President of Indonesia

The President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the head of state and also head of government of the Republic of Indonesia. The president leads the executive branch of the Indonesian government and is the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian National Armed Forces.

On 20 October 2014, Joko Widodo became the seventh and current president of Indonesia.

President of the Republic of Indonesia
Presiden Republik Indonesia
Indonesian Presidential Seal gold
Presidential Seal
Joko Widodo 2014 official portrait
Incumbent
Joko Widodo

since 20 October 2014
StyleMr./Madam President
(Bapak/Ibu Presiden) (informal)
His/Her Excellency
(international correspondence)
StatusHead of State
Head of Government
Member ofCabinet
ResidenceMerdeka Palace (Official)
State Palace
Bogor Palace
Tampaksiring Palace
Gedung Agung
Cipanas Palace
SeatJakarta
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFive years, renewable once
Constituting instrumentConstitution of Indonesia
PrecursorGovernor-General of Indonesia
Inaugural holderSukarno
Formation18 August 1945
DeputyVice President of Indonesia
SalaryRp 62,740,030 per month[1]
Websitewww.presidenri.go.id
Presidential Standard of Indonesia
Presidential Flag used during Sukarno's era[2]
Presiden Sukarno
Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia
Merdeka Palace Changing Guard 2
Merdeka Palace, the official residence of the president of Indonesia

History

Sukarno era

The Indonesian presidency was established during the formulation of the 1945 Constitution by the Investigating Committee for Preparatory Work for Independence (BPUPK). The office was first filled on 18 August 1945 when Sukarno was elected by acclamation by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) because according to the Transitional Provisions of the Constitution, "the President and the Vice President for the first time shall be elected by the PPKI." Also, the body responsible for the presidential elections, the People's Consultative Assembly (MPR), had not yet been formed.[3] On 16 October 1945, Vice President Mohammad Hatta announced a vice-presidential decree which gave the Central National Committee of Indonesia (KNIP) legislative powers.[4] On 11 November 1945, the KNIP made the decision to separate the role of Head of State from that of Head of Government. Although a new constitution had not been set up yet, Indonesia was now a de facto parliamentary democracy with the president as a ceremonial Head of State whose function was to ask the prime minister as the Head of the Government to form a new Cabinet.

During the Indonesian National Revolution, both Sukarno and Hatta were captured by the Dutch in Yogyakarta on 18 December 1948. Sukarno then gave a mandate for Sjafruddin Prawiranegara to form an emergency Government.[5] This was done and the Emergency Government of the Republic of Indonesia (PDRI) was formed in Sumatra with Prawiranegara as its chairman. Prawiranegara handed back his mandate to Sukarno on 13 July 1949.[6] On 17 December 1949, Sukarno was elected president of the Republic of the United States of Indonesia (RIS) and presidential mandate passed to Assaat.[7] When it became clear that RIS was going to be replaced by a unitary state, Asaat stepped down from the presidency and Sukarno once again became president on 15 August 1950.

Indonesia now adopted the constitution that had been intended for RIS. Officially known as the Provisional Constitution, the document confirmed the president's role as the head of state, but limited him to a mostly ceremonial role. He appointed a prime minister on the advice of formateurs.[8]

Despite his limited constitutional role, Sukarno commanded great moral authority. Nonetheless, he was never content with the role of ceremonial head of State, and grew increasingly disenchanted with western-style parliamentary democracy. In the early 1950s, he began calling for the implementation of "Guided Democracy," in which decisions would be made after lengthy deliberation with a view toward achieving a consensus under presidential "guidance."

The rest of the decade saw a series of unstable governments. Taking advantage of the situation, Sukarno made a speech in April 1959 and suggested that Indonesia return to the 1945 Constitution.[9] The People reacted enthusiastically and there was strong pressure on the Constitutional Assembly, the body responsible for formulating a new constitution, to adopt the 1945 Constitution. When the assembly did not budge, Sukarno issued a presidential decree on 5 July 1959 declaring that Indonesia was returning to the 1945 Constitution.[9] That document made the president head of government as well as head of state. In May 1963, the People's Consultative Assembly appointed Sukarno president for Life.[10]

Although Indonesia had re-adopted the 1945 Constitution, it did not mean that it was strictly adhered to. The MPR, which at this stage was still on a provisional basis (MPRS), was subservient to the president despite its status of the Nation's highest Governing Body. It was only in 1966, when the political tide began to turn against Sukarno that the MPRS nominally regained its rightful constitutional status.

