President of Ghana

Nana is the elected head of state and head of government of Ghana, as well as Commander-in-Chief of the Ghana Armed Forces. The current President of Ghana is [ Nana Akufo Addo]], who won the 2016 presidential election against the incumbent, John Dramani Mahama, by a margin of 9.45%. Nana Akufo-Addo was sworn into office on 7 January 2017.[1]

President of the
Republic of Ghana
Seal of the Presidency of the Republic of Ghana
Presidential Seal of Ghana
Presidential Standard of Ghana
Nana Akufo-Addo at European Development Days 2017
Incumbent
Nana Akufo-Addo

since 7 January 2017
StyleHis/Her Excellency
ResidenceJubilee House
Term lengthFour years, renewable once
Inaugural holderKwame Nkrumah
Republic established
Jerry Rawlings
Current Constitution
FormationRepublic Day
1 July 1960
1992 Constitution
15 May 1992
DeputyVice President of Ghana
Salary144,000 Cedi annually
Website(in English) Presidency.gov.gh
(in English) Ghana.gov.gh

Eligibility

According to Chapter 8, Article 62 of the 1992 Constitution of Ghana, a person shall not be qualified for election as the President of Ghana unless:

  • (a) he/she is a citizen of Ghana by birth
  • (b) he/she has attained the age of forty years; and
  • (c) he/she is a person who is otherwise qualified to be elected a Member of Parliament, except that the disqualifications set out in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e) of clause (2) of article 94 of this Constitution shall not be removed, in respect of any such person, by a presidential pardon or by the lapse of time as provided for in clause (5) of that article.[2]

Oath of office

The President of Ghana must be sworn in by the Chief Justice before the citizens of Ghana at the Independence Square in Accra. The President-elect must repeat the following:

"I, _______________ having been elected to the high office of President of the Republic of Ghana do (in the name of the Almighty God swear) (solemnly affirm) that I will be faithful and true to the Republic of Ghana; that I will at all times preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the Republic of Ghana; and that I dedicate myself to the service and well-being of the people of the Republic of Ghana and to do right to all manner of persons.

I further (solemnly swear) (solemnly affirm) that should I at any time break this oath of office; I shall submit myself to the laws of the Republic of Ghana and suffer the penalty for it. (So help me God)".[3]

Insignia

After the oath of office has been taken by the elected president, these following insignia are handed over to the president. These devices are used to display the rank of his/her office and are used on special occasions.

  • President's Sword (image) and the Presidential Seat. A carved wooden seat overlaid with gold.

Powers and duties of the President

Presidential styles of
Nana Akufo-Addo
Seal of the Presidency of the Republic of Ghana
Reference style'His Excellency President of the Republic of Ghana"
Spoken styleYour Excellency"
Alternative styleMr. President

Chapter 8 of the Constitution of Ghana states the duties and the powers of the President. The President is required to:

  • uphold the Constitution
  • exercise executive authority
  • preserve the safety and homeland of Ghana.[2]

Also, the President is given the powers:

The President may execute or cause to be executed treaties, agreements or conventions in the name of the Republic of Ghana.[2] The President shall take precedence over the populace of the Republic of Ghana and may refer important policy matters to a national referendum, declare war, conclude peace and other treaties, appoint senior public officials, and grant amnesty (with the concurrence of the Parliament of Ghana).[2] In times of serious internal or external turmoil or threat, or economic or financial crises, the President may assume emergency powers "for the maintenance of national security or public peace and order".[2]

The President shall be removed from office if he/she is found, in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution, Chapter 8 section 69 (ii) – prejudicial or inimical to the economy or the security of the Republic of Ghana.[2] The President shall cease to hold office on the date the Parliament of Ghana decides that he/she be removed from office.[2]

List of Presidents of Ghana (1960–present)

  Convention People's Party   People's National Party   National Democratic Congress   New Patriotic Party   Military

