The President of the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: Presidente da República Portuguesa, pronounced [pɾɨziˈðẽtɨ ðɐ ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɡezɐ]) is the executive head of state of Portugal. The powers, functions and duties of prior presidential offices, and their relation with the Prime Minister and cabinets have over time differed with the various Portuguese constitutions.
The current President of Portugal is Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa, who took office on 9 March 2016.
|President of the Portuguese Republic
Presidente da República Portuguesa
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
since 9 March 2016
|Member of||Council of State|
Council of Ministers
Two-round system, universal suffrage
|Term length||Five years;|
Renewable once, consecutively.
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of the|
|Precursor||King of Portugal|
|Formation||5 October 1910|
|First holder||Manuel de Arriaga|
The Portuguese Third Republic is a semi-presidential system. Unlike several other European presidents, the Portuguese President is quite powerful. Although it is the Prime Minister of Portugal and parliament that oversee much of the nation's actual day-to-day affairs, the Portuguese President wields significant influence and authority, especially in the fields of national security and foreign policy (but less than other "strong" semi-presidential systems, such as France). The President is the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces, holds the nation's most senior office, and outranks all other politicians.
The President's greatest power is their ability to choose the Prime Minister. However, since the Assembly of the Republic has the sole power to dismiss the Prime Minister's government, the Prime Minister named by the President must have the confidence of the majority of the representatives in the assembly, otherwise he or she may face a motion of no confidence. The President has the discretionary power to dissolve parliament when sees it fit (colloquially known as the "atomic bomb" in Portugal), and President Sampaio made use of this prerogative in late 2004 to remove the controversial government of Pedro Santana Lopes, despite the absolute majority of deputies supporting the government. In 2003 President Sampaio also intervened to limit the Portuguese participation in the Iraq War - as Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces he forbade the deployment of the Portuguese Army in a war that he personally disagreed with, clashing with the then Prime-Minister José Manuel Barroso (128 National Republican Guards were eventually deployed from 2003 to 2005).
Prior to the Carnation Revolution, the powers of the presidency varied widely; some presidents were virtual dictators (such as Pais, and Carmona in his early years), while others were little more than figureheads (such as Carmona in his later years, Craveiro Lopes, and Américo Thomaz; during their administrations, supreme power was held by President of the Council of Ministers António de Oliveira Salazar).
The constitution grants the following powers to the president:
Under the Portuguese Constitution adopted in 1976, in the wake of the 1974 Carnation Revolution, the President is elected to a five-year term; there is no limit to the number of terms a president may serve, but a president who serves two consecutive terms may not serve again in the next five years after the second term finishes or in the following five years after his resignation. The official residence of the Portuguese President is the Belém Palace.
The President is elected in a two-round system: if no candidate reaches 50% of the votes during the first round, the two candidates with the most votes face each other in a second round held two weeks later. However, the second round has only been needed once, during the 1986 presidential election. To date, all of the elected presidents since the Carnation Revolution have served for two consecutive terms, and presidents consistently rank as the most popular political figure in the country. Recently, however, the popularity of former President Cavaco Silva plummeted, making him the second-least popular political figure in the country, just above the Prime Minister, and the first Portuguese President after 1974 to have a negative popularity.
If the president dies or becomes incapacitated while in office, the President of the Assembly assumes the office with restricted powers until a new president can be inaugurated following fresh elections.
|Candidates||Supporting parties||First round|
|Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa||Social Democratic Party, People's Party, People's Monarchist Party||2,413,956||52.00|
|António Sampaio da Nóvoa||Independent supported by the Portuguese Workers' Communist Party, LIVRE||1,062,138||22.88|
|Marisa Matias||Left Bloc, Socialist Alternative Movement||469,814||10.12|
|Maria de Belém||Independent||196,765||4.24|
|Edgar Silva||Portuguese Communist Party, Ecologist Party "The Greens"||183,051||3.94|
|Paulo de Morais||Independent||100,191||2.16|
|Total (turnout 48.66%)||4,744,597|
|Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições|
The President of Portugal often makes official state visits to other foreign countries.
There are three living former Portuguese Presidents:
Todos os salários de detentores de cargos políticos são calculados em função do salário bruto do Presidente da República — 6 668 euros brutos (a que acresce 25% de despesas de representação).
The 1924 Campeonato de Portugal Final was the final match of the 1923–24 Campeonato de Portugal, the 3rd season of the Portuguese football cup, organised by the Portuguese Football Union.
