President of Mexico

The President of Mexico (Spanish: Presidente de México), officially known as the President of the United Mexican States (Spanish: Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos),[2] is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces. The current President is Andrés Manuel López Obrador, who took office on December 1, 2018.

Currently, the office of the President is considered to be revolutionary, in that the powers of office are derived from the Revolutionary Constitution of 1917. Another legacy of the Revolution is its ban on re-election. Mexican presidents are limited to a single six-year term, called a sexenio. No one who has held the post, even on a caretaker basis, is allowed to run or serve again. The constitution and the office of the President closely follow the presidential system of government.

President of the
United Mexican States
Presidente de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos
Seal of the Government of Mexico
Seal of the Federal Government of Mexico
Mexican Presidential Standard
Mexican Presidential Standard
Reunión con el Presidente Electo, Andrés Manuel López Obrador 8 (cropped)
Incumbent
Andrés Manuel López Obrador

since December 1, 2018
Executive branch of the Mexican Government
Office of the President of Mexico
ResidenceNational Palace of Mexico
SeatMexico City, Mexico
AppointerFederal Electoral Tribunal (confirmation), on behalf of the People of Mexico
Term lengthSix years (sexenio), non-renewable
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Mexico
Inaugural holderGuadalupe Victoria
FormationOctober 10, 1824
SalaryMXN$108,570.92 per month, before taxes.[1]
WebsiteGovernment of Mexico

Requirements to hold office

Chapter III of Title III of the Constitution deals with the executive branch of government and sets forth the powers of the president, as well as the qualifications for the office. He is vested with the "supreme executive power of the Union".

To be eligible to serve as president, Article 82 of the Constitution specifies that the following requirements must be met:

  • Be a natural-born citizen of Mexico ("mexicano por nacimiento") able to exercise full citizenship rights, with at least one parent who is a natural-born citizen of Mexico.
  • Be a resident of Mexico for at least twenty (20) years.
  • Be thirty-five years of age or older at the time of the election.
  • Be a resident of Mexico for the entire year prior to the election (although absences of 30 days or fewer are explicitly stated not to interrupt residency).
  • Not be an official or minister of any church or religious denomination.
  • Not be in active military service during the six months prior to the election.
  • Not be a secretary of state or under-secretary of state, attorney general, governor of a State, or head of the government of Mexico City, unless "separated from the post" (resigned or been granted permanent leave of absence) at least six months prior to the election.
  • Not have been president already, even in a provisional capacity (see Succession below).

The ban on any sort of presidential re-election dates back to the aftermath of the Porfiriato and the end of the Mexican Revolution. It is so entrenched in Mexican politics that it has remained in place even as it was relaxed for other offices. In 2014, the constitution was amended to allow Deputies and Senators to run for a second consecutive term. Previously, Deputies and Senators were barred from successive re-election. However, the president remained barred from re-election, even if it is nonsuccessive.

Presidential elections

The presidential term was set at four years from 1821 until 1904, when President Porfirio Díaz extended it to six years for the first time in Mexico's history, and then again from 1917 to 1928 after a new constitution reversed the change made by Diaz in 1904. Finally, the presidential term was set at six years in 1928 and has remained unchanged since then. The president is elected by direct, popular, universal suffrage. Whoever wins a simple plurality of the national vote is elected; there is no runoff election.

Former President Felipe Calderón won with 36.38% of the votes in the 2006 general election, finishing only 0.56 percent above his nearest rival, Andrés Manuel López Obrador (who contested the official results). Former President Vicente Fox was elected with a plurality of 43% of the popular vote, Ernesto Zedillo won 48% of the vote, and his predecessor Carlos Salinas won with a majority of 50%. The most recent former president, Enrique Peña Nieto won 38% of the popular vote.[3] The current President, Andrés Manuel López Obrador, was elected in 2018 with a modern-era record of 53% share of the popular vote.

The history of Mexico has not been a peaceful one. After the fall of dictator Porfirio Díaz in 1910 because of the Mexican Revolution, there was no stable government until 1929, when all the revolutionary leaders united in one political party: the National Revolutionary Party, which later changed its name to the Party of the Mexican Revolution, and is now the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Institucional). From then until 1988, the PRI ruled Mexico as a virtual one-party state.