Suharto era

All throughout his rise to power, General Suharto seemed determined to do things constitutionally and that determination seemed to continue when he became president in 1967. Suharto allowed the MPR to execute its constitutional duty of formulating the Outlines of State Policy (GBHN) whilst he as the president would be responsible for implementing GBHN. Suharto also made it a presidential obligation to deliver accountability speeches towards the end of his terms. During the speech, Suharto outlined the achievements that his administration had made and how those achievements had adhered to the GBHN set by the MPR. Despite the constitutional and democratic façade, Suharto made sure that the MPR was also subservient to him. In 1969, a law was passed that required appointments to the MPR to be made official by the president.[11] He also took measures that largely emasculated the opposition parties. For example, he had the power to issue governmental regulations in lieu of law, which nominally had to be approved by the House of People's Representatives (DPR, the pre-2004 legislative branch). However, given the DPR's infrequent sessions and the near-total dominance of the pro-government political grouping, Golkar, such approval was a mere formality. Thus, for all intents and purposes, Suharto ruled by decree for most of his tenure. For the better part of Suharto's rule, he effectively held all governing power in the nation.

Reform era

Suharto fell from power in May 1998 and the presidency experienced changes as a result of the reform movement. Compared to Suharto, who had all of his accountability speeches accepted, B. J. Habibie had his only accountability speech rejected.[12] Abdurrahman Wahid then became the first president who had to beat another candidate to be elected, as Sukarno and Suharto had been sole candidates. As a result of this, Wahid was also the first president to be elected through counting votes instead of by acclamation. However, Wahid ended his presidency by being impeached by the MPR, a clear sign that while the presidency is the key institution, it is still subservient to the MPR. Wahid was replaced by his Vice President, Megawati Sukarnoputri, daughter of Sukarno and former opposition leader during Suharto's presidency. Megawati is the first and, so far, only female ever to become President of Indonesia.[13]

During the 2001 MPR Annual Session, it was finally decided that from 2004 onwards, the president will directly be elected by the people.[14] In 2004 Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono became Indonesia's first directly elected president, beating incumbent Megawati Sukarnoputri in the runoff election. In 2014, Yudhoyono finished his second presidential term and was barred from seeking re-election.

The 3rd Indonesian presidential election was held on 9 July 2014 and matched former general and Suharto's ex-son in law Prabowo Subianto against the governor of Jakarta, Joko Widodo. On 22 July the General Elections Commission announced Joko Widodo's victory. He and his vice president, Jusuf Kalla, were sworn-in on 20 October 2014, for a 5-year term.

The presidency

Requirements to run for office

The 1945 Constitution: The presidential candidate has to be of Indonesian origin.

The Provisional Constitution: The presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen aged at least 30 years old. He cannot be someone who is deemed to be undesirable or has had his right to take part in elections stripped. He is also required to not be involved with any private corporations.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The presidential candidate has to be an Indonesian citizen since his/her birth, who has not willingly become a citizen in another nation, has not betrayed the nation, and is physically and mentally capable of performing the duties. Amended Constitution also states that further criteria will be determined by laws. The president is also required to be nominated by a Political Party or a coalition of Political Parties.

2008 Law No. 42 Regarding Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections
The presidential candidate must:

  • Mindful of God;[15]
  • have been an Indonesian citizen since his/her birth, who has not willingly become a citizen of another nation;
  • have not betrayed the nation, and has not been involved in any corruption or other criminal activity;
  • be physically and mentally capable of performing the duties;
  • be a permanent resident in the territory of the Republic of Indonesia;
  • have reported his/her wealth to the Corruption Eradication Commission;
  • have no debt individually or collectively that can create a loss for the state;
  • have not been declared bankrupt by a court decision;
  • never been involved in any despicable act;
  • be registered as a voter;
  • be registered as a tax payer and have paid taxes for at least the last five years;
  • have never previously served as president for two terms;
  • faithful to Pancasila, the 1945 Constitution, and the vision of the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence;
  • have never been sentenced to jail for more than five years;
  • not be less than 35 years of age;
  • have graduated at least from the senior high school or its equivalent (ditto to high school).

