President of Serbia and Montenegro

The President of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе) was the head of state of Serbia and Montenegro. From its establishment in 1992 until 2003, when the country was reconstituted as a confederacy (state union) via constitutional reform, the head of state was known as the President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Председник Савезне Републике Југославије). With the constitutional reforms of 2003 and the merging of the offices of head of government and head of state, the full title of the president was President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Председник Србије и Црне Горе / Председник Савета министара Србије и Црне Горе). In 2006 the office was abolished as the state union was dissolved, with Serbia and Montenegro becoming independent countries. Kosovo then became an independent country in 2008.

President of
Serbia and Montenegro
Flag of the President of Yugoslavia (1993–2003)
Standard of the President of
Serbia and Montenegro
Formation15 June 1992
First holderDobrica Ćosić
Final holderSvetozar Marović
Abolished3 June 2006
SuccessionSerbia Boris Tadić
Montenegro Filip Vujanović

Authority

As head of state, the President had the power to

  • represent the country at home and abroad
  • appoint and recall heads of diplomatic and consular missions
  • receive letters of credence and recall from foreign diplomatic representatives
  • confer medals and other decorations
  • promulgate laws passed by the Parliament
  • call for parliamentary elections

In 2003, the powers of the president were extended to include the right to chair the Council of Ministers and propose the composition of the Council of Ministers to the parliament, effectively merging the powers of the head of government into the office.

Elections

From 1992 to 2000, the president was elected at the proposal of the President and Vice President of the Federal Assembly of Yugoslavia for a four-year term. After the constitutional amendments of 2000, direct elections for the office of President were introduced. After the constitutional reforms of 2003, the president was elected at the proposal of the President and Vice President of the Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro for a four-year term. The President of Serbia and Montenegro was a member of the Supreme Defence Council together with the President of Serbia and the President of Montenegro.

The results of the direct presidential elections of 2000 were as follows:

Candidate Nominator Votes %
Vojislav Koštunica Democratic Opposition of Serbia 2,470,304 50.24
Slobodan Milošević SPSJULSNP 1,826,799 37.15
Tomislav Nikolić Serbian Radical Party 289,013 5.88
Vojislav Mihailović Serbian Renewal Movement 145,019 2.95
Miodrag Vidojković Affirmative Party 45,964 0.93
Total (turnout 71.5%) 4,778,929 100.0
Invalid 137,991
Total votes 4,916,920
Eligible voters 6,871,595

Presidents

There were six Presidents of FR Yugoslavia (two acting) after its assertion of independence from the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY) in 1992 up until its dissolution in 2003. Svetozar Marović of the Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro was the only President of the FR Yugoslavia after its constitutional reforms and reconstitution as a confederacy. He was inaugurated on March 7, 2003. After the declaration of independence of Montenegro, on June 3, 2006, the President announced on June 4, 2006 the termination of his office.[1]

  Socialist Party of Serbia   Democratic Party of Serbia   Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro   Independent

No. Head of State Lifespan Took office Left office Party Representing Note
Presidents of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
1992–2003
1 Dobrica Ćosić Dobrica Ćosić 1921–2014 15 June 1992 1 June 1993 Independent Serbia
N/A Miloš Radulović Miloš Radulović
(acting)
1929–2017 1 June 1993 25 June 1993 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro Acting
2 Zoran Lilić Zoran Lilić 1953– 25 June 1993 25 June 1997 Socialist Party of Serbia Serbia
N/A Srđa Božović Srđa Božović
(acting)
1955– 25 June 1997 23 July 1997 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro Acting
3 Slobodan Milošević Slobodan Milošević 1941–2006 23 July 1997 7 October 2000 Socialist Party of Serbia Serbia Forced to step down in the Bulldozer Revolution.
4 Vojislav Koštunica Vojislav Koštunica 1944– 7 October 2000 7 March 2003 Democratic Party of Serbia
(Democratic Opposition of Serbia)
Serbia The only president elected in direct elections
President of the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
2003–2006
5 Svetozar Marović Svetozar Marović 1955– 7 March 2003 3 June 2006 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro Also head of government as
the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (offices merged).

Living former Presidents

Name Term Date of birth
Zoran Lilić 1993–1997 27 August 1953
Vojislav Koštunica 2000–2003 24 March 1944
Svetozar Marović 2003–2006 31 March 1955

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.tass.ru/eng/level2.html?NewsID=9489465&PageNum=0
Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro

The Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Demokratska partija socijalista Crne Gore / Демократска партија социјалиста Црне Горе, DPS) is the ruling political party in Montenegro. It has been so since the introduction of a multi-party system in 1990.