Toward the end of his term, the incumbent president in consultation with party leaders, selected the PRI's candidate in the next election in a procedure known as "the tap of the finger" (Spanish: el dedazo). Until 1988, the PRI's candidate was virtually assured of election, winning by margins well over 70 percent of the vote—results that were usually obtained by massive electoral fraud. In 1988, however, the PRI ruptured and the dissidents formed the National Democratic Front with rival center-left parties (now the PRD). Discontent with the PRI, and the popularity of the Front's candidate Cuauhtémoc Cárdenas led to worries that PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari would not come close to a majority, and might actually be defeated. While the votes were being counted, the tabulation system mysteriously shut down. The government declared Salinas the winner, leading to stronger than ever allegations of electoral fraud.[4]

The PRI enacted a strict internal discipline and government presence in the country, and electoral fraud became common. After the country regained its peace, this pattern of fraud continued, with the opposition losing every election until the later part of the 20th century. The first presidential election broadly considered legitimate was the one held in 1994, when the PRI's Ernesto Zedillo took office, and in his term several reforms were enacted to ensure fairness and transparency in elections. Partly as a consequence of these reforms, the 1997 federal congressional election saw the first opposition Chamber of Deputies ever, and the 2000 elections saw Vicente Fox of a PAN/PVEM alliance become the first opposition candidate to win an election since 1911. This historical defeat was accepted on election night by the PRI in the voice of President Zedillo; while this calmed fears of violence, it also fueled questions about the role of the president in the electoral process and to whom the responsibility of conceding defeat should fall in a democratic election.

The role of unions in the new balance of power and future elections is documented in works like historian Enrique Krauze's Analysis of the Corporative System.

President-elect

After the presidential election, political parties may issue challenges to the election. These challenges are heard by the Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judicial Power; after it has heard and ruled on them, the Tribunal must either declare the election invalid, or certify the results of the elections in accordance to their rulings. Once the Tribunal declares the election valid, it issues a "Certificate of Majority" (Constancia de Mayoría) to the candidate who obtained a plurality. That candidate then becomes President-elect. The final decision is made in September, two months after the election is carried out.[5]

Presidential powers

The 1917 Constitution borrowed heavily from the Constitution of the United States, providing for a clear separation of powers while giving the president wider powers than his American counterpart. However, this has only recently become the case in practice.

For the first 71 years after the enactment of the 1917 Constitution, the president exercised nearly absolute control over the country. Much of this power came from the de facto monopoly status of the PRI. As mentioned above, he effectively chose his successor as president by personally nominating the PRI's candidate in the next election. In addition, the unwritten rules of the PRI allowed him to designate party officials and candidates all the way down to the local level. He thus had an important (but not exclusive) influence over the political life of the country (part of his power had to be shared with unions and other groups, but as an individual he had no peers). This, and his constitutional powers, made some political commentators describe the president as a six-year dictator, and to call this system an "imperial presidency". The situation remained largely unchanged until the early 1980s, when a grave economic crisis created discomfort both in the population and inside the party, and the president's power was no longer absolute but still impressive.

An important characteristic of this system is that the new president was effectively chosen by the old one (since the PRI candidate was assured of election) but once he assumed power, the old one lost all power and influence ("no reelection" is a cornerstone of Mexican politics). In fact, tradition called for the incumbent president to fade into the background during the campaign to elect his successor. This renewed command helped maintain party discipline and avoided the stagnation associated with a single man holding power for decades, prompting Peruvian novelist Mario Vargas Llosa to call Mexico's political system "the perfect dictatorship", since the president's powers were cloaked by democratic practice.

With the democratic reforms of recent years and fairer elections, the president's powers have been limited in fact as well as in name. Vargas Llosa, during the Fox administration, called this new system "The Imperfect Democracy". The current rights and powers of the president of Mexico are established, limited and enumerated by Article 89 of the Constitution which include the following:

  • Promulgate and execute the laws enacted by the Congress, providing in the administrative sphere to its exact observance;
  • Appoint and remove freely the Secretaries of State, remove the ambassadors, consuls general and senior employees of the Treasury, appoint and remove freely all other employees of the Union whose appointment or removal is not otherwise in the Constitution or in laws;
  • Appoint, with Senate approval, ambassadors, consuls general, superior employees of the Treasury and members of collegial bodies of regulation in telecommunications, energy and economic competition;
  • Appoint, with the approval of the Senate, the colonels and other senior officers of the Army, Navy and Air Force;
  • Preserve national security, under the terms of the respective law, and have all of the permanent Armed Forces i.e. Army, Navy and Air Force for internal security and external defense of the Federation;
  • Having the National Guard to the same objects, in the terms that prevents Section IV of Article 76;
  • Declare war on behalf of the United Mexican States with consent from the Congress of the Union;
  • Intervene in the appointment of the Attorney General of the Republic and delete it, in terms of the provisions of Article 102, Section A, of this Constitution;
  • Conduct foreign policy and conclude international treaties and finish, denounce, suspend, modify, amend, remove reservations and issuing interpretative statements thereon, and submitting to the approval of the Senate. In conducting such a policy, the Chief Executive shall observe the following normative principles: self-determination of peoples; nonintervention; the peaceful settlement of disputes; the prohibition of the threat or use of force in international relations; the legal equality of States; international cooperation for development; respect, protection and promotion of human rights and the struggle for international peace and security;
  • Convene Congress into special session, when agreed by the Standing Committee;
  • Provide the judiciary the aid they need for the expeditious exercise of its functions;
  • Enable all classes of ports, establish maritime and border customs and designate their location;
  • Grant, according to law, pardons to criminals convicted of crimes jurisdiction of the federal courts;
  • Grant exclusive privileges for a limited time, in accordance with the respective law, to discoverers, inventors or perfectors in any branch of industry;
  • When the Senate is not in session, the President of the Republic may make appointments mentioned in sections III, IV and IX, with the approval of the Standing Committee;
  • At any time, opt for a coalition government with one or more of the political parties represented in Congress.
  • To submit to the Senate, the three candidates for the appointment of judges of the Supreme Court and submit their resignations to the approval of licenses and Senate itself;
  • Objecting the appointment of commissioners body that sets the guarantor Article 6. of this Constitution made by the Senate, under the terms established in this Constitution and the law;
  • The others expressly conferred by this Constitution.

