The President of Russia, officially the President of the Russian Federation, (Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.
In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister of Russia, who becomes Acting President of Russia. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.
The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation.
The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. In May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth president; he was re-elected in March 2018 and inaugurated in May to a six-year term.
|President of the Russian Federation
Президент Российской Федерации
since 7 May 2012
|Executive branch in Russian Politics|
(in the military)
|Status||Head of State|
|Member of||State Council |
Supreme Eurasian Economic Council
Moscow Kremlin, Moscow
|Nominator||Political parties or self-nomination|
|Appointer||Direct popular vote|
|Term length||six years, one consecutive re-election|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Russia|
|Precursor||Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR|
|First holder||Boris Yeltsin|
|Salary||3.6 million rubles annually|
|Website||президент.рф (in Russian) |
eng.kremlin.ru (in English)
A candidate for office must be a citizen of the Russian Federation who is at least 35 years old and has "permanently resided" in Russia for at least 10 years. The Constitution of Russia limits the election of one person to the Presidency to two consecutive terms. Since the constitution contains no ruling on a total number of terms that a President may serve, a former president may seek re-election after sitting out one complete term.
The election of the President is mainly regulated by the Presidential Election Law (PEL) and the Basic Guarantees of Electoral Rights (BGL). The Federation Council calls the presidential elections. If it does not call a presidential election that is due, the Central Election Commission will call the presidential election. The Election Day is the second Sunday of the month and the presidential electoral constituency is the territory of the Russian Federation as a whole. Each faction in the State Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament has the right to nominate a candidate for the presidential elections. The minimum number of signatures for a presidential candidate fielded by a political party with no parliamentary representation is 100,000, down from 2 million before amendments to the law.
Terms were extended from four to six years in 2008, during Dmitry Medvedev's administration. The President is elected in a two-round system every six years, with a two consecutive term limitation. If no candidate wins by an absolute majority in the first round, a second election round is held between two candidates with the most votes. The last presidential election was in 2018, and the next is expected in 2024.
Inauguration of the President of Russia is conducted six years after the previous inauguration (since 2000, this 7 May). If the President was elected in early elections, he takes the oath, thirty days after the announcement of the results.
Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:
I swear in exercising the powers of the President of the Russian Federation to respect and safeguard the rights and freedoms of man and citizen, to observe and protect the Constitution of the Russian Federation, to protect the sovereignty and independence, security and integrity of the State, to faithfully serve the people.
Vacancies in the office of President may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office. In all cases when the President is unable to perform his duties, his powers are temporarily transferred to the Prime Minister until the new President takes office.
After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his office and are used on special occasions.
The first insignia that is issued is the chain of office with an emblem. The central emblem is the red cross of the Order "For Merit to the Fatherland", with arms in equal size, charged with the Russian coat of arms. On the reverse of the cross, the words "Benefit, Honor and Glory" appear in the form of a circle. A golden wreath is used to connect the cross with the rest of the chain. There are 17 "links" in the emblem, with nine consisting of the Russian coat of arms. The other eight consist of a rosette, also bearing the motto "Benefit, Honor and Glory." At the inauguration of Vladimir Putin, the emblem was placed on a red pillow, positioned on the left side of the podium. According to the Presidential website, the emblem is placed inside the Kremlin and is used only on certain occasions.
The standard is a square version of the Russian flag, charged in the center with the Russian coat of arms. Golden fringe is added to the standard. Copies of the standard are used inside his office, at the Kremlin, other state agencies, and while the president is traveling in a vehicle inside Russia. A 2:3 ratio version of the flag is used when the President is at sea. This is the most used symbol to denote the presence of the Russian President.
The President also has a special copy of the Russian Constitution that is used during the inauguration. This copy has a hard, red cover with gold lettering. An image of the Russian coat of arms appears in silver. The special copy is kept in the Presidential Library.
