The President of the Arab Republic of Egypt (Arabic: رئيس جمهورية مصر العربية) is the head of state of Egypt. Under the various iterations of the Constitution of Egypt, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and head of the executive branch of the Egyptian government. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, in office since 8 June 2014.
|President of the|
Arab Republic of Egypt
Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
since 8 June 2014
|Residence||Heliopolis Palace, Cairo, Egypt|
|Term length||Four years|
|Inaugural holder||Muhammad Naguib|
18 June 1953
|Salary||E£900,000 (approx. US$47,000) annually|
The first president of Egypt was Muhammad Naguib, one of the leaders of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. He took office on 18 June 1953, the day on which the constitutional monarchy of Egypt was overthrown.
Following the 2011 Egyptian revolution, Hosni Mubarak, who held office from 14 October 1981 until 11 February 2011, was forced to resign following calls for his removal from office. On 10 February 2011 Mubarak transferred presidential powers to then-Vice President Omar Suleiman, briefly making Suleiman de facto president. Following Mubarak's resignation, the position of President of Egypt was officially vacated and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, led by Field Marshal Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, assumed executive control of the state. On 30 June 2012, Mohamed Morsi was sworn in as President of Egypt, having won the 2012 Egyptian presidential election on 24 June.
The Egyptian Constitution has had various forms since its 1953 change to become a republic. Under the 1980 amendments of the 1971 Egyptian Constitution, the president of the republic was elected indirectly in a two-stage system unique to Egypt. The People’s Assembly, the lower house of Parliament, nominated one of a number of candidates for the presidency. A candidate needed at least a two-thirds majority in the People’s Assembly in order to win the nomination. In the second stage, the candidate was confirmed in office by popular plebiscite.
In 2005 and 2007, constitutional amendments were made. Principles in the amended constitution include:
The following provisions regarding the election process are stipulated in Article 76 as amended:
A successful candidate must be elected by the majority of the votes. If no candidate attains such a majority, elections will be repeated after at least seven days between the two candidates having the highest votes. In case of a tie between the candidate who attained the second highest votes and a third candidate, the third candidate shall participate in the second round. The candidate who receives the highest votes in the second round shall be declared president.
The amendment also provides that a law will be passed to regulate the relevant election procedures. This law is expected to regulate the various aspects of the election process itself, including campaign funding, equal access to the media, and guarantees of fair competition.
As required by the amendment, the law will be submitted to the Supreme Constitutional Court to opine on its constitutionality. This establishes an important precedent in Egypt’s legal tradition, by which the Supreme Constitutional Court shall have the right of prior review of national legislation to decide on its compatibility with the Constitution. This differs from the practice thus far by which the review process undertaken by the Court on national legislation was done by judicial review subsequent to the passage of legislation.
Under the system created by the 1980, 2003 and 2007 constitutional amendments to the 1971 Constitution, the President is the pre-eminent executive figure, who names the Prime Minister of Egypt as well as appoints the Cabinet per the latter's recommendation, while in reality, was the head of both the state and of the government, aside from being the top foreign policy maker and holding supreme command over the military. During martial law, the President also anoints deans of faculties and majors, and can also enlist or oust people in the private sector. He or she then also has the power to issue regulations for the enforcement of laws, ensuring proper public services, etc., which have been transferred to the Prime Minister under the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions. Egypt had been under martial law since 1981. After the Egyptian revolution in 2011 - 2012, that ousted the 30-year regime of then President Hosni Mubarak, the martial law was suspended.
The 2012 Constitution, provides for a semi-presidential form of government in which the President shares executive powers with the Prime Minister. And this was retained under a new Constitution that was ratified on 2014, one year after a military coup ousted the country's first democratically elected President, Mohamed Morsi in a coup due to his dictatorial tendencies and the leader then of the ruling military junta, then Defense Minister and Field Marshal Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, suspended the 2012 Constitution. Sisi was elected President of Egypt under the 2014 Constitution, months after it was ratified.