A decree is a legislative instrument that has an expiration date and that is issued by one of the three branches of government. Congress may issue decrees, and the President may issue decrees as well. However, they have all the power of laws, but cannot be changed except by the power that issued them. Decrees are very limited in their extent. One such decree is the federal budget, which is issued by Congress. The president's office may suggest a budget, but at the end of the day, it is Congress that decrees how to collect taxes and how to spend them. A Supreme Court ruling on Vicente Fox's veto of the 2004 budget suggests that the President may have the right to veto decrees from Congress.

Since 1997, the Congress has been plural, usually with opposition parties having a majority. Major reforms (tax, energy) have to pass by Congress, and the ruling President usually found his efforts blocked: the PRI's Zedillo by opposing PAN/PRD congressmen, and later the PAN's Fox by the PRI and PRD. The PAN would push the reforms it denied to the PRI and vice versa. This situation, novel in a country where Congress was +90% dominated by the president's party for most of the century, has led to a legal analysis of the president's power. Formerly almost a dictator (because of PRI's party discipline), the current times show the president's power as somewhat limited. In 2004, President Fox threatened to veto the budget approved by Congress, claiming the budget overstepped his authority to lead the country, only to learn no branch of government had the power to veto a decree issued by another branch of government (although a different, non jurisprudence-setting ruling stated he could return the budget with observations).

Oath of office

Upon taking office, the President raises his/her right arm to shoulder-level and takes the following oath:

Protesto guardar y hacer guardar la Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos y las leyes que de ella emanen, y desempeñar leal y patrióticamente el cargo de Presidente de la República que el pueblo me ha conferido, mirando en todo por el bien y prosperidad de la Unión; y si así no lo hiciere que la Nación me lo demande.

Translation:

I affirm to follow and uphold the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States and the laws that emanate from it, and to perform the office of President of the Republic which the people have conferred upon me with loyalty and patriotism, in all actions looking after the good and prosperity of the Union; and if I do not fulfill these obligations, may the Nation demand it of me.

Presidential sash and flag

Bandera Presidencial Mexico-comandante supremo buques
Ensign of the President, for use aboard naval vessels

The Mexican Presidential sash has the colors of the Mexican flag in three bands of equal width, with green on top, white in the center, and red on the bottom, worn from right shoulder to left waist; it also includes the National Seal, in gold thread, to be worn chest-high. In November 2018, a reform was made on Article 34 reordering the colors of the sash. A new sash was made putting the colors of the sash back to the previous order that was used from 1924 through 2009.[6] In swearing-in ceremonies, the outgoing President turns in the sash to the current President of the Chamber of Deputies, who in turn gives it to the new President after the latter has sworn the oath of office. The sash is the symbol of the Executive Federal Power, and may only be worn by the current President.

According to Article 35 of the Law on the National Arms, Flag, and Anthem, the President must wear the sash at the swearing-in ceremony, when he makes his annual State of the Union report to Congress, during the commemoration of the Grito de Dolores on September 15 of each year, and when he receives the diplomatic credentials of accredited foreign ambassadors and ministers. He is also expected to wear it "in those official ceremonies of greatest solemnity". The sash is worn from right shoulder to left hip, and should be worn underneath the coat. The only exception is during the swearing-in ceremony, when it is worn over the coat so that the out-going president may easily take the sash off and drape it over the incoming president (Article 36).

In addition to the Presidential Sash, each president receives a Presidential Flag; the flag has imprinted the words Estados Unidos Mexicanos in golden letters and the national coat of arms also in gold.

Presidential residence

Since the beginning of his term, the official residence of president Andrés Manuel López Obrador has been the National Palace, a building facing the Mexico City Zócalo. The President also has the use of Chapultepec Castle, formerly an Imperial palace of the Second Mexican Empire, and afterwards the official residence of Mexican Presidents until the Presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas in 1937.

The National Palace is also the formal seat of the Executive Power, and had been the official seat of power in Mexico since early colonial times, until it was moved in 1937 to Los Pinos.