The party was formed in 1991 as the successor of the League of Communists of Montenegro, which had governed Montenegro within the Yugoslav federation since World War II. Since its formation and the introduction of a multi-party system, the DPS has played a dominant role in Montenegrin politics, forming the backbone of every coalition government to date.

At the 2012 legislative elections held on 14 October, the DPS along with the Social Democratic Party of Montenegro (SDP) as the Coalition for a European Montenegro won 39 out of 81 seats. This coalition, along with its longtime partner the Bosniak Party, once again formed a majority in the Parliament of Montenegro and held the right to appoint the Government. The DPS itself won 31 seats. The current Prime Minister of Montenegro Duško Marković and President Milo Đukanović are both members of the party.

The DPS is internationally affiliated with the Socialist International and Progressive Alliance, and is an associate affiliate of the Party of European Socialists.

Elections in Serbia and Montenegro

The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a union of Serbia and Montenegro which had existed between 1992 and 2003. It was reconstituted as the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. In 2006, the state broke up into the two independent states of Serbia and Montenegro.

List of Deputy Heads of State of Yugoslavia

This article lists the Deputy Heads of State of Yugoslavia.

List of Presidents of Montenegro

This article lists the Presidents of Montenegro.

The list includes the heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Montenegro, a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and heads of state of the Republic of Montenegro (1992–2006), a constituent country of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia / State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Prior to 1974, Montenegro's head of state was the speaker of the Montenegrin parliament.

The President (Predsjednik) is directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the President has the procedural duty of appointing the Prime Minister with the consent of the Parliament, and has some influence on foreign policy. His official residence is located in the former royal capital Cetinje.

List of Presidents of Serbia

This article lists the Presidents of Serbia.

The list includes the heads of state of the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent country of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and heads of state of the Republic of Serbia (1992–2006), a constituent country of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia / State Union of Serbia and Montenegro. Prior to 1974, Serbia's head of state was the speaker of the Serbian parliament.

The President of the Republic (Predsednik Republike, Председник Републике) is directly elected to a five-year term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of two terms. In addition to being the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, the President has the procedural duty of appointing the Prime Minister with the consent of the National Assembly, and has some influence on foreign policy. The President's office is located in Novi Dvor.

List of heads of state of Yugoslavia

This article lists the heads of state of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (Kingdom of Yugoslavia) in 1918 until the breakup of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a monarchy ruled by the House of Karađorđević from 1918 up until World War II. The SFR Yugoslavia was headed first by Ivan Ribar, the President of the Presidium of the People's Assembly (president of the parliament), and then by President Josip Broz Tito from 1953 up until his death in 1980. Afterwards, the Presidency of Yugoslavia assumed the role of the collective head of state, rotating the presidency among representatives of republics and autonomous provinces. However, until 1990 the position of President of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia was usually the most powerful position (the position often coincided with the position of President). With the introduction of multi-party system in 1990, individual republics elected their own heads of state, but the country's head of state continued to rotate among appointed representatives of republics and autonomous provinces until the country's dissolution.

Order of Freedom (Yugoslavia)

Order of Freedom (Serbo-Croatian: Orden slobode, Slovene: Red svobode Macedonian: Орден на слободата) was the highest military decoration awarded in Yugoslavia, and the second highest Yugoslav state decoration after the Yugoslav Great Star. It was awarded to the commanders of large military units for skillful leadership and for the outstanding courage of the troops. It was awarded to both Yugoslavian and foreign military commanders, and was the most rarely awarded of all Yugoslavian orders, decorations, and medals, being awarded only 7 times before the breakup of Yugoslavia.

After the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia, the Order of Freedom was awarded in Serbia and Montenegro.

Otpor!

Otpor! (Serbian Cyrillic: Отпор!, English: Resistance!) was a political organization in Serbia (then part of FR Yugoslavia) from 1998 until 2004.

In its initial period from 1998 to 2000, Otpor! began as a civic protest group, eventually turning into a movement, which adopted the Narodni pokret (the People's Movement) title, against the policies of the Serbian authorities that were under the influence of Slobodan Milošević who at the time was President of Serbia and Montenegro. Following Milošević's overthrow in October 2000, Otpor! became a political watchdog organization monitoring the activities of the post-Milošević period of the DOS coalition. Finally, during fall 2003, Otpor! briefly became a political party which soon folded due to its failure to pass the 5% threshold needed get any seats in the Serbian parliament.

