The President of Romania is the head of state of Romania. The President is directly elected by a two-round system for a five-year term (since 2004, after the Constitution was modified in 2003). An individual may serve two terms. During his/her term in office, the President may not be a member of any political party.
The office of President was created in 1974, when Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu elevated the presidency of the State Council to a full-fledged executive presidency. It gradually took its current form in stages after the Romanian Revolution, culminating with the adoption of Romania's current constitution in 1991.
The current President of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, since 21 December 2014.
|President of Romania
since 21 December 2014
|Member of||European Council|
|Term length||Five years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Nicolae Ceaușescu|
|Formation||28 March 1974|
|Salary||15,108 lei per month(~€39,000 annual)|
In the Communist era, the president was elected for a term of five years by the Great National Assembly, with no term limits. He served as ex officio president of the State Council, and had the right to act on any matter that did not require a State Council plenum. He also appointed and dismissed ministers and heads of central agencies. When the GNA was not in session, the president could appoint and dismiss the president of the Supreme Court and the prosecutor general without State Council approval; indeed, he was not even required to consult his State Council colleagues when making such decisions. Ceaușescu created the office in order to make himself chief decision-maker in both name and fact. Previously, he had nominally been first among equals on the State Council, deriving his real power from his leadership of the Romanian Communist Party. In practice, he used his power to act on all matters that did not require a plenum to rule by decree and frequently usurped many powers that belonged to the State Council as a whole.
After the Constitutional Court acknowledges the legality of the election, the Houses of Parliament meet in a joint session. The elected President takes the following oath of office, specified by article 82 of the Constitution:
Romanian: Jur să-mi dăruiesc toată puterea și priceperea pentru propășirea spirituală și materială a poporului român, să respect Constituția și legile țării, să apăr democrația, drepturile și libertățile fundamentale ale cetățenilor, suveranitatea, independența, unitatea și integritatea teritorială a României. Așa să-mi ajute Dumnezeu!
I solemnly swear that I will dedicate all my strength and the best of my ability for the spiritual and material welfare of the Romanian people, to abide by the Constitution and laws of the country, to defend democracy, the fundamental rights and freedoms of my fellow-citizens, Romania's sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity. So help me God! 
Under the 1991 Constitution (as amended in 2003), presidential powers were curtailed as opposed to those applicable in communist Romania, but the office continues to wield significant influence within a semi-presidential system of government.
In home affairs:
In foreign affairs:
In defence issues:
In the exercise of his functions, the President issues decrees. Decrees issued under Article 91 (1) and (2), Article 92 (2) and (3), Article 93 (1), and Article 94 a), b) and d) of the Constitution must be countersigned by the Prime Minister in order to take effect.
An incumbent President who severely violates the Constitution may be suspended by the Parliament in joint session. If the suspension motion passes, there is a call for a referendum of impeachment within no more than 30 days from the suspension.
If the Senate and Chamber of Deputies, in joint session, accuse the President of high treason, the President is suspended from powers and duties by right. The accusations are judged by the High Court of Cassation and Justice. The incumbent President is dismissed by right if found guilty of high treason.
The suspension and impeachment procedure has been implemented three times. The first time regarded President Ion Iliescu, following a statement regarding the returning of the illegally confiscated properties during the years of the Socialist Republic of Romania to the original owners or their heirs. This first attempt in 1995 did not pass the vote in Parliament.
The second attempt was successful, with the person suspended being Traian Băsescu, in office as of April 2007. He became the first president to successfully be suspended and also the first to face an impeachment vote before the people, regarding issues with supposed unconstitutional acts. The impeachment plebiscite was held on 19 May 2007, and Băsescu survived the impeachment attempt. The result was the rejection of the proposal by 24.94% in favor to 75.06% opposed.
The third attempt lead to a second successful suspension in July 2012, again against Traian Băsescu. The referendum was held on 29 July 2012, and the results were 88.7% in favor and 11.3% opposed, with voter turnout calculated to be 46.24%; below the 50% + one vote threshold required at the time the referendum was held. The Constitutional Court did not give a verdict on the validation of the referendum at the time, citing irregularities in the permanent electoral lists. On 21 August, the Court deemed the referendum invalid, and again Băsescu prevailed from being ousted.