The match took place on Sunday, 8 June 1924, at the Estádio do Campo Grande in Lisbon, between Algarve side Olhanense and Porto side FC Porto. Olhanense won the match 4–2, with goals from Graça, Tamanqueiro, Gralho and Belo. In doing so, Olhanense conquered their 1st title in the competition.
The President of Portugal, Manuel Teixeira Gomes attended the game, starting a tradition in Portugal.1976 Portuguese presidential election
The Portuguese presidential election of 1976 was held on 27 June.
With a broad base of support that comprised the center-left and the center-right, Ramalho Eanes won the election on the first round and became the first elected President of Portugal after the Carnation Revolution.
The Portuguese Communist Party presented its own candidate, Octávio Pato, a well known anti-fascist. One of the major responsibles for the military operations during the Carnation Revolution, in 1974, Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho, was also a candidate.2011 Portuguese presidential election
The 2011 Portuguese presidential election was held on 23 January 2011. This election resulted in the re-election of Aníbal Cavaco Silva to a second term as President of Portugal. Turnout in this election was very low, where only 46.52% of the electorate cast their ballots. Cavaco Silva won by a landslide winning all 18 districts, both Autonomous regions of Azores and Madeira and 292 municipalities of a total of 308.António José de Almeida
António José de Almeida, GCTE, GCA, GCC, GCSE (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʒuˈzɛ dɨ aɫˈmɐjdɐ]; 27 July 1866 in Penacova, São Pedro de Alva – 31 October 1929 in Lisbon), son of José António de Almeida and his wife Maria Rita das Neves, was a Portuguese political figure. He served as the sixth President of Portugal from 1919 until 1923.António Ramalho Eanes
António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes, GColL GCL GColTE CavA (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʁɐˈmaʎu iˈɐnɨʃ]; born 25 January 1935) is a Portuguese general and politician who was the 16th President of Portugal from 1976 to 1986.Arraiolos
Arraiolos (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐʁɐˈjɔluʃ]) is a municipality in Évora District in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 7,363, in an area of 683.75 km². The town of Arraiolos has 3,351 inhabitants. The present Mayor is Silvia Pinto, elected by the Unitarian Democratic Coalition.
The town is famous for its castle and its embroidered wool rugs and carpets. Arraiolos rugs have been made since the Middle Ages.In October 2003, Jorge Sampaio, the then President of Portugal, invited the Presidents of Finland, Germany, as well as of soon-to-be EU members Hungary, Latvia and Poland to Arraiolos in order to discuss the consequences of the 2004 enlargement of the European Union and plans for a Constitution for Europe. Subsequent meetings of non-executive presidents of European Union member states have been dubbed Arraiolos meetings.Bernardino Machado
Bernardino Luís Machado Guimarães, GCTE, GCL (Portuguese pronunciation: [bɨɾnaɾˈdinu mɐˈʃadu]; 28 March 1851 – 29 April 1944), was a Portuguese political figure, the third and eighth President of Portugal (1915–17, 1925–26).Council of Ministers (Portugal)
The Council of Ministers (Portuguese: Conselho de Ministros, pronounced [kõˈseʎu dɨ miˈniʃtɾuʃ] or [kõˈsɐʎu dɨ mɨˈniʃtɾuʃ]) is a collegial executive body within the Government of Portugal. It is presided over by the Prime Minister, but the President of Portugal can take on this role at the Prime Minister's request. All senior ministers are members of the council of ministers, and when the prime minister finds it applicable, state secretaries can also attend its meetings.First Lady of Portugal
The First Lady of Portugal (Portuguese: primeira-dama) is the unofficial title attributed to the wife of the President of Portugal. To date, there has been no First Gentleman of Portugal. The First Lady position is currently vacant, since the incumbent President Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa is not married.Gomes
Gomes is a common Portuguese and Old Galician surname. It derived from the given name Gomes, which derived from the Visigothic word guma, meaning "man".