Under the present 2014 Constitution, the President is the head of state as well as that of the executive. He or she lays down, alongside with the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, the state's general policy and oversees its implementation, represents Egypt in foreign relations and has the power to ratify treaties, can issue decrees having the force of law when the House of Representatives is in recess and such decrees is subject for approval by the House after resuming its sessions at the end of the recess and acts as the supreme commander of the armed forces. He or she has also the power of pardon.
Article 141 of the Egyptian Constitution establishes the requirements one must meet in order to become president. The president of the republic should: be an Egyptian citizen, be born to Egyptian parents (never having dual nationality), have participated in the military or be exempted from it and cannot be less than 40 years old.
Election procedures are taken before the end of the incumbent president’s term by 60 days.
Additional requirements were provisioned in Article 142 of the Egyptian constitution concerning candidates for the president's office.
The amendment to Article 76 of the constitution provides for the establishment of a “Presidential Election Commission” that would have complete independence, and would be charged with the supervision of the presidential election process.
The Commission will be composed of 10 members, presided by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court and four other ex officio members of the judiciary who are the most senior serving Deputy President of each of the Supreme Constitutional, the Court of Cassation, and the High Administrative Court, and the president of the Cairo Court of Appeal.
The rest of the Commission will be made up from five independent and neutral public figures: three to be selected by the Peoples Assembly and two to be selected by the Shoura Council.
Decisions of this Committee shall be passed by a majority of seven votes. This Commission will have a term of five years and will be exclusively competent to supervise the presidential election process, including accepting nominations, announcing the names of accepted candidates, supervision of election procedures, vote counting and announcement of the results.
It will also have final judicial competence to rule on any contesting or challenge submitted in relation to the presidential elections, and its decision will be final and subject to no appeal. The Committee will issue its own regulations and shall be competent to establish general sub-committees from among members of the judiciary, to monitor the various phases of the election process, under its supervision. The election process will be completed in one day.
In accordance with Article 79 of the constitution, the president must take the following oath or affirmation before exercising his functions: "I swear by Allah The Almighty to sincerely maintain the Republican system, to respect the Constitution and law, to fully care about the interests of the people, and to maintain the independence and territorial integrity of the Homeland."
Under the Constitution, the president serves for a term of four years. He is limited to two terms, whether successive or separated. For example, if incumbent President Sisi had been unsuccessful in his bid for reelection in 2018, he would have been eligible to run again in 2022, and if successful would have had to leave office for good in 2022.
During his tenure in office, the president is not allowed to be a formal member of a political party.
If the president-elect is announced before the end of the incumbent president’s term, the incumbent president continues in office until the end of his term.
In the case of temporary incapacitation of the president, the constitution provides the president to relinquish his powers to the Prime Minister. However the person who takes office is limited in power as the new president can not dissolve the parliament, propose constitutional amendments or remove the cabinet from office.
In case of the vacancy of the presidential office or the permanent incapacitation of the President, the Speaker of the People’s Assembly shall temporarily assume the presidency. In case the People’s Assembly is dissolved at such a time the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court shall take over the presidency on condition that neither shall nominate himself for the presidency. Both are also limited in power as in they can not dissolve the parliament, remove the cabinet, or propose constitutional amendments.
The People’s Assembly shall then proclaim the vacancy of the office of President, and a new president shall be chosen within a maximum period of sixty days from the date of the vacancy of the office.
The constitution does not directly stipulate any role for the Prime Minister in the process of presidential succession, when the former post of Vice President still existed it was a tradition for the People's Assembly to nominate the vice-president for the vacant office of the president. Both Sadat and Mubarak served as vice-presidents at the time the presidential office became vacant, however on Mubarak's succession in 1981 as president he did not appoint a vice-president until 29 January 2011 when during substantial protests demanding reforms he appointed Omar Suleiman to the role.
President Gamal Abdel Nasser submitted his resignation after the overwhelming Egyptian defeat in 1967 war with Israel, before returning to office after mass demonstrations by the Egyptian public. President Mubarak also resigned on 11 February 2011 after eighteen days of protest against his regime.
The president may resign by delivering his resignation to the People's Assembly under the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions.