No. Name
(Birth–Death)
Picture Took office Left office Elected
(Parliament)
Political Party
Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (First Republic: 1960–1966)
1 Kwame Nkrumah
(1909–1972)
Kwame Nkrumah (JFKWHP-AR6409-A) 1 July 1960 24 February 1966
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
1960 (1st) Convention People's Party
Presidents as Head of State (Second Republic: 1966–1972)
1 Joseph Ankrah
(1915–1992)
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council)
No image 24 February 1966 2 April 1969 National Liberation Council
2 Akwasi Afrifa
(1936–1979)
(Chairman of the National Liberation Council until 3 September 1969, thereafter Chairman of the Presidential Commission)
No image 2 April 1969 7 August 1970 National Liberation Council
3 Nii Amaa Ollennu
(1906–1986)
Nii Amaa Ollennu 7 August 1970 31 August 1970 Independent
4 Edward Akufo-Addo
(1906–1979)
No image 31 August 1970 13 January 1972
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
Independent
5 Ignatius Acheampong
(1931–1979)
(Chairman of the National Redemption Council until 9 October 1975, thereafter Chairman of the Supreme Military Council)
No image 13 January 1972 5 July 1978
(Deposed in a palace coup d'état)
Supreme Military Council
6 Fred Akuffo
(1937–1979)
(Chairman of the Supreme Military Council)
No image 5 July 1978 4 June 1979
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
Supreme Military Council
Presidents as Head of State (Third Republic: 1979–1981)
1 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
(Chairman of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council)
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped) 4 June 1979 24 September 1979 Armed Forces Revolutionary Council
2 Hilla Limann
(1934–1998)
Hilla Limann 24 September 1979 31 December 1981
(Deposed in a coup d'état)
1979 (1st) People's National Party
3 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
(Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council)
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped) 31 December 1981 7 January 1993 Provisional National Defence Council
Presidents of the Republic of Ghana (Fourth Republic: since 1993)
1 Jerry Rawlings
(1947–)
Jerry Rawlings visits AMISOM 02 (6874167713) (cropped) 7 January 1993 7 January 2001 1992 (1st)
1996 (2nd)
National Democratic Congress
2 John Kufuor
(1938–)
John Kufuor 080915-A-8817J-090 7 January 2001 7 January 2009[4] 2000 (3rd)
2004 (4th)
New Patriotic Party
3 John Atta Mills
(1944–2012)
John Atta-Mills election poster (cropped) 7 January 2009[4] 24 July 2012[5]
(Died in office)
2008 (5th) National Democratic Congress
4 John Mahama
(1958–)
John Dramani Mahama 2014 (cropped) 24 July 2012[6] 7 January 2017[7] 2012 (6th) National Democratic Congress
5 Nana Akufo-Addo
(1944–)
Nana Akufo-Addo at European Development Days 2017 7 January 2017 2016 (7th) New Patriotic Party

Residence

Jubilee House
Golden Jubilee House
General information
LocationAccra, Ghana
Current tenantsNana Akufo-Addo

The President of Ghana's official residence was Osu Castle (also known as Fort Christiansborg or Christiansborg Castle) in Accra. In 2007, the opposition MPs in Ghana stormed out of a parliamentary debate on whether to take out a $50m loan to build a new presidential palace. MPs from President John Kufuor's New Patriotic Party voted unanimously in favour of taking the loan from India.[8]

They argued that the President should not be based in Osu Castle, where slaves used to be kept. The opposition National Democratic Congress said the money would be better spent elsewhere.[8] The old flagstaff house used by Ghana's first president as a residence is being renovated into a museum, while the grounds on which it stands is being built up as an ultra modern office complex and residence for the president and vice-president of Ghana as well as their staff.[8] The new presidential palace was expected to be completed by August 2008 but was finally completed in November 2008. At the inauguration of the new presidential palace, President John Kufuor revealed to the press that the new name of the palace would be Golden Jubilee House. The name was chosen in reference to the 50th anniversary of Ghana's Independence.[8]

Part of the office space has been given to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs when it had to be relocated because of a fire that gutted its offices. The NDC government refused to move to the venue after it assumed office in 2009 noting that some of the work in the residency is not completed. The government of President Atta Mills also noted that the National Security establishment Bureau of National Investigations (BNI) wanted to ensure that security at the venue was improved before the government moved in. The name was changed to Flagstaff House by John Atta-Mills in an attempt many see as to cover its link to the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Ghana under the New Patriotic Party. On 7 February 2013, the office of the Presidency was finally moved to the Flagstaff House.[9]

The name has been reverted to the Jubilee House.

