President of South Korea

The President of the Republic of Korea (Hangul대한민국 대통령; Hanja大韓民國 大統領; RRDaehan Minguk Daetongnyeong) is, according to the South Korean constitution, the chairperson of the cabinet, the chief executive of the government, commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and the head of state of South Korea. The Constitution and the amended Presidential Election Act of 1987 provide for election of the president by direct, secret ballot, ending sixteen years of indirect presidential elections under the preceding two governments. The president is directly elected to a five-year term, with no possibility of re-election.[1] If a presidential vacancy should occur, a successor must be elected within sixty days, during which time presidential duties are to be performed by the prime minister or other senior cabinet members in the order of priority as determined by law. While in office, the chief executive lives in Cheong Wa Dae (the "Blue House"), and is exempt from criminal liability (except for insurrection or treason).

Moon Jae-in, former human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun,[2] assumed post of President of South Korea on 10 May 2017[3] immediately upon being elected with a plurality of 41.1%, in contrast to 24.0% and 21.4% won by his major opponents, conservative Hong Joon-pyo and centrist Ahn Cheol-soo, respectively.[4]

President of the
Republic of Korea
대한민국 대통령
Seal of the President of the Republic of Korea
The Presidential Seal
Flag of the President of South Korea
Presidential Standard
Moon Jae-in 2017-10-01
Incumbent
Moon Jae-in

since 10 May 2017
Executive branch of the Government of South Korea
StyleMr. President (대통령님)
(informal)
His Excellency (대통령 각하)
(diplomatic)
StatusHead of State
Head of Government
AbbreviationPOSK
Member ofState Council
National Security Council
National Unification Advisory Council
ResidenceBlue House
SeatSeoul, South Korea
NominatorPolitical Parties
AppointerDirect popular vote
Term lengthFive years;
Not eligible for re-election
Constituting instrumentSouth Korean constitution
Inaugural holderSyngman Rhee
Formation
DeputyPrime Minister of South Korea
Salary225,000,000 ($211,000)
Website(in English) english.president.go.kr
(in Korean) president.go.kr

Powers and duties of the president

Chapter 3 of the South Korean constitution states the duties and the powers of the president. The president is required to:

Also, the president is given the powers:

If the National Assembly votes against a presidential decision, it will be declared void immediately.

The president may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the National Assembly). In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the president may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order." Emergency measures may be taken only when the National Assembly is not in session and when there is no time for it to convene. The measures are limited to the "minimum necessary."

The 1987 Constitution removed the 1980 Constitution's explicit provisions that empowered the government to temporarily suspend the freedoms and rights of the people. However, the president is permitted to take other measures that could amend or abolish existing laws for the duration of a crisis. It is unclear whether such emergency measures could temporarily suspend portions of the Constitution itself. Emergency measures must be referred to the National Assembly for concurrence. If not endorsed by the assembly, the emergency measures can be revoked; any laws that had been overridden by presidential order regain their original effect. In this respect, the power of the legislature is more vigorously asserted than in cases of ratification of treaties or declarations of war, in which the Constitution simply states that the National Assembly "has the right to consent" to the president's actions. In a change from the 1980 Constitution, the 1987 Constitution stated that the president is not permitted to dissolve the National Assembly.

Related constitutional organs

The official residence of the president is Cheong Wa Dae. It means 'the House of the Blue Roof Tiles', so it is also called the "Blue House" in English. The president is assisted by the staff of the Presidential Secretariat, headed by a cabinet-rank secretary general. Apart from the State Council, or cabinet, the chief executive relies on several constitutional organs.

These constitutional organs included the National Security Council, which provided advice concerning the foreign, military, and domestic policies bearing on national security. Chaired by the president, the council in 1990 had as its statutory members the prime minister, the deputy prime minister, the ministers for foreign affairs, home affairs, finance, and national defense, the director of the Agency for National Security Planning (ANSP) which was known as the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA) until December 1980, and others designated by the president. Another important body is the National Unification Advisory Council, inaugurated in June 1981 under the chairpersonship of the president. From its inception, this body had no policy role, but rather appeared to serve as a government sounding board and as a means to disburse political rewards by providing large numbers of dignitaries and others with titles and opportunities to meet periodically with the president and other senior officials.