Founded and best known as an organization employing nonviolent struggle as a course of action against the Milošević-controlled Serbian authorities, Otpor! grew into a civic youth movement whose activity culminated on 5 October 2000 with Milošević's overthrow. In the course of a two-year nonviolent struggle against Milošević, Otpor! spread across Serbia, attracting in its heyday more than 70,000 supporters who were credited for their role in the 5 October overthrow.After the overthrow, Otpor! launched campaigns to hold the new government accountable, pressing for democratic reforms and fighting corruption, as well as insisting on cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal (ICTY) at the Hague.Soon after the 2003 elections, Otpor! merged into the Democratic Party (DS).

Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro

The Parliament of Serbia and Montenegro (Скупштина Србије и Црне Горе/Skupština Srbije i Crne Gore) was the legislative body of Serbia and Montenegro. The parliament was unicameral and was made up of 126 deputies, of which 91 were from Serbia and 35 were from Montenegro. The parliament was established in 2003, and was a replacement for the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's legislature. With the declaration of independence of Montenegro on June 3, 2006, the parliament ceased to exist.

President of Montenegro

The President of Montenegro (Montenegrin: Predsjednik Crne Gore, Predśednik Crne Gore, Предсједник Црне Горе) is the head of state of Montenegro. The current president is Milo Đukanović, who was elected in the first round of the 2018 presidential election with 53.90% of the vote. The official residence of the President is the Blue Palace located in the former royal capital Cetinje.

President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia

The office of the President of the Presidency of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from the death of the President of the Republic for life Josip Broz Tito on 4 May 1980 until the dissolution of the country by 1992.

A collective presidency existed in Yugoslavia since amendments to the 1963 Constitution in 1971. In 1974 a new Constitution was adopted which reaffirmed the collective federal presidency consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists. The 1974 Constitution defined the office of President of the Presidency, but only coming into effect with the disestablishment of the office of President of the Republic. A separate article affirmed Josip Broz Tito with an unlimited mandate which ensured the new President of the Presidency would not come into effect until after his death. Simultaneously an office of Vice President of the Presidency had been in place since 1971 on a rotating annual basis between republican and provincial representatives. When Tito died on 4 May 1980, the then Vice President of the Presidency Lazar Koliševski acceded to the role of President of the Presidency. Subsequent to this the role of President of the Presidency would rotate on an annual basis with each President serving as Vice President the year prior.

Prime Minister of Serbia and Montenegro

The Prime Minister of Serbia and Montenegro was the head of government of Serbia and Montenegro from its establishment in 1992 up until the state's dissolution in 2006. Between 1992–2003 the full name of the office was President of the Federal Government of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbian: Predsednik Savezne Vlade Savezne Republike Jugoslavije), while after the constitutional reforms of 2003 the title was Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Predsednik Saveta ministara Srbije i Crne Gore, literally translated as President of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro). The office was merged in 2003 with the head of state, providing for one person to hold both the office of President of Serbia and Montenegro and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Serbia and Montenegro.

Scheveningen

Scheveningen [ˈsxeːvənɪŋə(n)] (listen) is one of the eight districts of The Hague, Netherlands, as well as a subdistrict (wijk) of that city. Scheveningen is a modern seaside resort with a long, sandy beach, an esplanade, a pier, and a lighthouse. The beach is popular for water sports such as windsurfing and kiteboarding.The harbour is used for both fishing and tourism.

Serbia and Montenegro

Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian: Србија и Црна Гора, СЦГ / Srbija i Crna Gora, SCG), officially the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (Државна Заједница Србија и Црна Гора / Državna Zajednica Srbija i Crna Gora), also known as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1992 to 2003, was a country in Southeast Europe, created from the two remaining federal republics of Yugoslavia after its breakup in 1992. The republics of Serbia and Montenegro together established a federation in 1992 as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FR Yugoslavia or FRY; Савезна Република Југославија / Savezna Republika Jugoslavija).For the first several years of its existence, the state aspired to be recognized as the sole legal successor to Yugoslavia, but those claims were opposed by other former constituent republics. The United Nations also denied its request to take up Yugoslavia's membership. Eventually, after the overthrow of Slobodan Milošević from power as president of the federation in 2000, the country rescinded those aspirations and accepted the opinion of the Badinter Arbitration Committee about shared succession. It re-applied for UN membership on 27 October 2000 and was admitted on 1 November.The FRY was initially dominated by Slobodan Milošević as President of Serbia (1989–1997) and then President of Yugoslavia (1997–2000). Milošević installed and forced the removal of several federal presidents (such as Dobrica Ćosić) and prime ministers (such as Milan Panić). However, the Montenegrin government, initially enthusiastic supporters of Milošević, started gradually distancing themselves from his policies. That culminated in regime change in 1996, when his former ally Milo Đukanović reversed his policies, became leader of Montenegro's ruling party and subsequently dismissed former Montenegrin leader Momir Bulatović, who remained loyal to the Milošević government. As Bulatović was given central positions in Belgrade from that time (as federal Prime Minister), Đukanović continued to govern Montenegro and further isolated it from Serbia. Thus from 1996 to 2006 Montenegro and Serbia were only nominally one country—governance at every feasible level was conducted locally, in Belgrade for Serbia and in Podgorica for Montenegro.

