The President of Croatia (Croatian: Predsjednik Hrvatske), officially styled the President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike), is the head of state, commander in-chief of the military and chief representative of the Republic of Croatia both within the country and abroad. The President is the holder of the highest office within the Croatia's order of precedence, however, the president is not the head of the executive branch ("non executive president") as Croatia has a parliamentary system in which the holder of the post of Prime Minister is the most powerful person within the country's constitutional framework and within everyday's politics.
The President maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system, and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The President has the power to call ordinary and extraordinary elections for the Croatian Parliament (in a manner specified by the Constitution), as well as to call referenda (with countersignature of the Prime Minister). The President formally appoints the Prime Minister on the basis of the balance of power in parliament and consultations conducted with the leaders of parliamentary parties, grants pardons and awards decorations and other state awards. The President and Government (Cabinet) cooperate in conducting foreign policy. In addition, the President is the commander-in-chief of the Croatian Armed Forces. The President appoints the director of the Security and Intelligence Agency in agreement with the Prime Minister. The President may dissolve the Parliament under circumstances provided by the Constitution. Although enjoying immunity, the President is impeachable for violation of the Constitution. In case of a temporary or permanent incapability by the president to discharge the duties of his or her office, the Speaker of the Parliament assumes the office of Acting President until the President resumes his or her duties, or until the election of a new president within 60 days of the permanent vacancy occurring.
The Office of the President of the Republic (Ured Predsjednika Republike) consists of the immediate staff of the President of Croatia, as well as support staff reporting to the president. The office is located in the Presidential Palace in the Pantovčak area of Zagreb. The Constitution of Croatia defines the appearance and use of the presidential standard, which is flown on the buildings of the Office of the President, the residence of the president, any vehicles in use by the president, and in other ceremonial occasions.
The President is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a five-year term. If no candidate in the elections secures more than 50% of all votes cast (including blank and spoilt ballots), a runoff election is held. The Constitution of Croatia sets a limit of a maximum of two terms in office. The president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the judges of the Constitutional Court. Franjo Tuđman won the first Croatian presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. During his time in office, the constitution adopted in 1990 provided for a semi-presidential system, which was in the coming years further strengthened by laws specifically aimed at providing Tuđman with sweeping powers (e.g. naming and dismissing numerous government officials, confirming county prefects), as his HDZ party held a supermajority in parliament throughout the 1990s. After his death in 1999, the constitution was amended and many presidential powers were transferred to parliament, the prime minister and the government. Stjepan Mesić won two consecutive terms, in 2000 and in 2005 and served as president until 2010. Ivo Josipović won the presidential elections held in 2009–2010 and left office in 2015 after losing his reelection bid for a second term. The winner of the most recent presidential elections, held in December 2014 and January 2015, was Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović. She succeeded Josipović on 19 February 2015 for a term lasting until 18 February 2020.
|President of |
the Republic of Croatia
Predsjednik Republike Hrvatske
since 19 February 2015
|Style||Mister/Madam President (Gospodin/Gospođa predsjednik/predsjednica)|
His/Her Excellency (Njegova/Njezina Ekselencija)
Predsjednički dvori (official workplace and office)
|Appointer||Popular vote (Last election)|
|Term length||Five years|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of Croatia|
|Inaugural holder||Franjo Tuđman|
|Formation||22 December 1990|
|Salary||HRK 37,000 ($5,452) monthly|
HRK 445,000 ($65,430) annually
The President of Croatia, officially styled the President of the Republic (Croatian: Predsjednik Republike) represents the Republic of Croatia in the country and abroad as the head of state, maintains the regular and coordinated operation and stability of the national government system and safeguards the independence and territorial integrity of the country. The president is barred from executing any other public or professional duty while in office.
The President of Croatia calls elections for the Croatian Parliament (Croatian: Hrvatski Sabor) and convenes the first meeting of the parliamentary assembly. The president is also required to appoint a prime minister, on the basis of the balance of power in the parliament. The appointed candidate is in turn required to seek confirmation from the parliament through a confidence vote, in order to receive a mandate to lead the Croatian Government (after given confidence by the absolute majority of the MPs, the President formally appoints the candidate as Prime Minister, while PM appoints ministers; all with the countersignature of the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament). The president may also call referenda, grant pardons and award decorations and other forms of recognition defined by legislation.
The President of Croatia and the Government cooperate in the formulation and implementation of Croatia's foreign policy. This provision of the constitution is an occasional source of conflict between the president and the government. The president decides on the establishment of diplomatic missions and consular offices of the Republic of Croatia abroad, at the Government's proposal and with the countersignature of the prime minister. The president, following prior countersignature of the prime minister, appoints and recalls diplomatic representatives of the Republic of Croatia, at the proposal of the Government and upon receiving the opinion of an applicable committee of the parliament. The president receives letters of credence and letters of recall from foreign diplomatic representatives.