Transport

Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the Republic of Ghana (President of Ghana)
Dassault Falcon 900 EX of the President of Ghana

National transport services for the Ghanaian President are:[10]

Air transport services for the Ghanaian President are:[11]

The presidential aircraft uses the colour scheme as the flag of Ghana in stripes, except for the use of the Ghanaian coat of arms on the empennage instead of the flag of Ghana.

In the autumn of 2012 a jet aircraft was acquired in the Golden Jubilee House. According to the Chief of the Golden Jubilee House Property Agency acquisition of a Embraer 190 jet aircraft for the President costed 105 million cedis (about $55 mln). The jet aircraft planned location is in the Ghanaian Presidential Retreat's Peduase Lodge.[12]

Latest election

Candidate Party Votes %
John Dramani Mahama National Democratic Congress 5,574,761 50.70
Nana Akufo-Addo New Patriotic Party 5,248,898 47.74
Paa Kwesi Nduom Progressive People's Party 64,362 0.59
Henry Herbert Lartey Great Consolidated Popular Party 38,223 0.35
Ayariga Hassan People's National Convention 24,617 0.22
Michael Abu Sakara Foster Convention People's Party 20,323 0.18
Jacob Osei Yeboah Independent 15,201 0.14
Akwasi Addai Odike United Front Party 8,877 0.08
Invalid/blank votes 251,720
Total 11,246,982 100
Registered voters/turnout 14,158,890 79.43
Source: Electoral Commission of Ghana

President-elect

The President-elect of Ghana is the apparent winner, as ascertained by the Chairperson of the Electoral Commission of Ghana, following the general election on 7 December.

During the period between the presidential election and the inauguration, the outgoing president is a lame duck, while the incoming president heads a presidential transition team to ensure a smooth handover of power. If a sitting president has won re-election, the incumbent is not referred to as a president-elect as he or she is already in office and is not waiting to become president. Likewise, if a Vice President succeeds to the Presidency by way of the President's death, resignation or removal (via impeachment) from office, that person never holds the title of President-elect, as they would become President immediately. The most recent President-elect is former Minister of Foreign Affairs Nana Akufo-Addo of the New Patriotic Party, who won the presidential election on 9 December 2016.[13]

The Vice President-elect of Ghana is the running mate of presidential candidate who wins an election. First established after the adoption of the 3rd Constitution of Ghana, the inaugural holder is Joseph W.S. deGraft-Johnson. The current Vice President-elect of Ghana is Mahamudu Bawumia. Until the formation of the 3rd Republic of Ghana, the position of Vice President did not exist.

List of presidents-elect

  CPP  PNP  NDC  NPP

President–elect Party From To Number of days
1 Kwame Nkrumah   CPP 20 April 1960 1 July 1960 72 days
2 Hilla Limann   PNP 9 July 1979 24 September 1979 78 days
3 Jerry John Rawlings   NDC 3 November 1992 7 January 1993 65 days
4 John Agyekum Kufuor   NPP 28 December 2000 7 January 2001 10 days
5 John Atta Mills   NDC 28 December 2008 7 January 2009 10 days
7 Nana Akufo-Addo   NPP 9 December 2016 7 January 2017 31 days

