August 2014
|Status||Head of state |
Head of government (both since 2018)
|Term length||Five years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Mustafa Kemal Atatürk|
|Formation||29 October 1923|
|Deputy||Vice President of Turkey|
In order to become the President of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, and be of at least forty years of age. If they are a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly, they must resign their seat.
In the past, Turkish presidents were required to sever all relations, if any, with their political party.
The election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election. Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, and elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days.
Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Turkish Parliament. According to an amendment that was drafted in 2007, the future Presidents shall be elected by the citizens through a public vote. The candidates must be at least forty years old and must have completed higher education. They can either be members of the Turkish Parliament, or members of the public who fulfill these requirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament.
The President is selected for a term of office of five years, and is eligible for re-election .
The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the President-elect takes office.
On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament:
I swear upon my honour and integrity, before the great Turkish Nation, to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of the country and the nation, and the absolute sovereignty of the nation; to remain loyal to the supremacy of law, to the democratic and secular republic, and to Atatürk’s principles and reforms; not to deviate from the ideal according to which everyone is entitled to enjoy human rights and fundamental freedoms under the notion of peace and prosperity in society, national solidarity and justice, and loyalty to the Constitution.
The oath is broadcast live on TBMM-TV regardless of it is a regular business day of TBMM.
The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the constitution and laws.
All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own, must be signed by the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws. Thus the prime minister and the concerned ministers are accountable for these decrees. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed against to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The president may be impeached for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament, and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members.
On 9 July 2018, as President Recep Tayyip Erdogan was inaugurated for a second term, Turkey exchanged its 95-year-old parliamentary system for one in which virtually all political power is concentrated in the office of the presidency. Over the days that followed, Erdogan issued a series of presidential decrees, abolishing or amending a host of laws, regulations and institutions, radically reshaping the apparatus of state.
In the event of a temporary absence of the President on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the Vice President of Turkey serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the President until the Presidents comes back. If the Presidents resigns or dies, the TBMM Speaker serves as Acting President, and exercises the powers of the President until the new election happens in 45 days.
There are two living former Turkish Presidents:
General elections were held throughout Turkey on 24 June 2018. Originally due on 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan announced on 18 April 2018 that the vote was being brought forward. Presidential elections were held to elect the President of Turkey using a two-round system. Parliamentary elections took place to elect 600 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey.Ahmet Necdet Sezer
Ahmet Necdet Sezer (pronounced [ahmet nedʒdet ˈsezæɾ]; born September 13, 1941) is a Turkish politician who was the tenth President of Turkey, serving from 2000 to 2007. Previously he was President of the Constitutional Court of Turkey from 1998 to 2000. The Grand National Assembly of Turkey elected Sezer as President in 2000 after Süleyman Demirel's seven-year term expired. He was succeeded by Abdullah Gül in 2007.
Following his legal career, Sezer became a candidate for the Presidency jointly supported by many political parties in Parliament. Following the 2000 presidential election, he took an ardent secularist approach on issues such as the headscarf and held the view that secularism in Turkey was under threat. A quarrel between Sezer and the Prime Minister Bülent Ecevit in 2001 led to a financial meltdown, attributed to the weakness of the coalition government as well as the existence of a large amount of debt to the International Monetary Fund.
The landslide victory of the conservative Islamist Justice and Development Party (AKP) in the 2002 general election resulted in strong opposition from President Sezer, who vetoed several laws and referred some to the Constitutional Court. These included laws on banking reform and the lifting of Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's political ban. During receptions at the presidential palace, Sezer refused to allow women wearing the headscarf to attend per the laws on separation of mosque and state at the time, resulting in the wives of Abdullah Gül and Erdoğan, Hayrünnisa Gül and Emine Erdoğan respectively, not attending the events. Erdoğan later publicly stated that he had 'suffered a lot' from Sezer.During the 2014 presidential election, Sezer openly refused to vote, citing the lack of a secularist candidate as his reason.Celâl Bayar
Mahmut Celâl Bayar (16 May 1883 – 22 August 1986) was a Turkish politician, who was the third President of Turkey from 1950 to 1960; previously he was Prime Minister of Turkey from 1937 to 1939. Bayar, as the Turkish President, was decorated with the Legion of Merit by the President of the United States, as a result of Turkey's participation in the Korean War. He is considered to be the longest-lived former head of state and was the longest-lived state leader until 8 December 2008 (when he was surpassed by Chau Sen Cocsal Chhum). Celal Bayar died on 22 August 1986 at the age of 103 after a brief illness.Community of İskenderpaşa
İskenderpaşa Jamia or The Community of İskenderpaşa (Turkish: İskenderpaşa Cemaati) is a branch of Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya Ṭarīqah (Sufi Order) in Turkey.First Ladies of Turkey
The First Lady of Turkey is the wife of the President of Turkey.Fuat Oktay
Fuat Oktay (born 1964) is a Turkish politician, civil servant and academic who is the first and current Vice President of Turkey since 10 July 2018. He was the Undersecretary to the Prime Minister of Turkey from 19 June 2016 until his appointment as Vice President in 2018.History of Turkish presidential elections
There have been 17 elections for the President of Turkey since the establishment of the republic in 1923, electing 9 distinct Turkish citizens as president. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and İsmet İnönü were elected four times, Celal Bayar was elected three times, and Cemal Gürsel, Cevdet Sunay, Fahri Korutürk, Turgut Özal, Süleyman Demirel, and Ahmet Necdet Sezer were each elected once. Kenan Evren became the president without an election, so that he assumed the title by the ratification of the present constitution on 7 November 1982 (Constitution of Turkey provisional article 1).Kenan Evren
Ahmet Kenan Evren (Turkish: [ˈce.nan ˈev.ɾen]; 17 July 1917 – 9 May 2015) was a Turkish politician and military officer, who served as the seventh President of Turkey from 1980 to 1989. He assumed the post by leading the 1980 military coup.