Election, oath/promise/statement of office, term of office, Constitutional requirement

The 1945 Constitution: Together with the vice president, the president is elected by the MPR with the largest number of votes. The president-elect is also required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming president. The term of office is five years and after that the president can be re-elected again.

The Provisional Constitution: Together with the vice president, the president is elected according to rules specified by laws. The president-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise or a statement of office before officially becoming president. The president is constitutionally required to live where the seat of Government is.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: Together with the vice president, the president is elected directly by the people on a ticket. Further election rules are determined by laws passed by the DPR. The president-elect is required to read either an oath or a promise of office before officially becoming president. The term of office is five years and after that the president can be re-elected for only one more term.

Distribution of Votes: Winners must receive over half the votes total, including at least 20% of the votes in at least half the 34 provinces.[16]

Oath of Office of the President of the Republic of Indonesia: "I swear by Allah to fulfill the duties of president (vice president) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Pledge of Office of the President of the Republic of Indonesia: "I solemnly pledge to fulfill the duties of president (vice president) of the Republic of Indonesia to the best of my capabilities and in the fairest way possible, to uphold the Constitution by all means and to execute all laws and regulations as straightforwardly as possible as well as to dedicate myself to the service of the Nation and the People."

Powers

The 1945 Constitution: The president has constitutional authority over the Government and has the power to name and remove ministers. He has the power to create laws with the agreement of the People's Representative Council (DPR), to make Government regulations in accordance with laws, and in the case of emergencies has the power to make Government regulations in lieu of law. Militarily, the president holds supreme authority over the Army, Navy, and Air Force whilst security-wise, the president has the power to declare a State of Emergency. Diplomatically, the president, with the agreement of the DPR, has the power to declare war, peace, and to sign treaties. In addition, he or she appoints ambassadors and consuls as well as accepting ambassadors from other countries. Finally, the president has power to give amnesties and pardons as well as awarding titles and honours.

The Provisional Constitution: The president has the power to name cabinets and appoint the prime minister with the advice of formateurs. The president is able to remove ministers from office and has the right to be informed of important matters by the Council of Ministers. As the head of state, the president has the power to dissolve the DPR and order for an election to be held within 30 days. Militarily, the president holds supreme authority over the Armed Forces although any decision on this matter needs to be countersigned by the appropriate ministers and wartime control of troops has to be placed under an Armed Forces Commander. The president requires permission from the DPR to declare war and sign treaties although he or she has independent power to appoint ambassadors and to accept them. The president also has the power to grant pardons.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The president has constitutional authority over the government and has the power to name and remove ministers. He or she has the right to propose bills to DPR, to discuss bills with the DPR to reach an agreement, make government regulations in accordance with laws, and in the case of emergencies has the power to make Government regulations in lieu of law. Militarily, the president holds supreme authority over the Indonesian National Armed Forces. Diplomatically, the president can only sign treaties, appoint ambassadors, accept ambassadors from other countries, rehabilitate prisoners, and appoint Judicial Committee members with the DPR's agreement. The president has the power to grant pardons but must consider the advice of the Supreme Court. The president also has the final say over chief justice candidates.

Assistance in performing duties

The 1945 Constitution: The president is assisted by the vice president and his or her ministers. The president is also able to seek advice from the Supreme Advisory Council (DPA).

The Provisional Constitution: The president is assisted by the vice president.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: The president is assisted by the vice president and his ministers. The president is also allowed to form his own advisory teams which will further be regulated by laws passed by DPR.

Line of succession and impeachment

The 1945 Constitution: If the president dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason, he/she is replaced by the vice president.

The Provisional Constitution: If the president dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason, he/she is replaced by the vice president.