The president also was assisted in 1990 by the Audit and Inspection Board. In addition to auditing the accounts of all public institutions, the board scrutinized the administrative performance of government agencies and public officials. Its findings were reported to the president and the National Assembly, which itself had broad powers to inspect the work of the bureaucracy under the provisions of the Constitution. Board members were appointed by the president.

One controversial constitutional organ was the Advisory Council of Elder Statesmen, which replaced a smaller body in February 1988, just before Roh Tae Woo was sworn in as president. This body was supposed to be chaired by the immediate former president; its expansion to eighty members, broadened functions, and elevation to cabinet rank made it appear to have been designed, as one Seoul newspaper said, to "preserve the status and position of a certain individual." The government announced plans to reduce the size and functions of this body immediately after Roh's inauguration. Public suspicions that the council might provide former President Chun with a power base within the Sixth Republic were rendered moot when Chun withdrew to an isolated Buddhist temple in self-imposed exile in November 1988.

Order of succession

Article 71 of the Constitution of South Korea states, 'In the event of the president not being able to discharge the duties of his/her office, the Prime Minister and ministers in line of the order of succession shall be the acting president.' Article 68 of the Constitution requires the acting president to hold new elections within 60 days.

According to article 12, section 2 and article 22, section 1 of the Government Organization Act, order of succession follows:

  • Prime Minister
  • Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Strategy and Finance
  • Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Education
  • Minister of Science and ICT
  • Minister of Foreign Affairs
  • Minister of Unification
  • Minister of Justice
  • Minister of National Defense
  • Minister of Government Administration and Home Affairs
  • Minister of Culture, Sports and Tourism
  • Minister of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs
  • Minister of Trade, Industry and Energy
  • Minister of Health and Welfare
  • Minister of Environment
  • Minister of Employment and Labor
  • Minister of Gender Equality and Family
  • Minister of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs
  • Minister of Oceans and Fisheries

List of presidents

Rhee Syng-Man in 1956

Rhee Syngman
1st–3rd term

(served: 1948–1960)

Yun Bo-seon

Yun Posun
4th term

(served: 1960–1962)

Park Chung-hee 1963's

Park Chung-hee
5th–9th term

(served: 1963–1979)

Choi Kyu Hah

Choi Kyu-hah
10th term

(served: 1979–1980)

Chun Doo-hwan

Chun Doo-hwan
11th & 12th term

(served: 1980–1988)

Roh Tae-woo - cropped, 1989-Mar-13

Roh Tae-woo
13th term
(served: 1988–1993)

Kim Young-sam

Kim Young-sam
14th term

(served: 1993–1998)

Kim Dae-jung (Cropped)

Kim Dae-jung
15th term

(served: 1998–2003)

Roh Moo-hyun 3

Roh Moo-hyun
16th term

(served: 2003–2008)

Sebastián Piñera - Lee Myung-bak (cropped)

Lee Myung-bak
17th term

(served: 2008–2013)

Korea President Park UN 20130506 01 cropped

Park Geun-hye
18th term

(served: 2013–2017)

Moon Jae-in June 2018

Moon Jae-in
19th term

(2017–present)
Incumbent

Living former presidents

As of April 2019, four former presidents are alive:

Image Name Term of office Age
Chun Doo-hwan Chun Doo-hwan 1980–1988 88 years, 95 days
Roh Tae-woo - cropped, 1989-Mar-13 Roh Tae-woo 1988–1993 86 years, 140 days
Sebastián Piñera - Lee Myung-bak (cropped) Lee Myung-bak 2008–2013 77 years, 125 days
Park Geun-hye (8724400493) (cropped) Park Geun-hye 2013–2017 67 years, 80 days

The longest-lived President was Yun Bo-seon, who died on 18 July 1990 (at the age of 92 years, 326 days).