Notable people with the surname include:
Al Gomes (born 1960), American music producer, music industry strategist, and songwriter
Albert Gomes (1911-1978), Trinidad and Tobago politician, labour leader and author
Ana Maria Gomes (born 1954), Portuguese politician
Antônio Carlos Gomes (1836-1896), Brazilian composer
António Gomes Leal (1848-1921), Portuguese poet
Anthony Gomes (born 1970), Canadian musician
Bruno Gomes (born 1996), Brazilian footballer
Chandima Gomes (born 1966), Sri Lankan Sinhala Malaysian engineer, physicist and writer
Diogo Gomes (c. 1420-1500), Portuguese navigator and explorer
Eduardo Gomes (1896-1981), Brazilian soldier and politician
Fernão Gomes (15th century), Portuguese explorer and merchant
Francis Anthony Gomes (1931-2011), Bangladeshi Roman Catholic bishop
Francisco Luís Gomes (1829-1869), Indo-Portuguese physician, politician, writer, historian, and economist
Gene Gomes (1946-2018), American judge
Gomes de Sequeira (16th century), Portuguese explorer
Gomes Eanes de Zurara (c. 1410-1474), Portuguese chronicler
Harold Gomes (born 1933), American boxer
Heurelho Gomes (born 1981), Brazilian footballer
Jessica Gomes (born 1984), Australian model
Jonny Gomes (born 1980), American baseball player
José Alencar Gomes da Silva (1931-2011), Brazilian politician
Larry Gomes (born 1953), Trinidadian cricketer
Manuel Teixeira Gomes (1860-1941), Portuguese politician and president of Portugal
Manuel de Oliveira Gomes da Costa (1863-1929), Portuguese army officer, politician and president of Portugal
Marcelo Gomes (born 1979), Brazilian ballet dancer
Mario Gomes de Olivera (born 1962), Brazilian footballer
Miguel Gomes (born 1972), Portuguese fencer
Nádia Gomes (born 1996), Portuguese footballer
Nuno Gomes (born 1976), Portuguese footballer
Nuno Gomes (20th/21st century), Portuguese-born South African Scuba Diver
Peter J. Gomes (1942-2011), American clergyman
Pedro Gomes (born 1983), Portuguese triathlete
Ralph Gomes (born 1937), Guyanese track and field athlete
Ryan Gomes (born 1982), American basketball player
Soeiro Pereira Gomes (1909-1949), Portuguese writer
Venceslau Brás Pereira Gomes (1868-1966), Brazilian politician and president of Brazil
Yan Gomes (born 1987), Brazilian American baseball playerJoão do Canto e Castro
João do Canto e Castro da Silva Antunes (19 May 1862; Lisbon – 14 March 1934; Lisbon), commonly known simply as João do Canto e Castro was a Portuguese Navy officer and the fifth President of Portugal, during the First Portuguese Republic. He also briefly served as 67th Prime Minister of PortugalList of Presidents of Portugal
The complete list of Presidents of the Portuguese Republic consists of the 20 heads of state in the history of Portugal since the 5 October 1910 revolution that installed a republican regime. This list includes not only those persons who were sworn into office as President of Portugal but also those who de facto served as head of state since 1910. This is the case of Teófilo Braga who served as President of the Provisional Government after the republican coup d'état. Also Sidónio Pais, Mendes Cabeçadas, Gomes da Costa, as well as Canto e Castro and Óscar Carmona in their early months, were not sworn into office as the President of the Republic, usually being the President of the Ministry (Prime Minister), but de facto accumulation this functions with that of the Head of State. See the notes for more information.Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa (Portuguese pronunciation: [mɐɾˈsɛlu ˈnunu ˈdwaɾtɨ ʁɨˈbelu dɨ ˈsozɐ]), ComSE, GCIH (born 12 December 1948) is a Portuguese politician serving as the 20th and current President of Portugal since 9 March 2016. Previously he was a government minister and member of parliament, a law professor, journalist, political analyst and pundit.Movement of Socialist Left
The Movement of Socialist Left (Portuguese: Movimento de Esquerda Socialista, MES) was a Portuguese socialist party, founded shortly after the democratic Carnation Revolution.
The party has its roots in a group of Progressive Christians and Radical Socialists that abandoned the Portuguese Democratic Movement/Democratic Electoral Commissions in 1970, still during the dictatorial regime led by Marcello Caetano. In 1974, the initial group was joined by a group dissidents from the Socialist Party.
The party only participated in two elections, both parliamentary elections, in 1975 and 1976, gathering 1.0% and 0.6% in each election, respectively.
Among the Party's top figures were César Oliveira, Jorge Sampaio, João Cravinho, Ferro Rodrigues and Augusto Mateus. The majority of the Party's members would later join the Socialist Party, Jorge Sampaio would become the President of Portugal in 1996 and Ferro Rodrigues would become the leader of the Socialist Party.