Succession

Article 84 of the Mexican Constitution states that "in case of absolute absence of a President" the following should happen:

  • Until Congress names a Substitute or Interim President, the Secretary of the Interior (Secretario de Gobernación) assumes executive powers provisionally (Presidente Provisional), but cannot make changes to the cabinet without advice and consent from the Senate. He must also provide an official report of his actions within ten days of leaving the post. Congress must elect an Interim or Substitute President within 60 days of the original absence. The Secretary of the Interior is not required to meet all requirements for the Presidency; specifically, he is not required to meet the age or residency requirements, nor the requirement to not hold certain government positions (Secretary of state, under-secretary of state, etc.)
  • If Congress is not in session, then the Permanent Commission calls Congress to an extraordinary session, at which point the process continues as below.
  • If the absence (death, impeachment, etc.) should occur in the first two years of the term, Congress (if in session, or after being called to extraordinary session by the Permanent Commission) must elect, by a majority of votes in a secret ballot with a quorum of at least two-thirds of its members, an Interim President (Presidente Interino). Congress must also call for elections in no less than 14 months and no more than 18 months after the absence of the President occurs; the person who wins those elections will be President for the remainder of the original six-year presidential term.
  • If the absence should occur in the last four years of the term, Congress (if in session, or after being called to extraordinary session by the Permanent Commission) will select a Substitute President (Presidente Substituto) by a majority of votes in a secret ballot as above. The Substitute President will be President of the United Mexican States until the end of the original six-year presidential term, at which point regular elections are held.

No person who has already served as President, whether elected, Provisional, Interim, or Substitute, can be designated as Provisional, Interim, or Substitute President.

The designation of the Secretary of the Interior as the immediate successor dates to August 2012, when the changes to the Constitution were published in the Official Diary.

The succession provisions have come into play only twice since the current constitution was enacted. In 1928, after the assassination of president-elect Álvaro Obregón, Congress appointed Emilio Portes Gil as Interim President; Portes Gil served in the position for 14 months while new elections were called. Pascual Ortiz Rubio was elected President in the special elections that followed in 1930, but he resigned in 1932. Abelardo L. Rodríguez was then appointed Interim President to fill out the remainder of Ortiz Rubio's term (under current law Rodríguez would be Substitute President, but at the time there was no distinction between Interim, Substitute, and Provisional Presidents).

Living former Presidents

There are six living former presidents. The most recent former president to die was Miguel de la Madrid (1982–1988), on 1 April 2012.

Luis Echeverría
Luis Echeverría
(1970–1976)
January 17, 1922 (age 97)
Carlos Salinas
Carlos Salinas de Gortari
(1988–1994)
April 3, 1948 (age 70)
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon World Economic Forum 2013 crop
Ernesto Zedillo
(1994–2000)
December 27, 1951 (age 67)
Vicente Fox by Gage Skidmore 2
Vicente Fox
(2000–2006)
July 2, 1942 (age 76)
Felipe Calderon 20090130
Felipe Calderón
(2006–2012)
August 18, 1962 (age 56)
Enrique Peña Nieto 2017 (cropped)
Enrique Peña Nieto
(2012–2018)
July 20, 1966 (age 52)

Former presidents of Mexico continue to carry the title "President" until death but are rarely referred by it; they are commonly called ex-Presidents. They are also given protection by the Estado Mayor Presidencial. Prior to 2018, former presidents also received a lifetime pension, though they could refuse it, as Ernesto Zedillo did. However, the pensions were abolished and terminated in 2018.[7]

Contrary to what happens in many other countries, former presidents of Mexico do not continue to be important national figures once out of office, and usually lead a discreet life. This is partly because they do not want to interfere with the government of the new president and partly because they may not have a good public image. This tradition can be traced back to the presidency of Lázaro Cárdenas. Former president Plutarco Elías Calles had personally selected Cárdenas as his successor, and had hoped to control things from behind the scenes as he had for the previous five years. However, when Cárdenas showed he was going to rule in fact as well as in name, Calles publicly criticized him, prompting Cárdenas to have Calles escorted out of the country by military police. Cárdenas himself remained silent on the policies of his successor Manuel Ávila Camacho, establishing a tradition that former presidents do not interfere with their successors.

For example, Ernesto Zedillo holds important offices in the United Nations and in the private sector, but outside of Mexico. It is speculated he lives in a self-imposed exile to avoid the hatred of some of his fellow members of the PRI for having acknowledged the PRI's defeat in the 2000 presidential election. Carlos Salinas also lived in a self-imposed exile in Ireland, but returned to Mexico. He campaigned intensely to have his brother, Raúl Salinas, freed after he was jailed in the early days of Zedillo's term, accused of drug trafficking and planning the assassination of José Francisco Ruiz Massieu. Carlos Salinas also wrote a book on neo-liberal Mexico, secured a position with the Dow Jones Company in the United States, and worked as a professor at several prestigious universities in that country. Felipe Calderón was given a contract to work as a professor for Harvard University in 2013, but he returned to Mexico in 2014. It was rumored that he would look after the then newly created Humanist Party;[8] this fact was eventually denied by his wife.[9]

Along with Felipe Calderón, three other surviving former presidents (Luis Echeverría, Vicente Fox, and Enrique Peña Nieto) still live in Mexico. On June 30, 2006, Echeverría was placed under house arrest under charges of genocide for his role as Secretary of the Interior during the 1968 Tlatelolco massacre.[10] The house arrest was lifted in 2009.