The most recent President to die was Kim Young-sam, who died on 22 November 2015 (at the age of 87 years, 337 days).

Every living former President has served, or is currently serving, a prison sentence.[6] There is even a rumour that the former presidents of South Korea will never have a good ending.[7]

See also

References

  1. ^ Article 70 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea.
  2. ^ McCurry, Justin (9 May 2017). "Who is Moon Jae-in, South Korea's new president?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  3. ^ Sang-hun, Choe (9 May 2017). "South Korea Elects Moon Jae-in, Who Backs Talks With North, as President". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  4. ^ "Moon Jae-in Elected South Korea's New President". Time. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  5. ^ Article 53 of the Constitution of the Republic of Korea.
  6. ^ [www.aei.org/publication/south-koreas-troubling-history-of-jailing-ex-presidents/]
  7. ^ "South Korea's History of bad presidential endings grows". Fox News. 6 April 2018.

External links

Choi Kyu-hah

Choi Kyu-hah (Korean pronunciation: [tɕʰø.ɡju.ɦa] or [tɕʰø] [kju.ɦa]; July 16, 1919 – October 22, 2006), also spelled Choi Kyu-ha or Choi Gyu-ha, was President of South Korea between 1979 and 1980.

First Lady of South Korea

The First Lady of the Republic of Korea, commonly known as the First Lady of South Korea, is the wife of the President of South Korea.

During the administration of President Park Chung-hee, his daughter, Park Geun-hye, assumed the duties of First Lady after her mother, Yuk Young-soo. The first, and to date, only female president Park Geun-hye was never married in office so there is still yet to be a First Gentleman of Korea.

The current First Lady is Kim Jung-sook, wife of President Moon Jae-in, in office since 10 May 2017.

Gimhae

Gimhae (Korean pronunciation: [kim.ɦɛ̝]) is a city in South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. It is the seat of the large Gimhae Kim clan, one of the largest Kim clans in Korea. The Gimhae Kims claim descent from the ancient royal house of Geumgwan Gaya, which was based in Gimhae. Gimhae is situated near the Nakdong River.

The city has a Korea National League soccer club called Gimhae FC.

The largest foreigner sports club in Gimhae is the Gimhae Semi-Athletic Club (G-SAC) located in Nae-dong.

Gimhae is also the birthplace of the late Roh Moo-hyun, former President of South Korea.

Goh Kun

Goh Kun (Hangul: 고건, Hanja: 高建, born January 2, 1938) is a South Korean politician, the former Prime Minister of South Korea and former President of South Korea.

Impeachment of Park Geun-hye

The impeachment of Park Geun-hye, President of South Korea, was the culmination of a political scandal involving interventions to the presidency from her aide. The impeachment vote took place on 9 December 2016, with 234 members of the 300-member National Assembly voting in favour of the impeachment and temporary suspension of Park Geun-hye's presidential powers and duties. Thus, Hwang Kyo-ahn, then Prime Minister of South Korea, became Acting President while the Constitutional Court of Korea was due to determine whether to accept the impeachment. The court upheld the impeachment in a unanimous 8–0 decision on 10 March 2017, removing Park from office. A fresh election was held on 9 May 2017, electing Moon Jae-in, former leader of the Democratic Party, as the next President of South Korea.

Park was formally sentenced to 24 years in prison on April 6, 2018 after being found guilty of abuse of power and coercion.

Kim Dae-jung

Kim Dae-jung, or Kim Dae Jung (Korean pronunciation: [kim.dɛ.dʑuŋ]; 6 January 1924 – 18 August 2009), was a South Korean politician who served as President of South Korea from 1998 to 2003. He was a 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient, the only Korean Nobel Prize recipient in history. He was sometimes referred to as the "Nelson Mandela of South Korea".

List of Presidents of South Korea

To avoid confusion, all the names on this list follow the Eastern order convention (family name first, given name second) for consistency.

Since the establishment of the Government of the Republic of Korea which is commonly known as South Korea in 1948, twelve people have served nineteen terms as President of South Korea. Under the Constitution of South Korea, the president is the country's head of state as well as its head of government. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces.