The President of Croatia is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces of the Republic of Croatia and appoints and relieves military commanders of duty, conforming to applicable legislation. Pursuant to decisions of the parliament, the president declares war and concludes peace. In cases of immediate threats to the independence, unity and existence of the state, the president may order the use of armed forces, even if no state of war is declared, provided that such an order is countersigned by the prime minister. During a state of war, the president may promulgate regulations with the force of law on the basis of, and within the scope of, authority obtained from the parliament. In such circumstances, the president may convene government cabinet meetings and preside over them. If the parliament is not in session, the president is authorized to regulate all matters required by the state of war through regulations carrying the force of law. In case of an immediate threat to the independence, unity and existence of the state, or if the governmental bodies are prevented from performing their constitutional duties regularly, the president may, at the proposal of the prime minister, issue regulations carrying the force of law. Such regulations must also be countersigned by the prime minister to become valid. The president is required to submit regulations that are promulgated thus to the parliament for approval as soon as the parliament may convene, otherwise the regulations become void. The president cooperates with the government directing operation of the Croatian security and intelligence system. The president and the prime minister jointly appoint heads of the security agencies, and the president may attend cabinet meetings, taking part in discussions held at such meetings.
The President of Croatia may dissolve Parliament upon the request of the government if the government proposes a confidence motion to Parliament and the majority of all deputies adopt a motion of no confidence or if Parliament fails to approve government budget 120 days after the budget is proposed in the parliament. That decision must be countersigned by the Prime Minister to become valid. The President may also dissolve Parliament after a motion of no confidence supported by a majority of all deputies has been adopted and a new government cannot be formed within 30 days or if a new government cannot be formed after general elections (maximum period of 120 days). However, the President may not dissolve Parliament at the request of the government if a procedure to determine if the President has violated provisions of the constitution is in progress.
The Office of the President of the Republic (Croatian: Ured Predsjednika Republike) consists of the immediate staff of the President of Croatia, as well as support staff reporting to the president. As of May 2008, the office employed 170 staff, with the maximum staffing level set at 191 by the Regulation on Internal Organisation of the Office of the President of Croatia. In 2009 government budget, the office was allocated 54 million kuna (c. 7.3 million euro). The net monthly salary of the president is 23,500 kuna (c. 3,170 euro).
The Office of the President was created by a presidential decree by Franjo Tuđman on 19 January 1991. The Office is headed by a Chief of Staff (Croatian: Predstojnik ureda), who is appointed by the president. The presidents declare bylaws regulating composition of the office. The office employs advisors to the president and comprises eight departments, four councils, presidential pardon commission and two decorations and awards commissions.
|Office of the President of the Republic of Croatia|
|Chief of Staff||Anamarija Kirinić|
|Head of the Personal Office of the President||Natalija Hmelina|
|Secretary General of the Office of the President of the Republic||Mirjam Katulić|
|Chief of Staff||Term start||Term end||Appointed by|
|Hrvoje Šarinić||15 April 1992||7 August 1992|
|Jure Radić||7 August 1992||12 October 1994|
|Hrvoje Šarinić||12 October 1994||24 November 1995|
|Ivo Sanader||24 November 1995||5 November 1996|
|Hrvoje Šarinić||5 November 1996||1998|
|Ivica Kostović||1998||January 2000|
|Željko Dobranović||22 May 2000||27 April 2001||Stjepan Mesić|
|Davor Božinović||10 February 2004||30 September 2005|
|Boris Šprem||1 October 2005||late 2007|
|Amir Muharemi||1 April 2008||19 February 2010|
|Joško Klisović||19 February 2010||31 December 2011|
|Vito Turšić||1 February 2012||18 February 2015|
|Domagoj Juričić||19 February 2015||2 May 2016|
|Anamarija Kirinić||2 May 2016|
The Presidential Palace (Croatian: Predsjednički dvori, also referred to by the metonym Pantovčak) in Zagreb is the official workplace of the president. The president does not actually live in the building, as it is used as the Office of the President of Croatia rather than as a residence. The structure covers 3,700 square metres (40,000 square feet). It had been used as the official residence since then-president Franjo Tuđman moved there following the October 1991 bombing of Banski dvori. In addition to the original building, there is also an 3,500 square metres (38,000 square feet) annex built in 1993, an ancillary structure housing office security services and a bomb shelter predating the 1990s. The building, formerly known as Villa Zagorje or Tito's Villa, was designed by architects Vjenceslav Richter and Kazimir Ostrogović and completed in 1964 for the former Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito.