The Amended 1945 Constitution: If the president dies, resigns, or is unable to perform his/her duties for any reason, he/she is replaced by the vice president. If the president and the vice president die, resign, or are unable to perform their duties for any reason, the government will be taken over together by the minister of foreign affairs, minister of internal affairs and minister of defence. Then the MPR will elect a new president from the two candidates nominated by the political parties whose candidates were the winner and the runner-up in the previous presidential election.[17] Under the amended constitution, the president can now be impeached and removed from office. If the president is viewed to be unfit to perform his duties and has committed crimes such as corruption or betraying the nation, the DPR can appeal to the Supreme Court to try the president. Furthermore, the DPR can ask the Constitutional Court to look into the matter, during which it has 90 days to make a decision. With the decision made, the DPR can motion for the MPR to convene. The president would then be given one last chance to defend himself before the MPR makes the decision whether or not the president should be impeached.

Post-Presidency

Law 7 of 1978[18] stipulates that former presidents are entitled to a pension. Former presidents are also entitled to a house with electricity, water, and telephone bills covered by the government. In addition to that former presidents will have free healthcare for their families and a car with chauffeur.

List of presidents

During the Indonesian National Revolution

  • Sukarno (18 August 1945 – 18 December 1948)
  • Sjafruddin Prawiranegara (19 December 1948 – 13 July 1949) – Head of Emergency Government
  • Sukarno (14 July 1949 – 17 December 1949)
  • Assaat (17 December 1949 – 15 August 1950) – during the United States of Indonesia, Sukarno became the president of the United States of Indonesia. The Republic merely a component of the union.
  • Sukarno (from 15 August 1950) – upon (re)-establishment of the unitary Republic of Indonesia.

Living former presidents

As of July 2019, there are three living former Indonesian presidents. The most recent former president to die was Abdurrahman Wahid (1940–2009), on 30 December 2009. The living former presidents, in order of service, are:

Photo Name Term of office Date of birth
Foto Presiden Habibie 1998 Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie
1998–1999
25 June 1937 (age 82)
Megawati Soekarnoputri 2016 Megawati Sukarnoputri
2001–2004
23 January 1947 (age 72)
Presiden Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono
2004–2014
9 September 1949 (age 69)

See also

Notes

  1. ^ "Megawati Digaji Rp 112 Juta, Lebih Besar dari Gaji Presiden". KOMPAS (in Indonesian). 28 May 2018. Retrieved 17 July 2018.
  2. ^ "Bendera Kepresidenan Bung Karno". Rakyat Merdeka (in Indonesian). 11 April 2017. Retrieved 7 February 2018.
  3. ^ Kahin, George McTurnan (1952) Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-9108-8 p138
  4. ^ Kahin, George McTurnan (1952) Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0-8014-9108-8 p152
  5. ^ "[Urangawak] Peran PDRI Akhirnya Diakui".
  6. ^ Djalal, Hasjim (16 August 2002). "Mengenang Dubes Palar dan Diplomasi Indonesia". Kompas. Archived from the original on 16 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2007.
  7. ^ 991128 Archived 13 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ "Temporal Constitution of Indonesia 1950". Ministry of Finance of Indonesia. 15 August 1950. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  9. ^ a b "Republika Online". Republika Online.
  10. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (2008) [1981]. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300 (4th ed.). London: MacMillan. p. 454. ISBN 978-0-230-54685-1.
  11. ^ "Law of Indonesia Number 6 Year 1969 (UU No.6/1969) about The composition and rating of People's Consultative Assembly, People's Representative Council and Regional People's Representative Council". Hukum Online. 17 December 1969. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  12. ^ Friend, Theodore (2003) Indonesian Destinies, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press 2003 ISBN 0-674-01834-6, p461
  13. ^ John Aglionby (July 2001). "Special report: Indonesia and East Timor". Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  14. ^ "MPR dan Pemilihan Presiden Langsung". VOA Indonesia. 6 November 2001. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006. Retrieved 20 July 2004.
  15. ^ Ropi I. (2017) Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa: Contests of Meaning and Interpretation. In: Religion and Regulation in Indonesia. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore
  16. ^ NEHRU, VIKRAM; BULKIN, NADIA (24 October 2013). "How Indonesia's 2014 Elections Will Work". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Retrieved 23 March 2017.
  17. ^ Laurencius Simanjuntak (22 January 2010). "Wapres Bisa Jadi Presiden, Kemudian Memilih Wakilnya". Detik.com. Retrieved 12 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Law of Indonesia No. 7 Year 1978 (UU No.7/1978) about Rights of Finance/Administrative President and Vice President, and Former President and Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia" (PDF). National Library of the Republic of Indonesia. 18 December 1978. Retrieved 12 May 2015.