Prior to the establishment of the First Republic in 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea established in Shanghai in September 1919 as the continuation of several governments proclaimed in the aftermath of March 1st Movement earlier that year coordinated Korean people's resistance against Japan during the Japanese occupation of Korea. The legitimacy of the Provisional Government has been recognised and succeeded by South Korea in the latter's original Constitution of 1948 and the current Constitution of 1988. Nine people have served twenty-four terms as Heads of State (with varying titles) of the Provisional Government between September 1919 and August 1948.

The presidential term has been set at five years since 1988. It was previously set at four years from 1948 to 1972, six years from 1972 to 1981, and seven years from 1981 to 1988. Since 1981, the president has been barred from reelection. The president must be a South Korean citizen, at least 40 years old, who has lived in South Korea for 5 years.

Moon Jae-in

Moon Jae-in (Hangul: 문재인; Hanja: 文在寅; Korean pronunciation: [mundʑɛin] or [mun] [t͡ɕɛin]; born 24 January 1953) is a South Korean politician serving as the 19th and current President of South Korea since 2017. He was elected after the impeachment of Park Geun-hye as the candidate of the Democratic Party of Korea.A former student activist, human rights lawyer and chief of staff to then-President Roh Moo-hyun, Moon served as Leader of Democratic Party of Korea (2015–2016) and a member of the 19th National Assembly (2012–2016). He was also a candidate for Democratic United Party in the 2012 presidential election in which he lost narrowly to Park Geun-hye. As President, Moon Jae-in has met with North Korean chairman Kim Jong-un at inter-Korean summits in April, May, and September 2018 making him as the third South Korean president to meet North Korean counterpart.

Order of Cultural Merit (South Korea)

The Order of Cultural Merit (Hangul: 문화훈장) is one of South Korea's orders of merit. It is awarded by the President of South Korea for "outstanding meritorious services in the fields of culture and art in the interest of promoting the national culture and national development."

Order of National Security Merit

The Order of National Security Merit (Hangul: 보국훈장) is one of South Korea's orders of merit. It is awarded by the President of South Korea for "outstanding meritorious services in the interest of national security."

Panmunjom Declaration

The Panmunjom Declaration for Peace, Prosperity and Unification of the Korean Peninsula was adopted between the Supreme Leader of North Korea, Kim Jong-un, and the President of South Korea, Moon Jae-in, on April 27, 2018, during the 2018 inter-Korean Summit on the South Korean side of the Peace House in the Joint Security Area.

According to the declaration, the governments of North Korea and South Korea agreed to cooperate on officially ending the Korean War and the Korean conflict, beginning a new era of peace and sharing commitments in ending divisions and confrontation by approaching a new era of national reconciliation, peace and prosperity and improvements to inter-Korean communication and relations.This declaration includes the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula.

Presidential Secretariat (South Korea)

The Presidential Secretariat (Hangul: 대통령비서실; Hanja: 大統領秘書室) assists the President of South Korea. Chief Presidential Secretary Im Jong-seok is head of the Presidential Secretariat and is a ministerial-level official. Cheong Wa Dae is sometimes used as a metonym for the Presidential Secretariat because of its location there. The Presidential Secretariat is an important part of the executive branch of the South Korean government.

Prime Minister of South Korea

The Prime Minister of the Republic of Korea (Hangul: 국무총리; Hanja: 國務總理; RR: Gungmuchongni) is appointed by the President of South Korea, with the National Assembly's approval. The officeholder is not required to be a member of the National Assembly. The Prime Minister is not the head of government but rather serves in a role similar to that of a vice president.

Singapore–South Korea relations

Singapore–South Korea relations refer to the relations between the Republic of Singapore and the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The relations between the both countries started when a trade mission from South Korea visited the Colony of Singapore in 1950. The two countries established formal diplomatic relations in 1975, but South Korea established a trade office and a consulate-general, and sent a special envoy to visit Singapore before that. Both countries are the only two United Nations members in the Four Asian Tigers. In 2014, South Korea was the fourth-largest import source of Singapore.