During its short existence the MES published several newspapers and magazines, such as: Esquerda Socialista, Poder Popular, Acção Sindical, Informação Militante and A Luta Continua.Mozambique Company
The Mozambique Company (Portuguese: Companhia de Moçambique) was a royal company operating in Portuguese Mozambique that had the concession of the lands in the Portuguese colony corresponding to the present provinces of Manica and Sofala in central Mozambique.
The company was established the 11 February 1891 with a capital stock of about 5 million dollars obtained from financiers from Germany, the United Kingdom and South Africa. Isaacman and Isaacman report that the firm was capitalised at 40,000 pounds, and that British and French capital quickly predominated.
The concession was granted for a period of 50 years, during which the company could not only exploit the resources and existing manpower (partly through the chibalo system of forced labour) but also grant subconcessions. The company was granted the exclusive right to collect taxes, but was itself granted a 25-year tax exemption. In return the Portuguese state would receive 7.5% of the company's profits and 10% of the sold shares. The company was also required to settle 1,000 Portuguese families and provide education and public administration in its territory.
In practice, the company made only partial use of the prerogatives with which it had been bestowed; but this was balanced by the fact that it also met very few of its obligations. Having only limited capital, the company did little to develop the area, deriving most of its income from its ability to tax and its power to use conscripted labour on its plantations and for lease to adjacent estates. Resistance to the forced labour regime was a major cause of rebellions against the company which occurred in 1902 and 1917. Despite the company's obligation under its charter to provide forces to maintain law and order, it was unable to meet these crises, and on both occasions Portugal had to mount expensive interventions.
The Mozambique Company had its headquarters in Beira, where it controlled the public administration and the post offices. The company also founded a private bank, the Banco da Beira, which issued currency in pounds.
Because of its bad performance and because of the shift, under the Salazar regime, towards Portuguese control and away from international control of the economy, the company's concession was not renewed when it ran out in 1942. The Governor of Manica and Sofala commented:
They did nothing to develop the potential wealth of this entire region, preferring to plunder it and alienate the natives.
On 18 July 1942, the territory of Manica and Sofala passed to the Portuguese colonial authorities and the Mozambique Company continued to operate in the agricultural and commercial sectors.
On 20 October 1961, The Mozambique Company became the Grupo Entreposto Comercial de Moçambique, which transformed itself into a holding on 6 September 1972, with the participation of capital from other companies, including Entreposto-Gestão e Participações (SGPS) SA.
In 1939 the President of Portugal awarded the Grand Cross of the Order of the Colonial Empire to the company, the first time it had been awarded to a company.Order of Liberty
The Order of Liberty, or the Order of Freedom (Portuguese: Ordem da Liberdade), is a Portuguese honorific civil order that distinguishes relevant services to the cause of democracy and freedom, in the defense of the values of civilization and human dignity. The order was created in 1976, after the Carnation Revolution of 1974 in which the corporatist authoritarian Estado Novo regime of António de Oliveira Salazar and Marcello Caetano was deposed. The Grand Collar can also be given by the President of Portugal to former Heads of State and others whose deeds are of an extraordinary nature and particular relevance to Portugal, making them worthy of such a distinction. This can include political acts, physical acts of defense for Portugal, or the good representation of Portugal in other countries.Order of Prince Henry
The Order of Prince Henry (Portuguese: Ordem do Infante Dom Henrique) is a Portuguese order of knighthood created on 2 June 1960, to commemorate the quincentenary of the death of the Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator, one of the main initiators of the Age of Discovery. Minor reforms of the constitution of the Order occurred in 1962 and 1980.It is a five-tier order, whose titles are awarded for relevant services to Portugal and for services in the expansion of the Portuguese culture, its history and its values (with a particular focus on its maritime history). The number of members in each grade is restricted by its constitution, and titles are attributed by special decree by the Grand Master of the Order, i.e., the President of Portugal.Sash of the Three Orders
The Sash of the Three Orders is the insignia of the Portuguese presidential magistracy, therefore it cannot be used outside the exercise of office of the President of the Portuguese Republic. It is a decoration that distinguishes the President as Grand Master of the Portuguese Republic honours system.Óscar Carmona
António Óscar Fragoso Carmona, BTO, ComC, GCA, ComSE, (often called António Óscar de Fragoso Carmona, Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ˈɔʃkaɾ fɾɐˈɡozu kaɾˈmonɐ]; 24 November 1869 – 18 April 1951) was the 96th Prime Minister of Portugal and 11th President of Portugal (1926–1951), having been Minister of War in 1923.