External links

1987 Southeast Asian Games

The 1987 Southeast Asian Games (Indonesian: Pesta Olahraga Asia Tenggara 1987), officially known as the 14th Southeast Asian Games, was a multi-sport event held in Jakarta, Indonesia from 9 to 20 September 1987 with 29 sports featured in the games. This was Indonesia's second time to host the games and its first time since 1979. The games was opened and closed by President of Indonesia Suharto at the Gelora Senayan Stadium. The final medal tally was led by host Indonesia, followed by Thailand and the Philippines.

Blitar

Blitar is a city in East Java, Indonesia, about 73 km from Malang and 167 km from Surabaya. The area lies within longitude 111° 40' - 112° 09' East and its latitude is 8° 06' South. The city of Blitar lies at an altitude on average 167 metres above sea level.The city is noted as the location of the grave of Sukarno, the first President of Indonesia, five kilometers from the city plaza. The Istana Gebang (Gebang palace) where Sukarno lived as a child is nearby and has been converted into a museum. containing numerous items commemorating Sukarno's place in Indonesian history. In addition, the very active Kelud volcano is located just over 20 kilometers north of Blitar.

Former Vice President of Indonesia, Dr. Boediono, and the commander-in-chief of the Indonesian military, Admiral Agus Suhartono, were born in Blitar. Both of them are the alumni of SMP Negeri 1 Blitar and SMA Negeri 1 Blitar.

Boediono

Boediono (EYD: Budiono, pronounced [budiˈjono] (listen); born 25 February 1943) is an Indonesian economist. He was the Vice President of Indonesia from 2009 to 2014. He became Vice President after winning the 2009 presidential election together with the then-incumbent President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.

Buginese people

The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia. The Austronesian ancestors of the Buginese people settled on Sulawesi around 2500 B.C.E. There is "historical linguistic evidence of some late Holocene immigration of Austronesian speakers to South Sulawesi from Taiwan"—which means that the Buginese have "possible ultimate ancestry in South China", and that as a result of this immigration, "there was an infusion of an exogenous population from China or Taiwan." Migration from South China by some of the paternal ancestors of the Buginese is also supported by studies of Human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups. The Bugis in 1605 converted to Islam from Animism. Some Buginese have retained their pre-Islamic belief called Tolotang, and some Bugis converted to Christianity by means of marriage; but they have remained a minority.Despite the population numbering only around 6 million, the Buginese are a very powerful people and they have heavily influenced the politics in the present day states of Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore. The sixth Prime Minister of Malaysia, Najib Razak and the current Vice President of Indonesia, Jusuf Kalla are both Buginese.

Although many Buginese people live in the large port cities of Makassar and Parepare, the majority are farmers who grow wet rice on the lowland plains to the north and west of the town of Maros. The name Bugis is an exonym which represents an older form of the name; (To) Ugi is the endonym.The Buginese people speak a distinct regional language in addition to Indonesian, called Basa Ugi, Bugis or Buginese. In reality, there are several dialects, some of which are sufficiently different from others to be considered separate languages. Buginese language belongs to the South Sulawesi language group; other members include Makassarese language, Torajan, Mandar and Enrekang, each being a series of dialects.

Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces

The Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces (Indonesian: Panglima Tentara Nasional Indonesia, currently known as Panglima TNI) is the highest position in the Indonesian National Armed Forces. The position is held by the four-star General/Admiral/Air Marshall appointed by and reporting directly to the President of Indonesia.

First official Commander of the Indonesian National Armed Forces is General Soedirman, at the time the position is known as Commanding General of the People's Security Forces (Indonesian: Panglima Besar Tentara Keamanan Rakyat), which later will be called Commander of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Panglima Tentara Republik Indonesia) and Commander of the Republic of Indonesia Military Forces (Indonesian: Panglima Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia). As the first commander, General Sudirman is not appointed by the President of Indonesia, instead elected by People's Security Armed Forces personnel during a meeting knownly as People's Security Armed Forces Conference on 12 November 1945. Prior to appointment of General Soedirman, the position is held by Lt. Gen. Oerip Soemohardjo on an interim basisCurrently, the office is held by ACM Hadi Tjahjanto, an Indonesian Air Force officer, who was inaugurated by President Joko Widodo on 8 December 2017.

