President of Moldova

The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state of Moldova. The current President of Moldova is Igor Dodon, who was elected in 2016 after a 2nd round run-off vote with 52.2% over his opponent Maia Sandu with 47.8%. His inauguration took place on December 27, 2016.[1][2]

President of Moldova
Flag of the President of Moldova
Igor Dodon (01.2017; cropped)
Incumbent
Igor Dodon

since 23 December 2016
StyleHis/Her Excellency
ResidencePresidential Palace,
Condrița
AppointerPopular vote
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderMircea Snegur
FormationSeptember 3, 1990
Websitewww.presedinte.md

Oath of Office

“I, <name>, solemnly swear to devote all my personal strength and abilities to the prosperity of the Republic of Moldova, to abide by the Constitution and the laws of the country, to defend democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms, the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Moldova”.[3]

Constitutional position

According to the Article 77 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994), the President of Moldova is the head of the State and represents the State and is the guarantor of national sovereignty, independence, and the unity and territorial integrity of the nation.

Acting president

The Acting President of Moldova (Romanian: Președinte interimar al Republicii Moldova) is a person who fulfills the duties of President of Moldova when cases of incapacity and vacancy occur. It is a temporary post provided by the Constitution of Moldova.

According to Article 91 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

When the office of the President of the Republic of Moldova becomes vacant or the President has been suspended from office, or finds himself in the temporary impossibility of discharging his duties, the responsibility of the office shall devolve ad interim on the President of Parliament or the Prime Minister, in that priority order.

Suspension from office

According to Article 89 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

  • (1) In the event where the president of the Republic of Moldova commits grave offenses infringing upon constitutional provisions, he or she may be suspended from office by Parliament if two-thirds of the members cast their vote in support of suspension.
  • (2) The motion requesting the suspension from office must be initiated by at least one third of the members, and it must be brought to the knowledge of the President without delay. The President may give explanations on the actions for which he or she is being censured before parliament.
  • (3) If the motion requesting suspension from office meets with approval, a national referendum shall be organized within 30 days for removing the President from office.

Vacancy

According to Article 90 of the Constitution of Moldova (1994):

  • (1) The office of the President of the Republic of Moldova may become vacant in consequence of expiry of the presidential mandate, resignation from office, removal from office, definite impossibility of executing his duties, or death.
  • (2) The request to remove the President of the Republic of Moldova from office will be brought forward in Parliament, which will pass a decision on that request.
  • (3) Within 3 months from the date when the presidential office was announced as vacant elections for a new President will be held in accordance with the law.

Election

Between 1994 and 2000, the President had been elected by popular vote for a four-year term; if no candidate received a majority in the first round, a runoff took place between the top two finishers. In 2000, the Law regarding the election of the President of Moldova stipulated that the President would be indirectly elected by the Parliament of Moldova to a four-year term; a candidate must win a supermajority of 61 votes to be elected. Presidents are limited to two terms.

Nevertheless, the Constitutional Court ruled on March 4, 2016, that the law adopted in 2000 was unconstitutional,[4] thus reverting the election method of the President to a two-round system direct election.

List of Presidents of Moldova

Moldavian Democratic Republic (1917–1918)

Party

  Bessarabian Peasants' Party

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party
1 Ion C. Inculeţ (1884-1940), President of Moldavian Democratic Republic Ion Inculeț
(1884–1940)
December 15 [O.S. December 2] 1917 April 9 [O.S. March 27] 1918 Bessarabian Peasants' Party

Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (1940–1991)

Chairmen of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

  • Fyodor Brovko (28 June 1940 – 29 March 1951)
  • Ivan Koditsa (29 March 1951 – 5 April 1963)
  • Kirill Ilyashenko (5 April 1963 – 10 April 1980)
  • Ivan Călin (10 April 1980 – 24 December 1985)
  • Alexandru Mocanu (24 December 1985 – 12 July 1989)
  • Ivan Ceban (12 July 1989 – 29 July 1989)
  • Mircea Snegur (29 July 1989 – 27 April 1990)