Prime Minister Kwame Nkrumah became the first Ghanaian to be elected as President of the Republic of Ghana. President Limann holds the record of having the longest transition period from President-elect to President. His transition period lasted 78 days. President Rawlings prior to the presidential elections in 1992, was already head of state of Ghana. He was the Chairman of the Provisional National Defence Council. Due to the fact that Ghana adopted a new constitution in 1992, the position of President of the Republic was vacant. President John Kufuor and President John Atta Mills both hold the record of having the shortest transition period from President-elect to President with both transition period lasting only 10 days. This is due to the fact that both Presidents needed a second round of voting (2000, 2008) to win the presidential election.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Ghana Election: President admits defeat in poll". BBC. BBC News. 9 December 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h The President – Chapter 008 – The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1992 – The Executive Archived 28 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine. judicial.gov.gh. Judiciary of Ghana.
  3. ^ The Constitution of the Republic of Ghana 1992 – The Oath of Allegiance Archived 20 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. judicial.gov.gh. Judiciary of Ghana.
  4. ^ a b "Profile: Ghana President John Atta Mills". BBC World News. 3 January 2009.
  5. ^ "Ghana's President John Atta Mills dies". BBC World News. 24 July 2012.
  6. ^ Nossiter, Adam (24 July 2012). "Atta Mills dies". New York Times. Retrieved 11 April 2013.
  7. ^ "Ghanaian President John Dramani Mahama sworn in". Sina Corp. 7 January 2013.
  8. ^ a b c d "Ghana unveils presidential palace". BBC News Online. 10 November 2008. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  9. ^ President Mahama Moves To The Flagstaff House Archived 8 May 2013 at the Stanford Web Archive. presidency.gov.gh.
  10. ^ President's transports. Cars. Government allocates Kufuor two Mercedes Benz cars, two four-wheel to follow
  11. ^ President's transports. Air transport. Veep Inaugurating Falcon 900 EX EASY Presidential Jet
  12. ^ "Ghana gets a New Presidential Jet". adeparadio.com. Archived from the original on 24 June 2013. Retrieved 7 June 2013.
  13. ^ GhanaWeb (9 December 2016). "EC declares Akufo-Addo president-elect". ghanaweb.com. Accra: Apex AdMedia. Retrieved 25 May 2018.
Bole, Ghana

Bole is a small town and is the capital of Bole district, a district in the Savannah Region of northern Ghana. Bole is connected by road to the town of Sawla and the town of Bamboi. Bole is home to the Bole District Hospital and post office. The ex president of Ghana John Dramani Mahama is from this small town.

Edward Mahama

Edward Nasigrie Mahama (born 15 April 1945) is a Ghanaian medical doctor and politician.

First Lady of Ghana

The First Lady of Ghana is the title of the wife of a sitting President of Ghana. The current First Lady is Rebecca Akufo-Addo, who has held the position since 2017.They are not officially given salaries but The Ghanaian first and Second lady are both given clothing Allowances to serve as initiatives to be comfortable enough to advocate the country through material forms of culture.

Ghana

Ghana ( (listen)), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa. Spanning a land mass of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), Ghana is bordered by the Ivory Coast in the west, Burkina Faso in the north, Togo in the east and the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean in the south. Ghana means "Warrior King" in the Soninke language.The first permanent state in the territory of present-day Ghana dates back to the 11th century. Numerous kingdoms and empires emerged over the centuries, of which the most powerful was the Kingdom of Ashanti. Beginning in the 15th century, numerous European powers contested the area for trading rights, with the British ultimately establishing control of the coast by the late 19th century. Following over a century of native resistance, Ghana's current borders were established by the 1900s as the British Gold Coast. It became independent of the United Kingdom on 6 March 1957.Ghana's population of approximately 30 million spans a variety of ethnic, linguistic and religious groups. According to the 2010 census, 71.2% of the population was Christian, 17.6% was Muslim, and 5.2% practised traditional faiths. Its diverse geography and ecology ranges from coastal savannahs to tropical rain forests.

Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy led by a president who is both head of state and head of the government. Ghana's growing economic prosperity and democratic political system have made it a regional power in West Africa. It is a member of the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Group of 24 (G24) and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Ghana–Iran relations

Ghana–Iran relations refers to the current and historical relationship between Ghana and Iran. Ghana has an embassy in Tehran, Iran, and Iran has an embassy in Ghana.