Should the office of the President become vacant due to resignation, impeachment, permanent inability to perform the duties of office, or death, the President of the Senate or the President of the Chamber of Deputies, in that order, step in as Ad Interim President of Romania (Romanian: Președinte Interimar al României). Neither relinquish their position as President of their respective Legislative House for the duration of the Ad Interim term. An Ad Interim President cannot address the Parliament, dissolve the Parliament, nor call for a referendum (the impeachment referendum after a motion of suspension is called by Parliament). The vacancy of the office cannot be longer than three months. While the President is suspended, the office is not considered vacant.
|Candidate||Sustaining alliance or party||Votes||%||Votes||%|
|Klaus Iohannis||Christian Liberal Alliance (PNL–PDL)||2,881,406||30.37%||6,288,769||54.43%|
|Victor Ponta||PSD–UNPR–PC Alliance[a]||3,836,093||40.44%||5,264,383||45.56%|
|Elena Udrea||PMP–PNȚCD Alliance||493,376||5.20%|
|Dan Diaconescu||People's Party – Dan Diaconescu||382,526||4.03%|
|Corneliu Vadim Tudor||Greater Romania Party||349,416||3.68%|
|Hunor Kelemen||Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania||329,727||3.47%|
|Zsolt Szilágyi||Hungarian People's Party of Transylvania||53,146||0.56%|
|William Brînză||Romanian Ecologist Party||43,194||0.45%|
|Constantin Rotaru||Socialist Alternative Party||28,805||0.30%|
|Mirel Mircea Amariței||PRODEMO Party||7,895||0.08%|
|Total valid votes||9,485,340||100.00%||11,553,152||100.00%|
|Source: Biroul Electoral Central; Biroul Electoral Central; Biroul Electoral Central|
There are three living former Romanian Presidents:
Adrian Năstase (Romanian pronunciation: [adriˈan nəsˈtase]; born 22 June 1950) is a Romanian former politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.
He competed in the 2004 presidential election as the Social Democratic Party (PSD) candidate, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth (DA) Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.
He was the President of the Chamber of Deputies from 21 December 2004 until 15 March 2006, when he resigned due to corruption charges. Sentenced to two years in prison in July 2012, he attempted suicide before beginning his term in the penitentiary. Released in March 2013, he was sentenced to four years in another case in January 2014, but released that August.Azerbaijan–Romania relations
Romania-Azerbaijan relations are foreign relations between Azerbaijan and Romania. The countries have established embassies in their respective capitals. The Azeri president visited Romania in October 2004 and the two nations have signed over fifty separate agreements to date.Bordei Park
Bordei Park (Romanian: Parcul Bordei) is a park in northern Bucharest.
The terrain where the Bordei Park stands (which included the Bordei Lake and amounted to 0.13 km²) was bought by the Bucharest Municipality from the Marmorosch Blank Bank in 1932 for a price of 16 million lei ($110,000 at the time). The park was officially opened in 1938 by King Carol II of Romania.In June 2007, senator Marius Marinescu forwarded to the Standing Bureau of the Senate a legislative proposal concerning the declaration of public property of Costică Constanda's plot of land, located in Bordei Park, Bucharest. Along with the founder of the law Marius Marinescu, signed as co-founders, senators Ion Iliescu, former president of Romania, Nicolae Văcăroiu, former prime-minister of Romania and at the time president of the Senate. One year later the legislative proposal was also adopted by the Chamber of Deputies, received the green light from the president of Romania, and got published in the Official Gazette of Romania, thus becoming Law #170/2008, regarding the acknowledgement of public utility of Bordei Park.The area of the park was public property until September 2003, when the General Council of Bucharest changed the status of the terrain to private property of the municipality and then gave the terrain to Costică Constanda, an entrepreneur who intends to build houses on it.Béla Markó
Béla Markó (born September 8, 1951 in Târgu Secuiesc) is a Romanian politician and writer of Hungarian ethnicity. The former leader of the Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania (UDMR), he is also the Deputy Premier in the Emil Boc government (which came to power on December 23, 2009); he had also been Minister of State in the Tăriceanu cabinet between 2004 and 2007, in charge of culture, education and research and European integration.
Markó has been a senator since 1990, and was the leader of the UDMR from 1993 to 2011. He competed in the 2004 Romanian presidential election, and ranked fourth with 5.1% of the votes.Constitutional Court of Romania
The Constitutional Court of Romania (Romanian: Curtea Constituţională a României) is the institution which rules on whether the laws, decrees or other bills enacted by Romanian authorities are in conformity with the Constitution.
It consists of nine members serving nine-year terms which cannot be extended, with three members each appointed by the President, the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Three members are renewed every three years, with the latest renewal occurring in 2016.Cornel Dinu
Cornel Dinu (born 2 August 1948) is a retired Romanian football defender. An attack minded sweeper, Dinu is commonly regarded as one of Romania's greatest players.
He was born in Târgoviște and debuted in Divizia A with Dinamo București in 1966. He remained with Dinamo throughout his career, winning six league titles and two cup titles.