First Secretaries of the Moldavian Communist Party

Chairman of the Supreme Soviet

Party

  PCM

Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party
1 Mircea Snegur, March 2012-2 Mircea Snegur
(born 1940)
27 April 1990 3 September 1990 Communist Party of Moldova

Republic of Moldova (1991–present)

Parties

  PDAM   PCRM   PL   PLDM   PDM   PSRM   Independent

Status
Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party Elected
1 Mircea Snegur, March 2012-2 Mircea Snegur
(born 1940)
3 September 1990 15 January 1997 Independent 1991
2 Petru Lucinschi 2000 Petru Lucinschi
(born 1940)
15 January 1997 7 April 2001 Democratic Agrarian Party of Moldova 1996
3 VoroninVladimir2008 Vladimir Voronin
(born 1941)
7 April 2001 11 September 2009 Party of Communists 2001
(indirect)
2005
(indirect)
Mihai Ghimpu Imagine Mihai Ghimpu
(born 1951)
Acting President
11 September 2009 28 December 2010 Liberal Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Vladimir Filat Vlad Filat
(born 1969)
Acting President
28 December 2010 30 December 2010 Liberal Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
Marian Lupu Senate of Poland Marian Lupu
(born 1966)
Acting President
30 December 2010 23 March 2012 Democratic Party
(Alliance for European Integration)
4 Nicolae Timofti June 2014 (cropped) Nicolae Timofti
(born 1948)
23 March 2012 23 December 2016 Independent
(Alliance for European Integration)
2011–12
(indirect)
5 Igor Dodon MoscowTass 01-2017 Igor Dodon
(born 1975)
23 December 2016 President Party of Socialists 2016

Living former Presidents

There are four living former Moldovan Presidents:

Mircea Snegur, March 2012-2
Mircea Snegur
(1990–1997)
January 17, 1940 (age 79)
Petru Lucinschi 2000
Petru Lucinschi
(1997–2001)
January 27, 1940 (age 79)
VoroninVladimir2008
Vladimir Voronin
(2001–2009)
May 25, 1941 (age 77)
Nicolae Timofti June 2014 (cropped)
Nicolae Timofti
(2012–2016)
December 22, 1948 (age 70)

Residence

Presidential palace in Chisinau 01
Official residence on Stephen the Great Boulevard.

The President Palace is located in the Buiucani sector of Chișinău. It was constructed between 1984 and 1987 to the design of architects A. Zalțman and V. Iavorski. The distinctive building was originally the meeting place of the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Igor Dodon wins Moldova presidential election". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2016-12-08.
  2. ^ Vlas, Cristi (2016-12-06). "President-elect Igor Dodon accuses former counter-candidate Maia Sandu of blocking his inauguration - Moldova.org". Moldova.org. Retrieved 2016-12-08.
  3. ^ ""I solemnly swear to devote all my personal strength and abilities to the prosperity of the Republic of Moldova, to abide by the Constitution and the laws of the country, to defend democracy, fundamental human rights and freedoms, the sovereignty, independence, unity and territorial integrity of Moldova"".
  4. ^ "DECIS: Şeful statului va fi ales de popor; Modificarea din 2000 a Constituţiei privind alegerea preşedintelui de Parlament, NECONSTITUŢIONALĂ". Jurnal.md (in Romanian). 4 March 2016.

External links

Alliance for European Integration

The Alliance for European Integration (Romanian: Alianța pentru Integrare Europeană) was the centre-right anti-communist ruling coalition in Moldova from the July 2009 election until it lost a no confidence vote on February 13, 2013. It was succeeded by the anti-communist Pro-European Coalition.

April 2009 Moldovan parliamentary election

Parliamentary elections were held in Moldova on 5 April 2009. The Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) won a majority of seats (60 out of 101) for the third consecutive occasion. Turnout was 59%, exceeding the 50% necessary for the election to be valid.