On 18 June 2014, a Turkish court sentenced him to life imprisonment and demotion of his military rank down to private, from army general, for leading the military coup in 1980, obstructing democracy by deposing the prime minister Süleyman Demirel, abolishing the parliament and the senate and abolishing the constitution. This sentence was on appeal at the time of his death.Evren died at a military hospital in Ankara on 9 May 2015, aged 97.List of Prime Ministers of Turkey
The following is a complete list of Prime Ministers of Turkey, since the establishment of that position in 1920, during the Turkish War of Independence. The Prime Minister was the head of the executive branch of the government along with the Cabinet. Following the constitutional referendum of 2017, the office of Prime Minister was abolished and Supreme power was handed to the President of Turkey after the general election of 2018.
For a list of Grand Viziers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see List of Ottoman Grand Viziers.Ministry of National Defence (Turkey)
The Ministry of National Defence (Turkish: Millî Savunma Bakanlığı) is a government ministry office of the Republic of Turkey, responsible for coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the Turkish Armed Forces. It is headquartered at the Bakanlıklar in Ankara.
The Ministry of National Defence is headed by the Minister of National Defence, a cabinet-level head who reports directly to the President of Turkey.Politics of Turkey
The politics of Turkey takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Turkey is the head of government and the head of state who holds executive powers to issue executive decrees, appoint judges and heads of state institutions.
Turkey's political system is based on a separation of powers. Executive power is exercised by the Council of Ministers. Legislative power is vested in the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. Its current constitution was adopted on 7 November 1982 after the Turkish constitutional referendum.
A major reform was passed in Parliament in 21 January 2017 and approved by referendum the following April reinforcing the role of the president.
The Economist Intelligence Unit has rated Turkey as "hybrid regime" in 2017.Presidential Seal of Turkey
The Presidential Seal of Turkey is the official seal of the President of Turkey. It has a large 16-pointed Sun which symbolizes the Republic of Turkey in the center, which is surrounded by 16 five-pointed stars, symbolizing the 16 Great Turkish Empires in history. It is the oldest presidential seal in the world still in use.
The roots of the Presidential Seal and Presidential Flag of Turkey go back to September 1922, when a similar flag was used on the automobile that took Mustafa Kemal Atatürk to İzmir during the final days of the Turkish National Campaign. This flag is currently on display at the Anıtkabir Museum in Ankara. The Presidential Flag's characteristics and proportions were legalized with the Sancak Talimatnamesi law on October 22, 1925. According to this law, the Presidential Seal's dimensions were defined as "70cm x 70cm", while the Sun in the center (which looked similar to the current one) was a 20-pointed star containing 10 sharp-edged and 10 oval-edged light rays. The "70cm x 70cm" dimensions of the Presidential Seal were maintained in the Turkish Flag Law of May 29, 1936; but were later reduced to "30cm x 30cm" with a new legal amendment that was made on September 14, 1937. The number of the light rays in the Sun of the Presidential Seal were reduced to 16 (8 long and 8 short light rays, all of them sharp-edged) in order to symbolize the 16 Turkic states in history, with another legal amendment on February 18, 1978. The seal and flag took their current shape and proportions with the final legal amendment on January 25, 1985.The 16 Great Turkic Empires are a Pan-Turkist concept introduced in 1969 by Akib Özbek. Its association with the seal was introduced in 1985, under president Kenan Evren. Prior to this assertion, the 16 stars had been taken as representing sixteen medieval beyliks which succeeded the Seljuk Empire.Seyhan Dam
The Seyhan Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Seyhan River north of Adana, Turkey
The dam was built in the 1950s as the first in a series of hydroelectric projects funded by the World Bank. The construction project was authorized by Prime Minister Adnan Menderes. The project manager was Süleyman Demirel. latter prime minister and 9th president of Turkey.Süleyman Demirel
Sami Süleyman Gündoğdu Demirel (Turkish pronunciation: [sylejˈman demiˈɾel], 1 November 1924 – 17 June 2015) was a Turkish statesman and political leader who served as the 9th President of Turkey from 1993 to 2000. He previously served as the Prime Minister of Turkey seven times between the years 1965 and 1993. He was the leader of the Justice Party (AP) from 1964 to 1980 and the leader of the True Path Party (DYP) from 1987 to 1993.