Dinu got 75 caps and seven goals for the Romanian national team between 1968 and 1981. He represented his country at the 1970 FIFA World Cup and for the participation in that tournament he was decorated by President of Romania Traian Băsescu on 25 March 2008 with the Ordinul „Meritul Sportiv” — (The Medal "The Sportive Merit") class III.Crin Antonescu
George Crin Laurențiu Antonescu (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈd͡ʒe̯ord͡ʒe ˈkrin la.uˈrent͡sju antoˈnesku]; born 21 September 1959) is a Romanian politician, who was President of the National Liberal Party (PNL) from 2009 to 2014. He also served as the country Acting President after the suspension of Traian Basescu and as the President Of Senate .
He is a member of the Senate. He was first elected to the Senate in the 2008 legislative election. From 1996 to 2008, he was a member of the Chamber of Deputies, acting as leader of the party delegates between 2007 and 2008. On 3 July 2012 he was elected President of the Senate after the dismissal of the former leader, Vasile Blaga, from office. He became Acting President of Romania on 10 July 2012 after the Parliament suspended Traian Băsescu for the second time on 6 July 2012.
On 4 March 2014, during the debate in parliament on the vote for a new government, Antonescu resigned as president of the Senate.Călin Popescu-Tăriceanu
Călin Constantin Anton Popescu-Tăriceanu (Romanian pronunciation: [kəˈlin konstanˈtin anˈton poˈpesku təriˈt͡ʃe̯anu] ; born 14 January 1952) is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from 29 December 2004 to 22 December 2008. He was also president of the National Liberal Party (PNL) and the vice-president of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR), two positions he assumed in 2004. He currently serves as the President of the Senate, second position in the Romanian state, being elected on 10 March 2014, having previously resigned from the PNL party, becoming an independent senator. In July 2014, he established the Liberal Reformist Party.First Lady of Romania
The First Lady of Romania is an unofficial honorific applied to the wife of the President of Romania, concurrent with his term of office.Flag of Chad
The national flag of Republic of Chad (French: Drapeau du Tchad, Arabic: علم تشاد) is a vertical tricolour consisting (left to right) of a blue, a gold and a red field. Its similarity to the flag of Romania, which differs only in having a lighter shade of blue (cobalt rather than indigo) has caused international discussion. In 2004, Chad asked the United Nations to examine the issue, but then-president of Romania Ion Iliescu announced no change would occur to the flag.Government of Romania
The Government of Romania (Romanian: Guvernul României) forms one half of the executive branch of the government of Romania (the other half being the office of the President of Romania). It is headed by the Prime Minister of Romania, and consists of the ministries, various subordinated institutions and agencies, and the 42 prefectures. The seat of the Romanian Government is at Victoria Palace in Bucharest.
The Government is the public authority of executive power that functions on the basis of the vote of confidence granted by Parliament, ensuring the achievement of the country's domestic and foreign policy and that exercises the general leadership of public administration. The Government is appointed by the President of Romania on the basis of the vote of confidence granted to the Government by the Parliament of Romania.Klaus Iohannis
Klaus Werner Iohannis (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈkla.us joˈhanis], German: [ˈklaʊ̯s joˈhanɪs]; also spelled Johannis; born 13 June 1959) is the current President of Romania. He became leader of the National Liberal Party in 2014, after having served as leader of the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania from 2001 to 2013. Iohannis was a physics teacher and a school inspector before entering full-time politics.
Iohannis was first elected mayor of the city of Sibiu in 2000, representing the Democratic Forum of Germans in Romania. Although the German population of the once predominantly German-speaking city of Sibiu (German: Hermannstadt, Transylvanian Saxon dialect: Härmeschtat) had declined to a tiny minority, Iohannis won a surprise victory and was re-elected by landslides in 2004, 2008, and 2012. Iohannis is credited with turning his city into one of Romania's most popular tourist destinations, and the city was declared the European Capital of Culture in 2007. In February 2013, Iohannis became a member of the National Liberal Party, accepting an invitation from Liberal leader Crin Antonescu, and was immediately elected the party's First Vice President, becoming the party's President the following year.
In October 2009, four of the five political groups in the Parliament, excluding the Democratic Liberal Party of then-President Traian Băsescu, proposed him as a candidate for the office of Prime Minister of Romania; however, Băsescu refused to nominate him despite the Parliament's adoption of a declaration supporting his candidacy. He was again the candidate for Prime Minister of the National Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party in the elections in the same year.Iohannis is the first Romanian president to come from an ethnic minority. He is a Transylvanian Saxon, part of Romania's German minority which settled in Transylvania in the 12th century. Thus, he is the fourth president of German origin from Eastern Europe in the post-communist period, after Rudolf Schuster (Slovakia) and Ferenc Mádl and Pál Schmitt (Hungary).List of heads of state of Romania
This is a list of the heads of state of the modern Romanian state, from the establishment of the United Principalities to the present day.List of presidents of Romania
The president of Romania serves as the head of state of Romania. The office was created by the Communist leader Nicolae Ceaușescu in 1974 and has developed into its modern form after the Romanian Revolution and the adoption of the 1991 constitution.