Following the elections, Parliament was required to elect a new President of Moldova as the incumbent Vladimir Voronin had to stand down after completing two terms. Presidential elections required the winning candidate to receive at least 61 votes, but the opposition parties refused to vote for the three PCRM-nominated candidates in three rounds of voting between May and June 2009, meaning no president was elected. As a result, early parliamentary elections were held in July.

Austria–Moldova relations

Austrian-Moldovan relations are foreign relations between Austria and Moldova. Both countries established the diplomatic relations on March 25, 1992. Austria is represented in Moldova through its embassy in Bucharest (Romania) and through an honorary consulate in Chişinău. Moldova has an embassy in Vienna and an honorary consulate in Innsbruck.

Chief of the General Staff (Moldova)

The Chief of the General Staff of the Moldovan National Army (Marelui Stat Major al Armatei Republicii Moldova) also known as the Commander of National Army is the professional head of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Moldova. The position was established on 26 April 1994, two days after the general staff of the national army was established.

The purpose of the Chief of the General Staff is to assist the Minister of Moldova and the President of Moldova in commanding the Moldovan National Army. The Chief of the General Staff is also the superior to the Commander of the Moldovan Ground Forces and the Commander of the Moldovan Air Force.

Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova

The Commission for the Study and Evaluation of the Communist Totalitarian Regime of the Republic of Moldova (Romanian: Comisia pentru studierea şi aprecierea regimului comunist totalitar din Republica Moldova) is a commission instituted in Moldova by Acting President of Moldova Mihai Ghimpu to investigate the Moldavian SSR, the state which administered the country as a Soviet Socialist Republic from 1940 to 1991, and provide a comprehensive report with the purpose of condemnation of Communism as experienced by Moldovan people.

Communist Party of Moldova

The Communist Party of Moldova (Romanian: Partidul Comunist al Moldovei, PCM; Moldovan Cyrillic: Партидул Комунист ал Молдовей; Russian: Коммунистическая партия Молдавии) was one of the fifteen republic-level parties that formed the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) until the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. During that time, except for the period of Axis occupation in 1941–1944, it was the sole legal political party in the republic.

Perestroika period, that had seen the party increasingly pummeled, was also marked by November riots. The party leader Semion Grossu was replaced with Petru Lucinschi on November 16, 1989.On 27 August 1991 Moldova declared Independence and the Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic came to its end; soon after that, the Communist Party was banned along with any other communist organisation.

On 7 September the Parliament of Moldova lifted the ban on communist activities; soon after, former PCM members founded the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM), which became the largest party in Moldova since the 2001 elections, and the ruling party from 2001–2009. In 2011 a group of communists led by the executive secretary of the old Communist Party of Moldova, Igor Cucer, came to the public attention, claiming that they are the "real communists" and they want to revive the party (PCM) formally; they also stated that the PCRM has become a pseudo-Communist and liberal-bourgeois party serving the interests of one of the county’s richest men, Oleg Voronin, son of president of Moldova from 2001 to 2009 and leader of the PCRM Vladimir Voronin. Cucer claimed then: "The PCRM's 8-year rule made the poor poorer and the rich richer".The Commission for the Study of the Communist Dictatorship in Moldova was created in 2010 to study and analyze the 1917–1991 period of the communist regime.

First Lady of Moldova

The First Lady of Moldova is an informal position applied to the wife of the President of Moldova.

Igor Dodon

Igor Dodon (pronounced [ˈiɡor doˈdon]; born 18 February 1975) is a Moldovan politician who has been the President of Moldova since 23 December 2016. Previously he was the leader of the Party of Socialists of the Republic of Moldova. He served as Minister of Trade and Economics in the governments.

List of Moldovans

This is a list of notable people, of all ethnicities, born in the Republic of Moldova, the Moldovan SSR or the historical province of Bessarabia.