Ghana–Russia relations

Ghana–Russia relations (Russian: Российско-Ганские отношения) refers to the bilateral relationship between the two countries, Ghana and Russia. Russia has an embassy in Accra, and Ghana has an embassy in Moscow. Relations are still very friendly and close.

Half Assini

Half Assini, also known as Awiane, is a small town and is the capital of Jomoro Municipality, a Municipality in the Western Region of Ghana. It is the hometown of Kwame Nkrumah's father and Kwame Nkrumah, the first president of Ghana had attended elementary school at Half Assini. It's closer to the western border of Ghana, it's a town with many tourist sites. One of Half Assini's chiefs, Anthony Kwaw, was best friends with Ghana's first president in school.

Hilla Limann

Hilla Limann (12 December 1934 – 23 January 1998) was the President of Ghana from 24 September 1979 to 31 December 1981. Eventually he became a diplomat, and served in Switzerland. Limann, whose original last name was Babini, was born in the northern Gold Coast town of Gwollu in the Sissala West District of the Upper West Region to a poor family. He managed to gain an excellent education, and took up an academic career.

Inspector General of Police of the Ghana Police Service

The Inspector General of Police (IGP) is the most senior Police Officer in Ghana. The IGP is appointed by the President of Ghana acting in consultation with the Council of State. The IGP is the head of the Police service and is responsible for the operational control and the administration of the Police Service.The IGP is a member of the Police Council. The first Ghanaian Police Commissioner, E. R. T. Madjitey was appointed to head the service on October 9, 1958. The IGP is aided by two deputies as well as nine directors and a Chief Staff Officer.On 22 July 2019, Nana Akufo-Addo, President of Ghana sacked David Asante-Apeatu as the IGP. His deputy, James Oppong-Boanuh will act as IGP until a substantive appointment is made. Asante-Apeatu was due to retire within a month.

John Atta Mills

John Evans Fiifi Atta Mills (21 July 1944 – 24 July 2012) was a Ghanaian politician and legal scholar who served as President of Ghana from 2009 to 2012. He was inaugurated on 7 January 2009, having defeated the ruling party candidate Nana Akufo-Addo in the 2008 election. Previously he was Vice-President from 1997 to 2001 under President Jerry Rawlings, and he stood unsuccessfully in the 2000 and 2004 presidential elections as the candidate of the National Democratic Congress (NDC). He is the first Ghanaian head of state to die in office.

John Kufuor

John Kofi Agyekum Kufuor (born 8 December 1938) is a Ghanaian politician who served as the President of Ghana from 7 January 2001 to 7 January 2009. He was also Chairperson of the African Union from 2007 to 2008. His victory over John Evans Atta Mills after the end of Jerry Rawlings' second term marked the first peaceful democratic transition of power in Ghana since independence in 1957.

Kufuor's career has been spent on the liberal-democratic side of Ghanaian politics, in the parties descended from the United Gold Coast Convention and the United Party. He was a minister in Kofi Abrefa Busia's Progress Party government during Ghana's Second Republic, and a Popular Front Party opposition frontbencher during the Third Republic. In the Fourth Republic Kufuor stood as the New Patriotic Party's candidate at the 1996 election, and then led it to victory in 2000 and 2004. Having served two terms, in 2008 he was no longer eligible for the presidency.

John Mahama

John Mahama pronunciation (; born 29 November 1958) is a Ghanaian politician who served as President of Ghana from 24 July 2012 to 7 January 2017.

He previously served as Vice President of Ghana from January 2009 to July 2012, and took office as President on 24 July 2012 following the death of his predecessor, John Atta Mills. Mahama is a communication expert, historian, and writer. He was a Member of Parliament from 1997 to 2009 and Minister of Communications from 1998 to 2001. He is a member of the National Democratic Congress.

Mahama is the first vice president to take over the presidency from the death of his predecessor, Prof. John Atta Mills, and is the first head of state of Ghana to have been born after Ghana's independence. He was elected after December 2012 election to serve as fulltime President. He contested re-election for a second term in the 2016 election, but lost to the New Patriotic Party candidate Nana Akufo-Addo, whom he defeated in 2012. This made him the 1st President in the history of Ghana to not have won a second term.