|Franjo Tuđman||12 August 1992||first term|
|5 August 1997||second term|
|Stjepan Mesić||19 February 2000||first term|
|19 February 2005||second term|
|Ivo Josipović||19 February 2010||one term|
|Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović||19 February 2015||incumbent, first term|
The president is elected on the basis of universal suffrage, through a secret ballot, for a five-year term. If no candidate in the elections secures more than 50% of the votes, a runoff election is held in 14 days. The Constitution of Croatia sets a limit to a maximum of two terms in office and requires election dates to be determined within 30 to 60 days before the expiry of the term of the incumbent president. Any citizen of Croatia of 18 or over may be a candidate in a presidential election, provided that the candidate is endorsed by 10,000 voters. The endorsements are required in form of a list containing name, address, personal identification number and voter signature. The presidential elections are regulated by an act of the parliament.
The constitution requires that the president-elect resign from political party membership. The president-elect is also required to resign from the parliament as well. Before assuming presidential duty, the president-elect is required to take an oath of office before the judges of the Constitutional Court, swearing loyalty to the Constitution of Croatia. The inauguration ceremony is traditionally held at St. Mark's Square in Zagreb, in front of the St. Mark's Church, midway between the building of the Parliament of Croatia and Banski dvori—the seat of the Government of Croatia. The text of the oath is defined by the Presidential Elections Act amendments of 1997. The text in its Croatian form is not sensitive to gender and all nouns (e.g. Predsjednik (President), državni poglavar (head of state)) always retain their masculine form, even when the president being sworn in is a woman (as was the case with Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović in 2015). There is however a notation within the Constitution of Croatia which states that all nouns used within the text of the document apply equally to both genders. The text of the presidential oath of office is as follows:
Presidential elections were held in Croatia for the first time on 2 August 1992, simultaneously with the 1992 parliamentary elections. Voter turnout was 74.9%. The result was a victory for Franjo Tuđman of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), who received 57.8% of the vote in the first round of the elections, ahead of 7 other candidates. Dražen Budiša, the Croatian Social Liberal Party (HSLS) candidate and runner-up in the election, received 22.3% of the vote. The second presidential elections in modern Croatia were held on 15 June 1997. The incumbent, Franjo Tuđman ran opposed by Zdravko Tomac, the candidate of the Social Democratic Party of Croatia (SDP), and Vlado Gotovac, nominated by the HSLS. Tomac and Gotovac received 21.0% and 17.6% of votes respectively in the first round of voting, and Tuđman secured another term. The third presidential elections were held on 24 January 2000, to fill the office of the President of the Republic, after the incumbent Franjo Tuđman died on 10 December 1999. The first round of voting saw Stjepan Mesić, candidate of the Croatian People's Party (HNS) in the lead, receiving 41.3% of votes, followed by Dražen Budiša of the HSLS with 27.8% of votes and Mate Granić, nominated by the HDZ, receiving 22.6% of votes. The runoff election, the first in the presidential elections of modern Croatia, was held on 7 February, when Mesić won, picking up 56.9% of votes. Voter turnout in the first round was 63.0% and 60.9% in the runoff. The first round of the fourth presidential elections was held on 2 January 2005. No candidate secured a first-round victory; however, the incumbent Mesić enjoyed a substantial lead over other candidates, as he received 48.9% of votes, and the second and third ranked candidates Jadranka Kosor (HDZ) and Boris Mikšić (independent) managed only 20.3% and 17.8% of voter support respectively. Ultimately, Mesić won reelection, receiving 65.9% of votes in the runoff held on 16 January. The 2009–2010 presidential election was held on 27 December 2009, with Ivo Josipović (SDP) picking up 32.4% of votes, followed by Milan Bandić (independent), Andrija Hebrang (HDZ) and Nadan Vidošević (independent) receiving 14.8%, 12.0% and 11.3% of the votes respectively. The second round of voting was held on 10 January 2010, when Josipović defeated Bandić, receiving 60.3% of the vote. The first round of the most recent presidential election was held on 28 December 2014, where Josipović won 38.46% of the votes, followed by Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (HDZ) who received 37.22% of ballots. The third was an independent candidate, Ivan Vilibor Sinčić who received 16.42% of votes, and Milan Kujundžić (Croatian Dawn – Party of the People) who was supported by 6.3% of the votes. The runoff was held on 11 January 2015, and Grabar-Kitarović won by a margin of approximately one percentage point.