Fatmawati Soekarno Airport

Fatmawati Soekarno International Airport (IATA: BKS, ICAO: WIGG), formerly Padangkemiling Airport, is an airport in Bengkulu, a city in the Bengkulu province of Indonesia. This airport is named after Fatmawati Soekarno, the First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Soekarno, the first President of Indonesia who was born in the town.The distance from the city to this airport is 14 km.

First Spouses of Indonesia

Throughout Indonesian history, the title of First Lady (Indonesian: Ibu Negara) or, in an instance, First Gentleman (Indonesian: Bapak Negara) has been used to refer to the wife or husband of the President of Indonesia. While the Constitution of Indonesia does not mention anything about the spouses of the President, it continues to hold significant influence in the Indonesian society.

The current holder of the title is Iriana Joko Widodo, wife of current President Joko Widodo. Taufiq Kiemas, husband of President Megawati Sukarnoputri, to date is the only First Gentleman.

Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle

The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (Indonesian: Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan, PDI-P) is an Indonesian political party, and the party of the current President of Indonesia, Joko Widodo.

The PDI-P was founded and is currently led by Megawati Sukarnoputri, president of Indonesia from 2001 to 2004, and daughter of Sukarno, the first president of Indonesia. Megawati was forced out from the leadership of the Indonesian Democratic Party (PDI) by the government of Indonesia under Suharto in 1996. Megawati formed the PDI-P in 1999, after Suharto resigned and restrictions on political parties were lifted.

The party's centre-left ideology is based on the official Indonesian national philosophy, Pancasila. It is a member of the Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats and Progressive Alliance.

Joko Widodo

Joko Widodo (born Mulyono, 21 June 1961), also known as Jokowi, is an Indonesian politician who is the seventh president of Indonesia. Elected in July 2014 as the first Indonesian president to not come from an elite political or military background, he was previously the Mayor of Surakarta from 2005 to 2012, and the Governor of Jakarta from 2012 to 2014.

He achieved national prominence in 2009 for his work as the Mayor of Surakarta. A member of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), he was its candidate for the 2012 Jakarta gubernatorial election, alongside Basuki Tjahaja Purnama (often known as Ahok) as his running mate. Defeating incumbent Fauzi Bowo, he took office in October 2012 and reinvigorated Jakarta politics, with publicised blusukan visits (unannounced spot checks) and improving the city's bureaucracy, reducing corruption in the process. He also introduced years-late programs to improve quality of life in the city, including universal health-care, dredging the city's main river to reduce flooding, and inaugurating construction of the city's subway system.Seen as a rising star in Indonesian politics, PDI-P nominated Jokowi for the 2014 presidential election. Winning a majority of the popular vote, he was named president-elect on 22 July 2014, to bitter protest from his opponent Prabowo Subianto, who disputed the outcome and withdrew from the race before the count was completed. As president, Jokowi has primarily focused on infrastructure, introducing or restarting long-delayed programs to build highways, high-speed rail, airports and other facilities to improve connectivity in the Indonesian archipelago. On foreign policy, his administration has emphasised "protecting Indonesia’s sovereignty", with the sinking of illegal foreign fishing vessels and the prescription of capital punishment for drug smugglers, despite intense pressure from foreign powers including Australia and France. He ran for re-election in 2019, winning for a second time against Prabowo Subianto with 55.5% of the national vote.

Jusuf Kalla

Muhammad Jusuf Kalla (listen ; born 15 May 1942) is an Indonesian politician who has been Vice President of Indonesia since 2014, having previously served from 2004 to 2009. He was unsuccessful as Golkar's presidential candidate in the 2009 presidential election. Since 2009 Kalla has served as the Chairman of the Indonesian Red Cross Society. Before Kalla declared himself as the running mate for Joko Widodo in the 2014 presidential election, a 2012 poll placed his popularity among likely voters in the top three contenders for the presidency and ahead of his own party's nominee Aburizal Bakrie. He is the first person to hold two non-consecutive terms as Vice President of Indonesia.