Having been identified as a potential future Prime Minister by Adnan Menderes, Demirel was elected leader of the Justice Party in 1964 and managed to bring down the government of İsmet İnönü in 1965 despite not being a Member of Parliament. He supported the government of Suat Hayri Ürgüplü until his party won a parliamentary majority in the 1965 general election. Claiming that his grouping was the successor of the banned Democrat Party, he was re-elected as Prime Minister in 1969 by winning a parliamentary majority for a second time. Despite his economic reforms which stabilised inflation, he resigned as Prime Minister after his budget was blocked by parliament, but formed his third government shortly after. His premiership came to an end following the 1971 Turkish coup d'état.
Demirel was the leader of the opposition from 1971 to 1975 before forming a four-party government known as the First Nationalist Front, which collapsed in 1977. With two other parties, he formed the Second Nationalist Front cabinet in 1977, which collapsed in 1978. Demirel's minority government in 1979 was unable to elect a president in 1980, leading to the 1980 Turkish coup d'état which banned Demirel from politics. In the 1987 constitutional referendum, Demirel regained the right to actively participate in politics and assumed the leadership of the True Path Party. He won the 1991 general election and formed a coalition with the Social Democratic Populist Party (SHP), assuming his fifth and final term as Prime Minister. Following the sudden death of serving President Turgut Özal, Demirel contested the 1993 presidential election and subsequently became the ninth President of Turkey until 2000. With 10 years and 5 months, Demirel's tenure in the prime ministership is the third longest in Turkish history, after İsmet İnönü and Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.Turgut Özal (Istanbul Metro)
Turgut Özal is an underground rapid transit station on the M3 line of the Istanbul Metro. It is located in southern Başakşehir under Turgut Özal Boulevard. The station was named after Turgut Özal, the 8th President of Turkey. Turgut Özal was opened on 14 July 2013 and has an island platform serviced by two tracks.Turkey–United Kingdom relations
Turkish–British relations are foreign relations between the Republic of Turkey and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The two nations have been at war several times, such as within the First World War. They have also been allied several times, however, such as in the Crimean War. Both countries currently maintain relations via the British Embassy in Ankara and the Turkish Embassy in London.Turkey and the United Kingdom maintain good bilateral relations.
The President of Turkey Cevdet Sunay paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in November 1967.
The President of Turkey Kenan Evren paid a state visit to the United Kingdom in July 1988.
Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom paid state visits to Turkey in October 1971 and May 2008. Britain and Turkey are both members of the G20, and Britain has supported the accession of Turkey to the European Union.Turkish Armed Forces
The Turkish Armed Forces (TAF; Turkish: Türk Silahlı Kuvvetleri, TSK) are the military forces of the Republic of Turkey. They consist of the Army, the Navy and the Air Force. The Gendarmerie and the Coast Guard, both of which have law enforcement and military functions, operate as components of the internal security forces in peacetime, and are subordinate to the Ministry of Interior. In wartime, they are subordinate to the Army and Navy. The President of Turkey is the military's overall head.
The current Chief of the General staff is General Yaşar Güler. The Chief of the General Staff is the Commander of the Armed Forces. In wartime, he acts as the Commander in Chief on behalf of the President of Turkey, who represents the Supreme Military Command of the TAF on behalf of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. Commanding the Armed Forces and establishing the policies and programs related with the preparation for combat of personnel, intelligence, operations, organization, training and logistic services are the responsibilities of the General Staff. Furthermore, the General Staff coordinates the military relations of the TAF with NATO member states and other friendly nations.
The modern history of the army began with its formation after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. The Turkish military perceived itself as the guardian of Kemalist ideology, the official state ideology, especially of the secular aspects of Kemalism. After becoming a member of NATO on 18 February 1952, Turkey initiated a comprehensive modernization program for its armed forces. The Turkish Army sent troops to fight in Korea, where they played pivotal roles at some points. Towards the end of the 1980s, a second restructuring process was initiated. The Turkish Armed Forces participate in European Union battlegroups under the control of the European Council, namely the Italian-Romanian-Turkish Battlegroup. The TAF also contributes operational staff to the Eurocorps multinational army corps initiative of the EU and NATO.
The Turkish Armed Forces collectively rank as the second largest standing military force in NATO, after the U.S. Armed Forces, with an estimated strength in 2015 of 639,551 military, civilian and paramilitary personnel. Turkey is one of five NATO member states which are part of the nuclear sharing policy of the alliance, together with Belgium, Germany, Italy, and the Netherlands. A total of 90 B61 nuclear bombs are hosted at the Incirlik Air Base, 40 of which are allocated for use by the Turkish Air Force in case of a nuclear conflict, but their use requires the approval of NATO.Vice President of Turkey
The Vice President of Turkey is the second-highest constitutional office in Turkey, after the President.On 9 July 2018 Fuat Oktay was appointed as Vice President of Turkey.İsmet İnönü Boulevard (Ankara)
İsmet İnönü Boulevard (a.k.a. Eskişehir Boulevard) is a busy boulevard in Ankara, Turkey. The boulevard is named after İsmet İnönü, the second president of Turkey and one of the pioneers of the Turkish War of Independence.
Heads of state and government of Europe