As a loose union or confederacy, Montenegro and Serbia were united only in certain realms, such as defense. The two constituent republics functioned separately throughout the period of the Federal Republic, and continued to operate under separate economic policies, as well as using separate currencies (the euro was the only legal tender in Montenegro). On 21 May 2006, the Montenegrin independence referendum was held, and 55.5% of voters voted in favor of independence. The last vestiges of the former Yugoslavia, 88 years after its creation, came to an end upon Montenegro's formal declaration of independence on 3 June 2006, and Serbia's formal declaration of independence on 5 June. After the dissolution, Serbia became the legal successor of the union, while the newly independent Montenegro re-applied for membership in international organisations.

Serbia–Ukraine relations

Serbian-Ukrainian relations are foreign relations between Serbia and Ukraine. SFR Yugoslavia recognized Ukraine in December 1991 by the decision on the recognition of the former republics of the Soviet Union. Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia were established on 15 April 1994.

Serbia has an embassy in Kiev. Ukraine has an embassy in Belgrade. Current Serbian Ambassador to Ukraine is Rade Bulatović and the current Ukrainian Ambassador to Serbia is Oleksandr Aleksandrovych. Serbian Ambassador in Ukraine is accredited to Moldova on non-residential basis. Ukrainian Ambassador in Serbia is accredited to Montenegro on non-residential basis.

Since September 2011 Serbians and Ukrainians can stay in the other ones country for up to 30 days without visas.

Svetozar Marović

Svetozar Marović (Serbian Cyrillic: Светозар Маровић; born 31 March 1955) is a Montenegrin lawyer and politician. He served as the president and prime minister of Serbia and Montenegro from 2003 until Montenegro declared its independence in 2006.

Marović was born in Kotor to a Grbalj father and Montenegrin mother. Kotor was the closest town with a maternity ward but he considers Budva his hometown. He grew up there, and ever since his career in high politics took off, his extended family is one of the most affluent in Budva.

He received his degree from Veljko Vlahović University's Faculty of Law in Titograd.

On 15 December 2015, he was arrested in Montenegro for charges of corruption, and on 18 August 2017 his family's assets were frozen.

University of Montenegro Faculty of Law

The University of Montenegro Faculty of Law (Montenegrin: Pravni fakultet Univerziteta Crne Gore Правни факултет Универзитета Црне Горе), also known as the Podgorica Law School, is one of the educational institutions of the University of Montenegro. Its main building is located in Podgorica and is shared with the University's Faculty of Political Sciences. The Faculty is Montenegro's leading law school.

Vice President of Yugoslavia

The office of Vice President of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia existed from April 1963 to June 1967. It was established by the new Yugoslav Constitution adopted on 7 April 1963. The first to serve in the role was Aleksandar Ranković who assumed office on 30 June 1963. Due to an affair involving wire-tapping of Yugoslav president and general secretary of the League of Communists Josip Broz Tito, Ranković was forced to resign from the Central Committee and from the vice presidency on 1 July 1966. He was subsequently replaced by Koča Popović two weeks later who served out the remainder of Ranković's four-year term. On 26 April 1967 new amendments to the 1963 constitution were approved which disestablished the vice presidency once Ranković and Popović's combined four-year term was up. The office ceased to exist on 30 June 1967.

Vojislav Koštunica

Vojislav Koštunica (Serbian Cyrillic: Војислав Коштуница, pronounced [ʋǒjislaʋ koʃtǔnit͡sa] (listen); born 24 March 1944) is a former Serbian politician. He was the last president of Yugoslavia from 2000 to 2003, and the prime minister of Serbia in two terms (from 2004 to 2007, and from 2007 to 2008).He was one of the founders and the first president of the Democratic Party of Serbia since its creation in 1992 until 19 March 2014, when he resigned as party president and retired from active politics after his party failed to reach 5% threshold to enter the Parliament on March 16 elections for the first time in its history. In October 2014, he left the party after disagreements with new party leadership over what he saw as their abandonment of the policy of political neutrality.In November 2014, he was one of the founders of Statehood Movement of Serbia.

Presidents of Serbia and Montenegro
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