See also

References

  1. ^ At an exchange rate of 17.95 pesos to one dollar, approximately $11,619 per month; the salary after taxes is listed as MXN$147,651.22 (US$11,391.99)."Portal de Obligaciones de Transparencia". 2012-10-16. Retrieved 2012-12-02.
  2. ^ Article 80, Constitution of Mexico. "Constitución Política de los Estados Unidos Mexicanos" (PDF) (in Spanish). Cámara de Diputados. p. 55. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 January 2013. Retrieved 22 September 2011.
  3. ^ "Enrique Pena Nieto wins Mexican presidential election". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 12 December 2012.
  4. ^ Buckman, Robert T. (2007). The World Today Series: Latin America 2007. Harpers Ferry, West Virginia: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 1-887985-84-0.
  5. ^ "About Us". Electoral Tribunal of the Federal Judicial Branch. Retrieved 20 July 2012.
  6. ^ Canal del Congreso México (2018-12-01), Banda Presidencial, retrieved 2018-12-01
  7. ^ El Debate (September 14, 2018). "Oficial: Eliminan pensión de ex-presidentes" (in Spanish). Debate. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
  8. ^ "Felipe Calderón regresa a México para "supervisar" al Partido Humanista". SDP Noticias. Retrieved 2014-07-07.
  9. ^ "Felipe Calderón regresó a México, confirma su esposa". Proceso. Retrieved 2014-07-10.
  10. ^ "Echeverría, bajo prisión preventiva domiciliaria - El Universal - México". El Universal. Retrieved 2012-09-19.

External links

Adolfo Ruiz Cortines

Adolfo Tomás Ruiz Cortines (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðolfo ˈrwis koɾˈtines]; December 30, 1889 – December 3, 1973) was a Mexican politician who served as 47th President of Mexico from 1952 to 1958, as the candidate for the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Unlike his predecessor as president Miguel Alemán and his successor Adolfo López Mateos, he had participated in the Mexican Revolution. He was one of the oldest presidents of Mexico, perhaps best remembered for granting women the right to vote in presidential elections and stimulating the Mexican economy during the period known as the Mexican Miracle.

Adolfo de la Huerta

Felipe Adolfo de la Huerta Marcor (Spanish pronunciation: [aˈðolfo ðelaˈweɾta]; May 26, 1881 – July 9, 1955), known as Adolfo de la Huerta, was a Mexican politician and 38th President of Mexico from June 1 to November 30, 1920, following the overthrow of Mexican president Venustiano Carranza.

Antonio López de Santa Anna

Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón (Spanish pronunciation: [anˈtonjo ˈlopes ðe sant(a)ˈana]; 21 February 1794 – 21 June 1876), often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, was a Mexican politician and general who fought to defend royalist New Spain and then for Mexican independence. He greatly influenced early Mexican politics and government, and was an adept soldier and cunning politician, who dominated Mexican history in the first half of the nineteenth century to such an extent that historians often refer to it as the "Age of Santa Anna." He was called "the Man of Destiny", who "loomed over his time like a melodramatic colossus, the uncrowned monarch." Santa Anna first opposed the movement for Mexican independence from Spain, but then fought in support of it. Though not the first caudillo (military leader) of modern Mexico, he "represents the stereotypical caudillo in Mexican history," and among the earliest. Conservative historian, intellectual, and politician Lucas Alamán wrote that "The history of Mexico since 1822 might accurately be called the history of Santa Anna's revolutions.... His name plays the major role in all the political events of the country and its destiny has become intertwined with his."An enigmatic, patriotic and controversial figure, Santa Anna had great power in Mexico; during a turbulent 40-year career, he served as general at crucial points and served twelve non-consecutive presidential terms over a period of 22 years. In the periods of time when he was not serving as president, he continued to pursue his military career. A wealthy landowner, he built a firm political base in the major port city of Veracruz. He was perceived as a hero by his troops; he sought glory for himself and his army, and independent Mexico. He repeatedly rebuilt his reputation after major losses. Historians and many Mexicans also rank him as perhaps the principal inhabitant even today of Mexico's pantheon of "those who failed the nation." His centralist rhetoric and military failures resulted in Mexico losing just over half its territory, beginning with the Texas Revolution of 1836, and culminating with the Mexican Cession of 1848 following its defeat by the United States in the Mexican–American War.