Syngman Rhee

Syngman Rhee (Korean: 이승만, pronounced [i.sɯŋ.man]; 26 March 1875 – 19 July 1965) was a South Korean politician who served as the first President of South Korea from 1948 to 1960.

Rhee was the first and the last President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea from 1919 to 1925 and 1947 to 1948, and was elected President of South Korea in the 1948 presidential election. Rhee oversaw the transfer of power from the United States Army Military Government in Korea to the Government of South Korea and the establishment of the First Republic of Korea. Rhee adopted a strongly anti-communist and pro-American stance, and led South Korea through the Korean War from 1950 to 1953.

Rhee was widely regarded as an authoritarian dictator and his three-term presidency was characterized by corruption and political repression, including the National Defense Corps incident and reported ordering the extrajudicial killings of over 14,000 suspected communists in South Korea. Rhee's popularity declined after the Korean War, and he resigned in April 1960 during the April Revolution following popular protests against the disputed March 1960 presidential election. Rhee's resignation resulted in the transition to the Second Republic of Korea, and he died in exile in Hawaii in 1965.

The Attorney

The Attorney (Hangul: 변호인; RR: Byeonhoin) is a 2013 South Korean courtroom drama film directed and co-written by Yang Woo-suk, in his directorial debut (Yang was previously a film producer and webtoon author). With 11,375,954 tickets sold and a revenue of ₩82.9 billion, The Attorney became the 8th best-selling Korean film of all time, and the second highest-grossing Korean film of 2013.It was inspired by the real-life "Burim case" of 1981, when during the authoritarian Chun Doo-hwan regime, 22 students, teachers and office workers who belonged to a book club were arrested without warrants on fabricated charges that they were North Korea sympathizers. Roh Moo-hyun, then a tax lawyer from Busan, formed a legal team with his allies (including Moon Jae-in and Kim Kwang-il) to defend the arrested individuals against the government. After the case, Roh became an influential human rights lawyer throughout the 1980s; he later entered politics and became the 16th president of South Korea.

Later, Moon Jae-in also became the 19th president of South Korea.

Vice President of South Korea

The Vice President of the Republic of Korea was the second highest executive office in South Korea. The position was abolished in 1960.

The following is a list of Vice Presidents of South Korea since its independence.

To avoid confusion, all the names on this list follow the Eastern convention (family name first, given name second) for consistency.

The first column counts (individuals number) and the second column counts (administration number/term number).

Wattay International Airport

Wattay International Airport (IATA: VTE, ICAO: VLVT) is one of the few international airports in Laos and the country's main international gateway, serving the capital Vientiane, located 3 km (2 mi) outside of the city centre. A larger domestic terminal was constructed in 2018 and connected to the international terminal. There is a Lao Air Force installation at one end of the airport.

The airport is in Sikhodtabong District in Vientiane.The head office of the Department of Civil Aviation is on the airport property. The head office of Lao Air is on the airport property. Lao Airlines is revising flying to Yangon. The largest airplane that is flown to Vientiane is the A330. This is flown by Thai Airways. The largest airplane that has ever visited this airport is the Boeing 747-400, carrying Park Geun-hye – then-president of South Korea – for the 2016 ASEAN summit.

Yun Posun

Yun Posun (Hangul: 윤보선; Hanja: 尹潽善; Korean pronunciation: [jun.bo.sʌn] or [jun] [po.sʌn]; August 26, 1897 – July 18, 1990) was a Korean independence activist and politician, who served as President of South Korea from 1960 to 1962 before being replaced by the long-serving Park Chung-hee as a result of the May 16 coup in 1961.

Having entered politics after World War II, Yun served as Secretary to Korea's Chief of Staff in 1947; and was Mayor of Seoul in 1948. He served as Commerce Minister for the newly liberated Korea from 1949–1950. In 1955 Yun helped establish the South Korean Democratic Party.

Leaders of Korea
Korean government-
in-exile
(1919–1948)
Divided Korea
(since 1945)

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