The Presidency in Egypt controls 8 presidential residences in addition to other presidential guest houses. Egypt's official residence and office of the president is Heliopolis Palace in Cairo. Other presidential palaces include:
There are two living former Egyptian Presidents:
Abdeen Palace (Arabic: قصر عابدين) is a historic Cairo palace, and one of the official residences and the principal workplace of the President of Egypt, located above Qasr el-Nil Street in eastern Downtown Cairo, Egypt.Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh
Dr. Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh Abdel Hady (Arabic: عبد المنعم ابو الفتوح عبد الهادي, ʕæbdelˈmenʕem abu lfʊˈtuːħ ʕæbdelˈhæːdi or [ʕæbdelˈmonʕem]) (born 15 October 1951) is an Egyptian physician, former student activist and Islamist politician. In 2011–2012, he ran for President of Egypt as an independent. He was formerly a leader of the Muslim Brotherhood.
He is known for his staunch opposition to the Sadat and Mubarak regimes as well as his openness towards people of different political ideologies, a subject of controversy among some supporters of Egyptian Islamist movements. Affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood since the early 1970s, Abou al-Fotouh had been a member of the Brotherhood's Guidance Bureau from 1987 until 2009. In 2011, he formally quit all political work with the Muslim Brotherhood and resigned from its membership, following his decision to run for president in the presidential election in 2012. He is currently the secretary-general of the Arab Medical Union. He was arrested on 14 February 2018.Adly Mansour
Adly Mahmoud Mansour (Arabic: عدلى محمود منصور pronounced [ˈʕædli mæħˈmuːd mɑnˈsˤuːɾ]; born 23 December 1945) is an Egyptian judge and politician who served as President (or Chief Justice) of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt. He also served as the acting President of Egypt from 4 July 2013 to 8 June 2014 following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état by the military which deposed President Mohamed Morsi. Several secular and religious figures, such as the Grand Imam of al-Azhar (Ahmed el-Tayeb), the Coptic Pope (Tawadros II), and Mohamed ElBaradei supported the coup against President Morsi and the military appointed Mansour interim-president until an election could take place. Morsi refused to acknowledge his removal as valid and continued to maintain that only he could be considered the legitimate President of Egypt. Mansour was sworn into office in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on 4 July 2013.Ahmad Fathi Sorour
Ahmad Fathi Sorour (born 9 July 1932) is an Egyptian politician who was the Speaker of the People's Assembly of Egypt from 1990 until the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Previously he served in the government as Minister of Education from 1986 to 1990.
Sorour was first elected to the People's Assembly in April 1989, and he was elected as Speaker in November 1990. He was President of the Council of the Inter-Parliamentary Union in 1994–1997 and also served as President of the Union of African Parliaments in 1990–1991. According to Article 84 of the Egyptian Constitution, Sorour, as Speaker of the People's Assembly, was first in the order of succession to become President of Egypt if the President died, became incapacitated, or resigned. Upon the resignation of Hosni Mubarak in 2011, however, the military, headed by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi, assumed control of the state.Ahmed Nazif
Ahmed Nazif (Arabic: أحمد نظيف, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ˈæħmæd nɑˈzˤiːf]; born 8 July 1952) served as the Prime Minister of Egypt from 14 July 2004 to 29 January 2011, when his cabinet was dismissed by President Hosni Mubarak in light of a popular uprising that led to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Nazif was Acting President of Egypt from 5 March to 15 April 2010, when President Mubarak delegated his authorities to Nazif while undergoing surgery in Germany.Alaa Mubarak
Alaa Mubarak (Arabic: علاء مبارك Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [ʕæˈlæːʔ moˈbɑːɾɑk]) (born 26 November 1960 in Cairo) is an Egyptian businessman and the elder of two sons of Hosni Mubarak, the former President of Egypt who served from 1981 to 2011, and his wife Suzanne Mubarak.Assassination of Anwar Sadat
The assassination of Anwar Sadat occurred on 6 October 1981. Anwar Sadat, the President of Egypt, was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Operation Badr, during which the Egyptian Army had crossed the Suez Canal and taken back a small part of the Sinai Peninsula from Israel at the beginning of the Yom Kippur War. A fatwa approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman, a cleric later convicted in the US for his role in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. The assassination was undertaken by members of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad.Ayman Nour