His political positions changed frequently in his lifetime; "his opportunistic politics made him a Liberal, Conservative, and uncrowned king." He was overthrown for the final time by the liberal Revolution of Ayutla in 1854 and lived most of his later years in exile.

Benito Juárez

Benito Pablo Juárez García (Spanish: [beˈnito ˈpaβlo ˈxwaɾes gaɾˈsi.a] (listen); 21 March 1806 – 18 July 1872) was a Mexican lawyer and president of Mexico, of Zapotec origin from Oaxaca.

He was of poor, rural, indigenous origins, but he became a well-educated, urban professional and politician, who married a socially prominent woman of Oaxaca City, Margarita Maza. He identified primarily as a Liberal and wrote only briefly about his indigenous heritage.He held power during the tumultuous decade of the Liberal Reform and French invasion. In 1858 as head of the Supreme Court, he became president of Mexico by the succession mandated by the Constitution of 1857 when moderate liberal President Ignacio Comonfort was forced to resign by Mexican conservatives. Juárez remained in the presidential office until his death by natural causes in 1872. He weathered the War of the Reform (1858–60), a civil war between Liberals and Conservatives, and then the French invasion (1862–67), which was supported by Mexican Conservatives. Never relinquishing office although forced into exile in areas of Mexico not controlled by the French, Juárez tied Liberalism to Mexican nationalism and maintained that he was the legitimate head of the Mexican state, rather than Emperor Maximilian. When the French-backed Second Mexican Empire fell in 1867, the Mexican Republic with Juárez as president was restored to full power. In his success in ousting the European incursion, Latin Americans considered his a "second struggle for independence, a second defeat for the European powers, and a second reversal of the Conquest."He is now "a preeminent symbol of Mexican nationalism and resistance to foreign intervention." Juárez was a practical and skilled politician, controversial in his lifetime and beyond. He had an understanding of the importance of a working relationship with the United States, and secured its recognition for his liberal government during the War of the Reform. Although many of his positions shifted during his political life, he held fast to particular principles including the supremacy of civil power over the Catholic Church and part of the military; respect for law; and the de-personalization of political life. In his lifetime he sought to strengthen the national government and asserted the supremacy of central power over states, a position that both radical and provincial liberals opposed. He was the subject of polemical attacks both in his lifetime and beyond. However, the place of Juárez in Mexican historical memory has enshrined him as a major Mexican hero, beginning in his own lifetime.His birthday (March 21) is a national public and patriotic holiday in Mexico, the only individual Mexican so honored. In the assessment of Mexican historian Enrique Krauze, "Without taking [Juárez's] biography into account, we cannot hope to understand either the triumph of the Liberals in the War of the Reform or the course of Mexican history in the nineteenth century."

Francisco I. Madero

Francisco Ignacio Madero González (Spanish pronunciation: [fɾanˈsisko igˈnasjo maˈðeɾo ɣonˈsales]; 30 October 1873 – 22 February 1913) was a Mexican revolutionary, writer and statesman who served as the 33rd president of Mexico from 1911 until shortly before his assassination in 1913. He was an advocate for social justice and democracy. Madero was notable for challenging Mexican President Porfirio Díaz for the presidency in 1910 and being instrumental in sparking the Mexican Revolution.

Born into an extremely wealthy landowning family in northern Mexico, Madero was an unusual politician, who until he ran for president in the 1910 elections, had never held office. In his 1908 book entitled The Presidential Succession in 1910, Madero called on voters to prevent the sixth reelection of Porfirio Díaz, which Madero considered anti-democratic. His vision would lay the foundation for a democratic, 20th-century Mexico, but without polarizing the social classes. To that effect, he bankrolled the Anti-Reelectionist Party (later the Progressive Constitutional Party) and urged Mexicans to rise up against Díaz, which ignited the Mexican Revolution in 1910.

Madero's candidacy against Díaz garnered widespread support in Mexico, since he was possessed of independent financial means, ideological determination, and the bravery to oppose Díaz when it was dangerous to do so. Arrested by the dictatorship shortly after being declared presidential candidate by his party, the opposition leader escaped from prison and launched the Plan of San Luis Potosí from the United States, in this manner beginning the Mexican Revolution.

Following the resignation of Díaz from the presidency on 25 May 1911 after the signing of the Treaty of Ciudad Juárez, Madero became the highest political leader of the country. Known as "Maderistas", Madero's followers referred to him as the "caudillo de la Revolución" (leader of the Revolution). He was elected president on 15 October 1911 by almost 90% of the vote. Sworn into office on 6 November 1911, he became one of Mexico's youngest elected presidents, having just turned 38. Despite his considerable popularity amongst the people, Madero's administration soon encountered opposition both from more radical revolutionaries and from remnants of the former regime.