These insignia and the procedure were established by the presidential decree 1138 from 5 August 1996, and modified by decree 832 from 6 May 2000. In the new decree the special copy of the Constitution was removed as the third symbol of the Russian Presidency; the other two symbols remained intact because they were and are regulated by separate decrees. Nonetheless, the special copy of the Constitution still exists and serves for inauguration purposes only without being officially presented as a symbol of the Russian Presidency.
As the guarantor of the Constitution and the entire system of constitutional law, the President ensures that the constitutions, laws and regulations of the constituent territories of the Russian Federation be in full compliance with the country's Constitution and federal laws.
The President is highly active in appointing top officials in the country. He nominates candidates for official state positions, who must ultimately be appointed based on parliamentary vote. The President submits nominations to the Federation Council, the upper house of the parliament, for judges of the Constitutional Court, the Supreme Court and the Supreme Arbitration Court, as well as for Prosecutor General of Russia. A proposal to relieve the Prosecutor General of his duties must also be submitted to the Federation Council. The President submits to the State Duma, the lower house of parliament, nominations for appointment to the office of the Chairman of the Central Bank, and likewise submits to the State Duma any proposal to relieve the Chairman of the Central Bank of his duties.
The President has the right to suspend laws and regulations issued by executive bodies of Russia's constituent territories if such laws and regulations contravene the Constitution, federal laws or international obligations of the Russian Federation, or violate human and civil rights and liberties, pending the resolution of the issue in an appropriate court.
Other powers of the President in the sphere of legal activities and in his interaction with the Parliament include calling elections to the State Duma, dissolving the State Duma in certain cases, and calling referendum.
Under the Constitution, the President is not empowered to determine the full range of short-, middle-, and long-term objectives and targets of domestic policy, but only its basic guidelines. In practice, he determines it with the Prime Minister and the Government of the Federation. They are to be implemented both by the President himself and by the Government of Russia within the bounds of their authority. The President’ fundamental positions on domestic policy issues are expressed in his written decisions regarding draft federal constitutional laws and draft federal laws, as well as his letters explaining the reasons for rejecting draft federal laws.
Within the bounds of the authority granted to the head of state by the Constitution and other laws, the President also shapes the basic domestic policy guidelines by issuing legal regulations and through organizational and regulatory activity, such as issuing decrees and executive orders. Each year the President is required to make an Address to the Federal Assembly regarding the situation in the country and the internal and foreign policy of the state.
The President is invested with extensive rights to implement the state's foreign policy. The President determines Russia's position in international affairs, alongside with the Prime Minister and the Government of the Federation, and represents the state in international relations, conducts negotiations and signs ratification documents. The President appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of Russia to foreign states and international organizations. These appointments are preceded by consultations with the respective committees or commissions of the two houses of the Federal Assembly. The President signs international treaties.
An important ceremonial role of the President is awarding state awards. State Awards of the Russian Federation are the highest form of official recognition given to individuals for service to the nation in the fields of defense, state-building, economics, science, culture, art, education, health care, public safety, rights advocacy and charity. The state awards of the Russian Federation include the title of Hero of the Russian Federation, Hero of Labour of the Russian Federation as well as orders, medals, emblems and honorary titles. New state honors and awards can be established by the President, who also presents these honors to the recipients in an official ceremony. A Commission for State Honors, which works on a voluntary basis, helps the President to objectively assess potential recipients.
The primary working President's residence is the Senate building (also known as 1st building) in the Moscow Kremlin complex. Also the President can use the Grand Kremlin Palace (used for official ceremonies and meetings). Earlier, the President also could use the so-called 14th Administrative Corpus Building (the reserve residence), but in 2016 it was demolished.
Since 2000 the current home residence of the President is Novo-Ogaryovo (Russian: Ново-Огарёво). It was planned that it would remain at the disposal of Vladimir Putin after his term ended, as Gorki-9 (Russian: Горки-9) (also called Barvikha (Russian: Барвиха), but actually near it) had remained at the disposal of Boris Yeltsin after his retirement.