Ayman Abd El Aziz Nour (Egyptian Arabic: أيمن عبد العزيز نور, IPA: [ˈʔæjmæn ʕæbdelˈʕaziːz ˈnuːɾ]; born 5 December 1964) is an Egyptian politician, a former member of the Egyptian Parliament, founder and chairman of the El Ghad party. He left Egypt following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état, though he has stated he has gone to Lebanon for treatment of a wound he sustained while in prison and hopes to return to Egypt.Bothaina Kamel
Bothaina Kamel (Egyptian Arabic: بثينة كامل; born in Cairo, 18 April 1962) is an Egyptian television anchor, activist, and politician. A long-time pro-democracy advocate, particularly in Shayfeencom, her professional career has been marked by repeated conflict with authorities. In June 2011 she announced her candidacy for the Egyptian presidency, although she did not receive enough signatures to make the ballot. She announced on 12 April 2014 that she would run in the 2014 presidential election though she was unable to collect enough endorsements to run.Kamel hosted an Egyptian radio program called Nighttime Confessions from 1992 to 1998. She later worked as a new presenter for Egyptian state television, and hosted a show called Please Understand Me on the Saudi Arabian-owned Orbit satellite TV network. In each assignment, she eventually encountered official resistance: Confessions was cancelled after outcries by religious conservatives; she took a leave of absence from Egyptian state television rather than participate in propaganda surrounding the 2005 elections; and Understand Me was taken off the air by the Saudi producers when they became concerned that its coverage of the 2011 Egyptian revolution would implicate Saudi interests.She has long been active in pro-democracy activities, often present a pro-democracy rallies, forming the election monitoring group Shayfeencom, in 2005, and immediately taking to the streets during the 2011 revolution.She is a self-described social democrat, and ran as an independent. A Sunni Muslim, she has taken anti-sectarian stances, endorsing proposals for equal treatment of Coptic and Muslim places of worship and for trying those who incite sectarian violence. Additionally, she wears a Muslim crescent and a Christian cross necklace both are symbols of Egyptian unity and also were the symbol of the 1919 Egyptian Revolution. She criticized the military, rather than either sect, for sectarian clashes that have erupted in the wake of the revolution. Other positions include reducing the minimum age of parliamentarians from 30 to 22 in view of the youth participation in the revolution.Elections in Egypt
Elections in Egypt are held for the President and a unicameral legislature. The President of Egypt is elected for a four-year term by popular vote.Suffrage is universal and compulsory for every Egyptian citizen over 18. Failure to vote can result in fine or even imprisonment, but in practice a significant percentage of eligible voters do not vote. About 50 million voters are registered to vote out of a population of more than 85 million. Turnout in the 2011 parliamentary election was 54%.First Lady of Egypt
The First Lady of Egypt (Arabic: سيدة مصر الأولى) is the unofficial title of the wife of the President of Egypt.Hosni Mubarak
Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسني السيد مبارك, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈħosni (ʔe)sˈsæjjed moˈbɑːɾɑk], Muḥammad Ḥusnī Sayyid Mubārak; born 4 May 1928) is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
Before he entered politics, Mubarak was a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. He assumed presidency after the assassination of Anwar Sadat. Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, a reign of 43 years. Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president and transferred authority to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces.On 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons (Alaa and Gamal) to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011. On 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises. On 13 January 2013, Egypt's Court of Cassation (the nation's high court of appeal) overturned Mubarak's sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption and given prison sentences. Mubarak was detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court. He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court. He was released on 24 March 2017.List of Presidents of Egypt
This article lists the Presidents of Egypt since the establishment of that office in 1953. The president is the head of state of Egypt and the Supreme Commander of the Egyptian Armed Forces. The current president is Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, elected in 2014.Mahmoud Mekki