In February 1913, a military coup took place in the Mexican capital led by General Victoriano Huerta, the military commander of the city, and supported by the United States ambassador. Madero was arrested and a short time later assassinated along with his Vice-President, José María Pino Suárez, on 22 February 1913, following the series of events known as the Ten Tragic Days (la Decena Trágica). The death of Madero and Pino Suárez led to a national and international outcry which eventually paved the way for the fall of the Huerta Dictatorship, the triumph of the Mexican Revolution and the establishment of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico under Maderista President Venustiano Carranza.

Francisco Javier Echeverría

Francisco Javier Echeverría (c. 2 July 1797 – 17 September 1852) was a Mexican businessman, conservative and centralist politician. He served as president of Mexico in late 1841 for a few weeks.

Félix María Zuloaga

Félix María Zuloaga Trillo (31 March 1813 – 11 February 1898) was a Mexican general and a Conservative leader in the War of Reform. In the late 1850s and early 1860s, Zuloaga served as unconstitutional interim conservative president of Mexico in opposition to the constitutional president Benito Juárez of the Liberal Party.

Guadalupe Victoria, Puebla

Guadalupe Victoria Municipality is a municipality in the Mexican state of Puebla. According to the National Statistics Institute (INEGI), it had a population of 15,041 inhabitants in the 2005 census. Its total area is 239.83 km². It is named after Guadalupe Victoria, the first president of Mexico.

Its geographical coordinates are 19° 17′ North, and 97° 20′ West. Its average altitude is 2,440 metres (8,005 ft) above sea level. Its highest elevation is the rhyolitic twin dome volcano Las Derrumbadas (3480 m).

Index of Mexico-related articles

The following is an alphabetical Mexico-related index of topics related to the United Mexican States.

José Mariano Salas

José Mariano de Salas (11 May 1797 – 24 December 1867) was a Mexican general and politician who served twice as interim president of Mexico (1846 and 1859). He was also a member of the executive triumvirate of the Second Mexican Empire that invited Maximilian of Habsburg to take the throne.

List of Vice Presidents of Mexico

The office of Vice President of Mexico was created by the Constitution of 1824, and was finally abolished by the current Constitution of 1917. Many Mexican Vice Presidents acted as President during time between the end of the First Mexican Empire and the establishment of the Second Mexican Empire.

Mariano Paredes (President of Mexico)

Mariano Paredes y Arrillaga (c. 7 January 1797 – 7 September 1849) was a Conservative Mexican general and president. He took power via a coup d'état in 1846. He was the president at the start of the Mexican–American War.

Master of Public Administration

The Master of Public Administration (M.P.Adm., M.P.A., or MPA) is a professional graduate degree in public administration, similar to the Master of Business Administration but with an emphasis on the issues of governance.

Pedro María de Anaya

Pedro Bernardino María de Anaya y de Álvarez (20 May 1795 – 21 March 1854) was a military officer who served twice as interim president of Mexico from 1847 to 1848. He also played an important role during the Mexican–American War.

Raúl Salinas de Gortari

Raúl Salinas de Gortari (born August 24, 1946) is a Mexican businessman who spent ten years in prison accused of the murder of his brother-in-law, José Francisco Ruiz Massieu, but was acquitted in 2005. He is the brother of former President of Mexico Carlos Salinas.

Salinas de Gortari was included in a list of the "10 most corrupt Mexicans" published by Forbes in 2013.

Valentín Canalizo

José Valentín Raimundo Canalizo Bocadillo (12 February 1795 – 20 February 1850), known as General Valentín Canalizo, son of Vicente Canalizo and María Josefa Bocadillo and baptized on 16 February 1795 at the Metropolitan Cathedral of Monterrey, was a Mexican President, state governor, city mayor, army general, defense minister and conservative politician. He is as yet the only Mexican President from the city of Monterrey. He was a supporter of a centralist (as opposed to a federalist) national government, and a confidante of President of Mexico General Antonio López de Santa Anna. Canalizo was President of Mexico two times, for a total of about one year in 1843 and 1844, during the complex Mexican historical times after the one decade-long Mexican War of Independence and before the Mexican–American War. Valentín Canalizo had previously been the Mayor of Mexico City, after being Governor of Puebla state, and years before, Mayor of the city of Cuernavaca.

He was military governor of both the states of Oaxaca and State of Mexico in the early 1830s. At age 53, three years before his death, he served as Minister of War (Defense Minister) with President Valentín Gómez Farías.

He led the North and East Army Divisions to fight in the Mexican–American War, defending Northern and Eastern Mexican territory. In his late teens as his first job in the army, he fought in the Mexican War of Independence.

Valentín Gómez Farías

Valentín Gómez Farías (Spanish pronunciation: [balenˈtiŋ ˈɡomes faˈɾias]; 14 February 1781 – 5 July 1858) was the President of Mexico for five short periods in the 1830s and 1840s. During his term in 1833, he enacted significant liberal reforms that were aimed at undermining the power of the Roman Catholic Church and the army in Mexico.