Also, the President has several vacation residences outside of Moscow.
None of the Russian presidents to date have ever been a member of a political party while in office. In 2012, commenting on stepping down from the post of United Russia party leader, Vladimir Putin said "The constitution doesn’t forbid the president to be a member of any party, but in the spirit of how our political life has evolved, a president is first and foremost a consolidating figure for all the political forces of the country, for all citizens".
The presidential aircraft uses the same colour scheme as standard Rossiya aircraft, except for the use of the Russian coat of arms or the Presidential Standard on the empennage instead of the flag of Russia.
In the spring of 2013 a helipad was constructed in the Moscow Kremlin. According to the Chief of the Kremlin Property Agency construction of a helicopter pad for the President cost 200 million rubles (about $6.4 mln). The helipad is located in the Kremlin's Tainitsky Garden close to exterior walls.
On 16 August 1995, President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree "On some social guarantees of persons holding public positions of the Russian Federation and the position of federal public servants." 15 June 1999 went to President Yeltsin's decree on amendments and additions to the previous decree. On 11 November 1999 Prime Minister Vladimir Putin signed a decree on the implementation of the amended decree of 15 June 1999.
On 31 December 1999, the day of the resignation of Boris Yeltsin, the president issued a decree "On guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stop exercising his powers, and his family," and the eponymous federal law was adopted by 25 January 2001.
This law establishes the legal, social and other guarantees of the Russian Federation President, stops the execution of its powers in connection with the expiration of his term of office or in advance in the event of his resignation or permanent incapacity for health reasons to exercise the powers belonging to him and his family:
Beginning in 1999, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office, and a staff. The pension has increased numerous times. Retired presidents receive a pension based on the salary of the government. All former presidents, their spouses, and their children until age 16 are protected by the Federal Protective Service until the president's death. A spouse who remarries or divorced from president is no longer eligible for Federal Protective Service protection.
As of April 2019, there is only one living former president (if Vladimir Putin, who was president from 2000 to 2008 and became president again in 2012, is excluded). The most recent death of a former president was that of Boris Yeltsin (1991–1999) on April 23, 2007, aged 76.
In May 2008, the Federal law №68, "On centers of historical heritage of presidents of the Russian Federation ceased to carry out its powers", was adopted. According to this law, the objectives of the centers are the study and public presentation of historical heritage of presidents of Russia as an integral part of the modern history of Russia, the development of democratic institutions and the rule of law. The centers will be built for each former president of Russia. The first such center dedicated to Boris Yeltsin was opened in 2015 in Yekaterinburg. In the future the creation of presidential centers for Vladimir Putin and Dmitry Medvedev is also planned.
|Name||Term of office||Length of term (and reason for departure)|
|Boris Yeltsin||1991–1999||8 years, 174 days (Resignation)|
|Vladimir Putin (1st and 2nd terms)||1999–2008||8 years, 128 days (Term expired)|
|Dmitry Medvedev||2008–2012||4 years, 0 days (Term expired)|
|Vladimir Putin (3rd and 4th terms)||2012–present||6 years, 348 days|
The Central Election Commission of the Russian Federation (Russian: Центральная избирательная комиссия Российской Федерации (Центризбирком)) is the superior power body responsible for conducting federal elections and overseeing local elections in the Russian Federation founded in September 1993. It consists of 15 members. The President of Russia, State Duma and Federation Council of Russia each appoint five members. In turn, these members elect the Chairman, Deputy Chairman and Secretary. The Commission is in power for a four-year term.
On 30 January 2007, amendments to the Russian election legislation, which would allow people without higher education in law to become members of the Central Election Commission, were passed by the President of Russia.Decree of the President of Russia
A Decree of the President of the Russian Federation (Russian: Указ Президента Российской Федерации; Ukaz Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii) or Executive Order (Decree) of the President of Russia is a legal act (ukase) with the status of a by-law made by the Russian president.