Marian Lupu

Marian Lupu (Romanian pronunciation: [mariˈan ˈlupu]; born 20 June 1966) is a Moldovan politician who was the President of the Parliament of Moldova between 2010 and 2013. From this position he served as Acting President of the Republic from 2010 until 2012.

Mihai Ghimpu

Mihai Ghimpu (Romanian pronunciation: [miˈhaj ˈɡimpu]; born 19 November 1951) is a Moldovan politician. He was Speaker of Parliament from 28 August 2009 to 30 December 2010 and Acting President from 11 September 2009 until 28 December 2010.

Mircea Snegur

Mircea Ion Snegur (Romanian pronunciation: [ˈmirt͡ʃe̯a iˈon ˈsneɡur]; born 17 January 1940) was the first President of Moldova from 1990–1997. Before that, he served as Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet 1989–1990 (head of state) and Chairman of the Supreme Soviet from 27 April to 3 September 1990. In the Soviet era, he was often known in English as Mircha Ivanovich Snegur, a transliteration from the Russian Мирча Иванович Снегур.

Natalia Gherman

Natalia Snegur-Gherman (born 20 March 1969) is a Moldovan politician, who served as Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and Deputy Prime Minister of Moldova from May 2013 to January 2016.

Born in Chișinău in 1969, she is the daughter of Mircea Snegur, the first President of Moldova. She studied at the Moldova State University and completed postgraduate studies at King's College London. She joined the Moldovan diplomatic service, working in several different places before eventually becoming Ambassador to Austria and Permanent Representative to the OSCE from 2002 to 2006, and Ambassador to Sweden, Norway and Finland from 2006 to 2009.

In 2009, she became Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and Chief Negotiator on the Moldova–European Union Association Agreement, serving until 2013. In 2013 she became Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and Deputy Prime Minister of Moldova, serving until January 2016. From June to July 2015, following Chiril Gaburici's resignation, she served as the acting Prime Minister of Moldova.

In February 2016, she was nominated as Moldova's candidate for Secretary-General of the United Nations in the 2016 selection process for Ban Ki-moon's successor.

Nicolae Timofti

Nicolae Timofti (Romanian pronunciation: [nikoˈla.e tiˈmofti]; born 22 December 1948 in Ciutulești) is a Moldovan jurist and politician who was President of Moldova from 23 March 2012 until 23 December 2016. He served as head of Moldova's Supreme Magistrate Council and was elected President by parliament on 16 March 2012.

Order of Work Glory

The Order of Work Glory (Romanian: Ordinul Gloria Muncii) is a Moldovan official order conferred for outstanding achievements in an individual's field of work, esteemed public activity during their career, and great contributions to the development of the Moldovan cultural, scientific, socio-economic, sporting and public spheres. The Order of Work Merit is awarded by the President of Moldova.

Order of the Republic (Moldova)

The Order of the Republic (Romanian: Ordinul Republicii) is Moldova's highest order. It is awarded by the President of Moldova for exceptional merits in all fields which benefit Moldova and humanity as a whole. The order was established in 1992.

Prime Minister of Moldova

The Prime Minister of Moldova is Moldova's head of government. The Prime Minister is formally appointed by the President and exercises executive power along with the cabinet subject to parliamentary support.

Vlad Filat

Vladimir Filat (born 6 May 1969), commonly referred to as Vlad Filat (pronounced [vlad fiˈlat]), is a Moldovan businessman and politician, founder of Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova. He was the Prime Minister of Moldova from 25 September 2009 to 25 April 2013. He also was appointed as the Interim President of Moldova for a brief period of time in 2010.

Vladimir Voronin

Vladimir Voronin (Romanian pronunciation: [vladiˈmir voˈronin]; born May 25, 1941) is a Moldovan politician. He was the third President of Moldova from 2001 until 2009 and has been the First Secretary of the Party of Communists of the Republic of Moldova (PCRM) since 1994. He was Europe's first democratically elected Communist Party head of state after the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc.

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