Vicente Fox

Vicente Fox Quesada, (American Spanish: [viˈsente ˈfoks keˈsaða]; born 2 July 1942) is a Mexican businessman and politician who served as the 55th President of Mexico from 1 December 2000 to 30 November 2006.

A right-wing populist, Fox ran for and was elected President on the National Action Party (PAN) ticket, which was an opposition party at the time of his election as president. He is currently the Co-President of the Centrist Democrat International, an international organization of center-right political parties. In 2018 he came under fire by the international media for condemning then-presidential candidate Andrés Manuel López Obrador for his proposal to discontinue all pensions given to Mexican ex-presidents. Despite his $10-million dollar Net Worth and multiple earnings from the private sector, Fox was given a life-time $60,000 dollars-a-month pension, with charge to the tax payers. In 2019 Fox ultimately relinquished his pension “for the good of his Country”

Fox was elected President of Mexico in the 2000 presidential election, a historically significant election since it made him the first president elected from an opposition party since Francisco I. Madero in 1910. Fox finished in first place with 42 percent of the vote, thus becoming the first presidential candidate in 71 years to defeat the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI).As president, he mostly followed the neoliberal economic policies that his PRI predecessors had adopted since the 1980s. The first half of his administration saw a further shift of the Federal government to the right, the granting of concessions to the Catholic clergy, the appointing of several members of the ultra-catholic Yunque in government posts, strong relations with the United States and George W. Bush, unsuccessful attempts to apply a value-added tax to medicines and to build an airport in Texcoco, and a major diplomatic conflict with Cuban leader Fidel Castro.The second half of his administration was marked by his conflict with the leftist Andrés Manuel López Obrador, then Mexico City's Mayor. The PAN and the Fox administration unsuccessfully attempted to remove López Obrador from office and to prevent him from participating in the 2006 presidential elections. The Fox administration also got into diplomatic conflicts with Venezuela and Bolivia after supporting the creation of the Free Trade Area of the Americas, which was opposed by those two countries. His last year in office oversaw the controversial 2006 elections, where the PAN candidate Felipe Calderón was declared winner by a very narrow margin over his opponent López Obrador, who claimed that the elections were rigged and refused to recognize the results, calling for protests across the country. In the same year, the southern state of Oaxaca was the scene of a teacher's strike which culminated into protests and violent clashes asking for the resignation of governor Ulises Ruiz Ortiz.On the other hand, Fox was credited with maintaining economic growth during his administration, and reducing the poverty rate from 43.7% in 2000 to 35.6% in 2006.After serving as president of Mexico for six years, Fox returned to his home state of Guanajuato, where he now resides with his wife and family. Since leaving the presidency, Fox has been involved in public speaking and the development of the Vicente Fox Center of Studies, Library and Museum.In 2013, Fox eventually decided to leave the National Action Party, after endorsing the PRI presidential candidate, Enrique Peña Nieto, the previous year. He again endorsed the PRI's candidate, José Antonio Meade, in 2018.In 2018, Fox joined the High Times board of directors.

Álvaro Obregón

Álvaro Obregón Salido (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈalβaɾo oβɾeˈɣon]; February 19, 1880 – July 17, 1928) was a general in the Mexican Revolution, who became President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He supported Sonora's decision to follow Governor of Coahuila Venustiano Carranza as leader of a revolution against the Huerta regime. Carranza appointed Obregón commander of the revolutionary forces in northwestern Mexico and in 1915 appointed him as his minister of war. In 1920, Obregón launched a revolt against Carranza, in which Carranza was assassinated; he won the subsequent election with overwhelming support.

Obregón's presidency was the first stable presidency since the Revolution began in 1910. He oversaw massive educational reform (with Mexican muralism flourishing), moderate land reform, and labor laws sponsored by the increasingly powerful Regional Confederation of Mexican Workers. In August 1923, he signed the Bucareli Treaty that clarified the rights of the Mexican government and U.S. oil interests and brought U.S. diplomatic recognition to his government. In 1923–24, Obregón's finance minister, Adolfo de la Huerta, launched a rebellion in part protesting the Bucareli Treaty; Obregón returned to the battlefield to crush the rebellion. In his victory, he was aided by the United States with arms and 17 U.S. planes that bombed de la Huerta's supporters.In 1924, Obregón's fellow Northern revolutionary general and hand-picked successor, Plutarco Elías Calles, was elected president, and although Obregón ostensibly retired to Sonora, he remained influential under Calles. Having pushed through constitutional reform to once again make reelection possible, Obregón won the 1928 election, but was assassinated by José de León Toral, a Mexican offended by the government's anti-religious laws, before he could begin his second term. Toral's subsequent trial ultimately led to his execution by firing squad, and it also involved a Capuchin nun named María Concepción Acevedo de la Llata, "Madre Conchita", who was thought to be the mastermind behind Obregón's murder.

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