As normative legal acts, such ukazes have the status of by-laws in the hierarchy of legal acts (along with Decrees of the Government of the Russian Federation and instructions and directions of other officials). Presidential decrees may not alter existing laws of higher precedence - Russia's international agreements, the Constitution of Russia, Federal Constitutional Laws, Federal Laws and laws of Russian regions - and may be superseded by any of these laws. For example, because of Article 15 of the Constitution of Russia, the European Convention on Human Rights, as an international document, has higher status than any Russian law or presidential executive order.Dmitry Medvedev
Dmitry Anatolyevich Medvedev (; Russian: Дми́трий Анато́льевич Медве́дев, IPA: [ˈdʲmʲitrʲɪj ɐnɐˈtolʲjɪvʲɪtɕ mʲɪdˈvʲedʲɪf]; born 14 September 1965) is a Russian politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Russia since 2012. From 2008 to 2012, Medvedev served as the third President of Russia.
Regarded as more liberal than his predecessor and later successor as president, Vladimir Putin (who was also prime minister during Medvedev's presidency), Medvedev's top agenda as president was a wide-ranging modernisation programme, aiming at modernising Russia's economy and society, and lessening the country's reliance on oil and gas. During Medvedev's tenure, the New START nuclear arms reduction treaty was signed by Russia and the United States, Russia emerged victorious in the Russo-Georgian War, and recovered from the Great Recession. Medvedev initiated a substantial law enforcement reform and launched an anti-corruption campaign, despite having been accused of corruption himself.Dmitry Peskov
Dmitry Sergeyevich Peskov (Russian: Дмитрий Серге́евич Песков, IPA: [pʲɪˈskof]; born 17 October 1967) is a Russian diplomat, translator and Turkologist. Since 2012, Peskov has been the Press Secretary for the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin.First Lady of Russia
First Lady of the Russian Federation is the unofficial title given to the wife of the President of Russia.
The post is highly ceremonial. The First Lady position is currently vacant, since the divorce of the incumbent President Vladimir Putin and Lyudmila Putina.First inauguration of Vladimir Putin
The First Inauguration of Vladimir Putin as the President of Russia took place on Sunday, May 7, 2000. The ceremony was held for the first time in the Grand Kremlin Palace and lasted exactly one hour.
Despite the fact that Boris Yeltsin at the time of the ceremony was already a former President (having resigned December 31, 1999), he was formally invited as a guest, but took part in the ceremony as the outgoing President.Fourth inauguration of Vladimir Putin
The Fourth inauguration of Vladimir Putin as the President of Russia took place on Monday, 7 May 2018, in the Hall of the Order of St. Andrew of the Grand Kremlin Palace in Moscow. The inauguration marked the commencement of the new six-year term of Vladimir Putin as President of Russia. The presidential oath of office was administered to Putin by Chairman of the Constitutional Court Valery Zorkin. In addition, in the Presidium of the ceremony, according to tradition, was the leaders of the legislature: Chairwoman of the Federation Council Valentina Matvienko and Chairman of the State Duma Vyacheslav Volodin.Gennady Troshev
Gennady Nikolayevich Troshev (Russian: Геннадий Николаевич Трошев) (14 March 1947 – 14 September 2008) was a Russian Colonel General in the Russian military and formerly the commander of the North Caucasus Military District, including Chechnya, during the Second Chechen War. He was awarded a Hero of Russia award.Government of Russia
The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was the head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does appoint the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, that "The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries".Kremlin.ru
Kremlin.ru is the official website of the President of Russia. It was launched in January 2000. Content of website is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license.List of Presidents of Russia
This is a list of presidents of the Russian Federation, a country that was formed in 1991 after the fall of the Soviet Union. This list includes only those persons who were sworn into office as President of the Russian Federation following the ratification of the Russian Constitution, which took effect in 1993. For a longer, but less detailed list, go to List of heads of state of Russia.Padonkaffsky jargon
Padonkaffsky jargon (Russian: язык падонкафф, yazyk padonkaff) or Olbanian (олбанский, olbanskiy) is a cant language developed by a subculture of Runet called padonki (Russian: падонки). It started as an Internet slang language originally used in the Russian Internet community. It is comparable to the English-based Leet. Padonkaffsky jargon became so popular that the former President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev jokingly suggested that Olbanian be taught in schools.Pets of Vladimir Putin
Vladimir Putin, current president of Russia, owns four dogs, who live at his residence in Moscow. He is actively involved in the conservation of many endangered Russian dog breeds.Prime Minister of Russia
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Russian: Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, translit. Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (Russian: Премьер-министр, translit. Prem'yer-ministr) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation. The official residence of the prime minister is Gorki-9 in Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, but his working residence is in Moscow (Russian White House). Under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law 'On the Government of the Russian Federation', the prime minister "heads the Government of the Russian Federation". The Russian Prime Minister is considered the second highest position in the government, after the President.