Nana Akufo-Addo

Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo ( (listen) a-KUUF-oh ah-DOH; born William Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo; 29 March 1944) is currently the President of Ghana. He has been in office since January 2017. He previously served as Attorney General from 2001 to 2003 and as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 2003 to 2007 under the Kufuor led administration.Nana Addo first ran for president in 2008 and again in 2012, both times as the candidate of the New Patriotic Party (NPP), but was defeated on both occasions by National Democratic Congress' candidates: John Evans Atta Mills in 2008 and John Dramani Mahama in 2012 after the former's demise. He was chosen as the presidential candidate of the New Patriotic Party for a third time for the 2016 general elections and this time, he managed to defeat John Dramani Mahama in the first round (winning with 53.85% of the votes), which marked the first time in a Ghanaian presidential election that an opposition candidate won a majority outright in the first round.

National Democratic Congress (Ghana)

The National Democratic Congress (NDC) is a social democratic political party in Ghana, founded by Jerry Rawlings, who was Head of State of Ghana from 1981 to 1993 and the President of Ghana from 1993 to 2001. Following the formation of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) which ruled Ghana following the military coup d'état on 31 December 1981, there was pressure from the international community to restore democracy. The NDC was formed as the ruling party ahead of elections in 1992, in which Rawlings was elected president, and in 1996 Rawlings was re-elected as the NDC candidate. Rawlings' second term ended in 2001. The NDC lost the presidency in the 2000 election, and it was not until the 2008 election that they regained it with candidate John Atta Mills.

The NDC party symbol is an umbrella with the head of a dove at the tip. The party colors are red, white, green, and black, and the party slogan or motto is "Unity, stability, and development." Internationally, the NDC is a member of the Progressive Alliance and Socialist International.On 9 December 2012, the Electoral Commission of Ghana declared NDC candidate John Dramani Mahama to be President-elect after a hotly contested race in which he won 50.7% of votes cast.

Nkrumah government

Dr. Kwame Nkrumah was the first Prime Minister and first President of Ghana. Nkrumah had run governments under the supervision of the British government through Charles Arden-Clarke, the Governor-General. His first government under colonial rule started from 21 March 1952 until independence. His first independent government took office on 6 March 1957. From 1 July 1960, Ghana became a republic and Nkrumah became the first president of Ghana.

In February 1966 his government was overthrown by the National Liberation Council military coup.

Oforikrom (Ghana parliament constituency)

Elizabeth Agyeman is the Deputy Regional Minister for Ashanti Region. She was appointed by the current President of Ghana Nana Addo Dankwa Akuffo-Addo and confirmed by the Parliament of Ghana.

Politics of Ghana

Politics of Ghana takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Ghana is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The seat of government is at Golden Jubilee House. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and Parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.

The constitution that established the Fourth Republic provided a basic charter for republican democratic government. It declares Ghana to be a unitary republic with sovereignty residing in the Ghanaian people. Intended to prevent future coups, dictatorial government, and one-party states, it is designed to establish the concept of powersharing. The document reflects lessons learned from the abrogated constitutions of 1957, 1960,69, and 1979, and incorporates provisions and institutions drawn from British and American constitutional models. One controversial provision of the Constitution indemnifies members and appointees of the Provisional National Defence Council (PNDC) from liability for any official act or omission during the years of PNDC rule. The Constitution calls for a system of checks and balances, with power shared between a president, a unicameral parliament, a council of state, and an independent judiciary.

Timeline of Ghanaian history

Ghana gained independence from the British on 6 March 1957. It is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The country became a republic on July 1, 1960.

Vice-President of Ghana

The Vice-President of the Republic of Ghana is the second-highest executive official in Ghana. The vice-president, together with the President of Ghana, is directly elected by the people through popular vote to serve a four-year term of office. The vice-president is the first person in the presidential line of succession, and would ascend to the presidency upon the death, resignation, or removal of the president. The current vice-president is Mahamudu Bawumia, who took office on 7 January 2017, under President Nana Akufo-Addo.

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