Mahmoud Mekki (Arabic: محمود محمود أحمد مكي; born 1954) is an Egyptian politician who served as the 17th Vice President of Egypt from August 2012 to December 2012. He was appointed by President Mohamed Morsi following the 2011 revolution and the 2012 presidential election on 12 August 2012. He was Egypt's first vice president from a civilian background rather than a military one. He resigned from his post on 22 December 2012.Mohamed Hussein Tantawi
Mohamed Hussein Tantawy Soliman (Arabic: محمد حسين طنطاوى سليمان, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ħeˈseːn tˤɑnˈtˤɑːwi seleˈmæːn]; born 31 October 1935) is an Egyptian field marshal and former politician. He was the commander-in-chief of the Egyptian Armed Forces and, as Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, was the de facto head of state from the ousting of Hosni Mubarak on 11 February 2011 to the inauguration of Mohamed Morsi as President of Egypt on 30 June 2012. Tantawy served in the government as Minister of Defence and Military Production from 1991 until Morsi ordered Tantawy to retire on 12 August 2012.Mohamed Morsi
Mohamed Morsi (; Arabic: محمد محمد مرسي عيسى العياط, ALA-LC: Muḥammad Muḥammad Mursī ʿĪsā al-ʿAyyāṭ, IPA: [mæˈħæmmæd mæˈħæmmæd ˈmoɾsi ˈʕiːsæ (ʔe)l.ʕɑjˈjɑːtˤ]; born 8 August 1951) is an Egyptian politician who served as the fifth President of Egypt, from 30 June 2012 to 3 July 2013, when General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed Morsi from office in the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état after the June 2013 Egyptian protests.As president, Morsi issued a temporary constitutional declaration in late November that in effect granted him unlimited powers and the power to legislate without judicial oversight or review of his acts as a pre-emptive move against the expected dissolution of the second constituent assembly by the Mubarak-era judges. The new constitution that was then hastily finalised by the Islamist-dominated constitutional assembly, presented to the president, and scheduled for a referendum, before the Supreme Constitutional Court could rule on the constitutionality of the assembly, was described by independent press agencies not aligned with the regime as an "Islamist coup". These issues, along with complaints of prosecutions of journalists and attacks on nonviolent demonstrators, led to the 2012 Egyptian protests. As part of a compromise, Morsi rescinded the decrees. In the referendum he held on the new constitution it was approved by approximately two thirds of voters.On 30 June 2013, protests erupted across Egypt, which saw protesters calling for the president's resignation. In response to the events, Morsi was given a 48-hour ultimatum by the military to meet their demands and to resolve political differences, or else they would intervene by "implementing their own road map" for the country. He was unseated on 3 July by a military coup council consisting of Defense Minister Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, opposition leader Mohamed ElBaradei, the Grand Imam of Al Azhar Ahmed el-Tayeb, and Coptic Pope Tawadros II. The military suspended the constitution and appointed the President of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim-president. The Muslim Brotherhood protested against the military coup, but the pro-Morsi protests were crushed in the August 2013 Rabaa massacre in which at least 817 civilians were killed. Opposition leader Elbaradei quit in protest of the massacre.Since his overthrow, Egyptian prosecutors have charged Morsi with various crimes and sought the death penalty, a move denounced by Amnesty International as "a charade based on null and void procedures." His death sentence was overturned in November 2016, so he will receive a retrial. However, Morsi is still currently imprisoned.Mohamed Naguib
Mohamed Naguib (Egyptian Arabic: محمد نجيب, Egyptian Arabic pronunciation: [mæˈħæmmæd næˈɡiːb]; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954. Along with Gamal Abdel Nasser, he was the primary leader of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the rule of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in Egypt and Sudan.Sami Hafez Anan
Lieutenant General Sami Hafez Anan or Enan (Arabic: سامى حافظ عنان, IPA: [ˈsæːmi ˈħɑːfezˤ ʕæˈnæːn, -ʕeˈnæːn]; born 2 February 1948) is an Egyptian military officer. He was the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces from 2005 until August 2012, until his retirement was announced by President Mohamed Morsi. In January 2018 he announced himself as a candidate in the Egyptian presidential election, 2018 before being arrested.Vice-President of Egypt
The Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt was a senior official within the Egyptian government.