Due to the central role of the President of Russia in the political system, the activities of the executive branch (including the Prime Minister) are significantly influenced by the head of state (for example, it is the President who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and other members of the Government; the President may chair the meetings of the cabinet and give obligatory orders to the Prime Minister and other members of the Government, the President may also revoke any act of the Government). The use of the term "Prime Minister" is strictly informal and is never used by the Russian Constitution, Federal Laws and other laws.Russian Federation Presidential Certificate of Honour
The Russian Federation Presidential Certificate of Honour (Russian: Почётная грамота Президента Российской Федерации) is an honorary award bestowed by the President of the Russian Federation to deserving citizens. It was established by Presidential Decree №487 of April 11, 2008. The statute and regulations governing this award were amended on two occasions, first on January 12, 2010 by Presidential Decree №59 and again on January 14, 2011 by Presidential Decree № 38.Russian presidential elections
Russian presidential elections determine who will serve as the President of Russia for the next six (formerly four from 1996 to 2012 and five from 1991 to 1996) years.Since the establishment of the position of the President of Russia in 1991, the presidential elections have taken place seven times: in 1991, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2018. The next presidential election is scheduled for March 2024.State Council (Russia)
The State Council (Russian: Государственный Совет) is an advisory body to the Russian head of state, which deals with issues of the highest importance to the state as a whole. The council was established by a decree of the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, on September 1, 2000.Ukase
A ukase, or ukaz (; Russian: указ [ʊˈkas], formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law. "Edict" and "decree" are adequate translations using the terminology and concepts of Roman law.
From the Russian term, the word ukase has entered the English language with the meaning of "any proclamation or decree; an order or regulation of a final or arbitrary nature".Vice President of Russia
The Vice President of the Russian Federation (before 25 December 1991 – Vice President of the Russian SFSR) was the first in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of Russia upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. Additionally, the vice president would assume the presidential duties in case the president becomes incapable of carrying out the presidential duties.
Presidents of the Russian Federation
Offices subordinated to the President of Russia
|Ministry of Internal Affairs|
|Ministry for Affairs of Civil Defence,|
Emergencies and Disaster Relief
|Ministry of Foreign Affairs|
|Ministry of Defence|
|Ministry of Justice|
|Presidential Services |
|Ministry of Health|
|Ministry of Culture|
|Ministry of Education |
|Ministry of Natural Resources |
|Ministry of Industry and Trade|
|Ministry for Development of Russian Far East|
|Ministry of Digital Development, |
Communications and Mass Media
|Ministry of Agriculture|
|Ministry of Sport|
|Ministry of Construction, Housing and Utilities|
|Ministry of Transport|
|Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs|
|Ministry of Finance|
|Ministry of Economic |
|Ministry of Energy|
services and agencies
Heads of state and government of Europe
Heads of state and government of Asia
1 Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on the definition of the Europe–Asia border.