Maratua Airport

Maratua Airport (Indonesian: Bandar Udara Maratua) is an airport located on Maratua Island, North Kalimantan in Indonesia. The airport is built to boost tourism and also to secure defence strategy due to Maratua Island being near the border with Malaysia and the Philippines.Preparation and budgeting for Maratua Airport began in 2008. However, three years later land clearing began. In September 2015, the first stone laying of the airport was carried out and construction, and on February 13, 2017, an ATR 72 airplane landed successfully at Maratua Airport. Maratua Airport is serving the operations of several airlines since the end of 2017. In addition to serving the transportation of the local community, the airline also transports domestic and foreign tourists to tour the Derawan Islands which have international tourist spots. President of Indonesia Joko Widodo officially inaugurated the airport on 25 October 2018.

Megawati Sukarnoputri

Diah Permata Megawati Setiawati Sukarnoputri (Indonesian: [meɡawati sukarnɔputri] (listen); born 23 January 1947) is an Indonesian politician who served as President of Indonesia from 23 July 2001 to 20 October 2004. She was previously the country's vice president from 21 October 1999 to 23 July 2001.

Megawati is the leader of the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDI-P), one of Indonesia's largest political parties. She is the daughter of Indonesia's first president, Sukarno.

Megawati was Indonesia's first female president and the sixth woman to lead a Muslim-majority country. She is also the first Indonesian leader to be born after Indonesia proclaimed independence. After serving as vice president to Abdurrahman Wahid, Megawati became president when Wahid was removed from office in 2001. She ran for re-election in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono. She ran again in the 2009 presidential election, but Yudhoyono defeated her for a second time.

Ministry of Industry (Indonesia)

Ministry of Industry (Indonesian: Kementerian Perindustrian) is an Indonesian ministry. The ministry is under, and is responsible to, the President of Indonesia.

Parepare

Parepare is a city (kota) in South Sulawesi, Indonesia, located on the southwest coast of Sulawesi, about 155 km (96 mi) north of the provincial capital of Makassar. A port town, it is one of the major population centers of the Bugis people. The city has a population of 129,542 people, according to the 2010 Census.

Jusuf Habibie, the third President of Indonesia, was born in Parepare.

Politics of Indonesia

The politics of Indonesia take place in the framework of a presidential representative democratic republic whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two People's Representative Councils. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.The 1945 constitution provided for a limited separation of executive, legislative and judicial power. The governmental system has been described as "presidential with parliamentary characteristics". Following the Indonesian riots of May 1998 and the resignation of President Suharto, several political reforms were set in motion via amendments to the Constitution of Indonesia, which resulted in changes to all branches of government.

The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Indonesia as a "flawed democracy" in 2017.

Statistics Indonesia

Statistics Indonesia, known in Indonesia as BPS (or Badan Pusat Statistik, the Indonesian translation of Central Agency on Statistics), is a non-departmental government institute of Indonesia that is responsible for conducting statistical surveys. Its main customer is the government, but statistical data is also available to the public. Annual surveys include national and provincial socio-economics, manufacturing establishments, population and the labour force.

Established in 1960, the institute is directly responsible to the President of Indonesia. Its functions include providing data to other governmental institutes as well as to the public and conducting statistical surveys to publish periodic statistics on economy, social change and development. Statistics Indonesia also assists data processing divisions in other public offices to support and to promote standard statistical methods.

Vice President of Indonesia

The Vice President of the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesian: Wakil Presiden Republik Indonesia) is the first in the line of succession in the Republic of Indonesia.

Wahid Hasyim

Abdul Wahid Hasyim (June 1, 1914 – April 19, 1953) was the first Minister of Religious Affairs in the government of President Sukarno of Indonesia, a post he held in 1945, and from 1949 to 1952.

He was the son of Nahdlatul Ulama founder Hasyim Asy'ari and went on to lead the organization. In the future his son, Abdurrahman Wahid, also held the same office in NU, and later was elected as President of Indonesia in 1999.

One of the main roads in central Jakarta, Jalan Wahid Hasyim, is named after him.

Working Cabinet (Joko Widodo)

The Working Cabinet (Indonesian: Kabinet Kerja) was sworn in on 27 October 2014, by President of Indonesia Joko Widodo.

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