The current president of Romania is Klaus Iohannis, who has served since 21 December 2014.Mircea Druc
Mircea Druc (born 25 July 1941, in Pociumbăuţi, Rîşcani district) is a Moldovan and Romanian politician who served as Prime Minister of Moldova between 26 May 1990 and 22 May 1991.
He was appointed as Prime Minister after the opposition walked out from the parliament, as a protest to the policies of the nationalist Popular Front of Moldova.His government purged non-Moldovans from cultural institutions and changed the outlook of the education system to be centred towards Romanian-language education, away from the Russian-centric education system of the Soviet era. Street names and the symbols of the state were changed to show the Romanian heritage of Moldova. After revolts against the pro-Romanian discriminatory policy of the government spread in Transnistria and Gagauzia, he threatened to unleash a civil war similar to that in Lebanon and Ulster.In May 1991 he was removed from his position after an overwhelming vote of no confidence. After his dismissal he came under scutiny for questionable financial dealings. He was also accused of promoting subjugation of the Russian speakers.When asked about the union with Romania, he answered that first, there need to be a few hundred Romanian-Moldovan joint ventures and some tens of thousands of mixed marriages.He ran as an independent candidate with a single-issue platform of union of Romania and Moldova in the 1992 Romanian presidential election, receiving 326,866 votes (2.75%).
Druc stayed in Romania, where he worked for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs between 2001 and 2004. In 2004 he joined the nationalist Greater Romania Party. He is currently working at the Commerce and Industry Chamber of Romania, involved in projects for trans-border cooperation between Romania, the Republic of Moldova and Ukraine.In the 2008 Romanian legislative election, Druc ran for a place in the Romanian Parliament in a constituency in Suceava County, being a candidate of the Democratic Liberal Party.Mircea Geoană
Dan Mircea Geoană (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈmirt͡ʃe̯a ˈd͡ʒe̯o̯anə]; born 14 July 1958 in Bucharest) is a Romanian politician, who served as president of the upper chamber of the Romanian Parliament, the Senate from 20 December 2008 until this was revoked on 23 November 2011. From 21 April 2005 until 21 February 2010 he was the head of the Partidul Social Democrat (PSD, Social Democratic Party), Romania's largest party. He was the candidate of the party for the position of President of Romania in the 2009 presidential election. He was dismissed from PSD on 22 November 2011 but rejoined the party in late 2012. Now he is the acting president and founder of P.S.RO, the Social Romanian Party founded in April 2015. He is also the president of Aspen Institute Romania, which is an apolitical and non-profit organisation.Petre Roman
Petre Roman (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈpetre ˈroman]; born 22 July 1946) is a Romanian engineer and politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from 1989 to 1991, when his government was overthrown by the intervention of the miners led by Miron Cozma. He was the first prime minister since 1945 who was not a Communist or fellow traveler. He was also the president of the Senate from 1996 to 1999 and Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1999 to 2000. He was leader of the Democratic Force party, which he founded after leaving the Democratic Party in 2003. Currently, he is an MP in the Lower Chamber, elected in 2012. He had been removed from his seat in 2015 after being charged by the National Integrity Agency with incompatibility, but restored to office in 2016 after the Court of Appeals overturned the ruling. He is also a member of the Club of Madrid, a group of more than 80 former democratic statesmen, which works to strengthen democratic governance and leadership.Theodor Stolojan
Theodor Dumitru Stolojan (Romanian pronunciation: [teˈodor stoloˈʒan]; born 24 October 1943) is a Romanian politician who was Prime Minister of Romania from September 1991 to November 1992. An economist by training, he is a leader of the Democratic-Liberal Party. He is currently a Member of the European Parliament for Romania, representing the Democratic Liberal Party (EPP-ED).Traian Băsescu
Traian Băsescu (Romanian pronunciation: [traˈjan bəˈsesku]; born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
|United Principalities of Romania|
Domnitor of Romania (1862–1881)
|Kingdom of Romania|
King of the Romanians (1881–1947)
|Romanian People's Republic (1947–65)|
Socialist Republic of Romania
President of Romania (1989–present)
Italics indicate interim officeholders.
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