|First round results
(candidates with more than 10% of votes)
|1992||8||74.90%||Franjo Tuđman (57.8%), Dražen Budiša (22.3%)||N/A||Franjo Tuđman (57.8%)||Dražen Budiša (22.3%)|
|1997||3||54.62%||Franjo Tuđman (61.4%), Zdravko Tomac (21.0%), Vlado Gotovac (17.6%)||N/A||Franjo Tuđman (61.4%)||Zdravko Tomac (21.0%)|
|2000||9||62.98%||Stjepan Mesić (41.3%), Dražen Budiša (27.8%), Mate Granić (22.6%)||60.88%||Stjepan Mesić (56.0%)||Dražen Budiša (44.0%)|
|2005||13||50.57%||Stjepan Mesić (48.9%), Jadranka Kosor (20.3%), Boris Mikšić (17.8%)||51.04%||Stjepan Mesić (65.9%)||Jadranka Kosor (34.1%)|
|2009–10||12||43.96%||Ivo Josipović (32.4%), Milan Bandić (14.8%),
Andrija Hebrang (12.04%), Nadan Vidošević (11.33%)
|50.13%||Ivo Josipović (60.3%)||Milan Bandić (39.7%)|
|2014–15||4||47.12%||Ivo Josipović (38.96%), Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (37.22%),
Ivan Vilibor Sinčić (16.42%)
|59.06%||Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (50.7%)||Ivo Josipović (49.3%)|
|Source: State Election Commission|
The Socialist Republic of Croatia within SFR Yugoslavia was led by a group of communist party officials, who formed a collective Presidency with the president of the Presidency at its head. The first democratic elections of 1990 did not elect members of the Presidency directly. Rather, the parliament was tasked with filling these positions as it had done in the socialist period. The HDZ won the elections and its leader Tuđman assumed the presidency on 30 May 1990. On 25 July of the same year, the parliament passed several constitutional amendments, including amendment LXXI, which created the position of President and Vice-Presidents. The Christmas Constitution, passed on 22 December 1990, established the government as a semi-presidential system and called for presidential elections.
Tuđman won the presidential elections in 1992, and was inaugurated on 12 August 1992. He was reelected in 1997, and the Constitution of Croatia was amended the same year. After his death in 1999, the constitution was amended and much of the presidential powers were transferred to the parliament and the government, creating a parliamentary system. Mesić won two consecutive terms in 2000 on the HNS ticket and in 2005, the maximum term permitted by the constitution. Josipović, an SDP candidate, won the presidential elections held in 2009–2010. Grabar-Kitarović won the elections of 2014–15 and she was voted to become the first woman president of Croatia.
The President of Croatia enjoys immunity—the president may not be arrested, nor can any criminal proceedings be instituted against the president without prior consent from the Constitutional Court. The only case in which immunity does not apply is if the president has been caught in the act of committing a criminal offense, which carries a penalty of imprisonment for more than five years. In such a case the state body that has detained the president must notify the President of the Constitutional Court immediately.
The President of Croatia is impeachable for any violation of the Constitution committed in performance of duty. Impeachment proceedings may be initiated by the Parliament of Croatia by a two-thirds majority vote of all members of the parliament. The impeachment of the president is then decided by the Constitutional Court, by a two-thirds majority vote of all its judges. If the Constitutional Court impeaches the president, the president's term is terminated.
In case of brief incapacitation to execute the office of the President of Croatia due to absence, illness or vacations, the president may transfer his powers to the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament to act as a deputy. The president decides on the revocation of this authority and his return to the office. If the president is prevented from performing his duties for a longer period of time due to illness or other form of incapacitation, and especially if the president is unable to decide on a transfer of powers to a deputy, the Speaker of the parliament becomes the acting president, assuming presidential duty pursuant to a decision of the Constitutional Court, made upon request of the Government.
In case of death or resignation submitted to the President of the Constitutional Court and communicated to the Speaker of the parliament, or in cases when the Constitutional Court decides to terminate the presidential term through impeachment, the Speaker of the parliament becomes acting president. In those circumstances, new legislation is countersigned by the prime minister instead of the president and a new presidential election must be held within 60 days. This situation occurred after the death of Franjo Tuđman on 10 December 1999, when Vlatko Pavletić became the acting president. After the parliamentary elections of 2000, the role was transferred to Zlatko Tomčić, who filled the office until Stjepan Mesić was elected President of Croatia in 2000.
|Speakers of the parliament as acting presidents of Croatia|
|Name||Assumed office||Left office||Notes||Party|
|Vlatko Pavletić||10 December 1999||2 February 2000||Office expired when the 3rd Sabor was replaced by the 4th||HDZ|
|Zlatko Tomčić||2 February 2000||18 February 2000||Replaced Pavletić after the 4th Sabor convened||HSS|
Legislation defines the appearance and use of the Presidential Standard of Croatia as a symbol of the President of Croatia, and the appearance and use of the presidential sash as a symbol of honour of the office of the president. The presidential standard is a square, blue field with a thin border of alternating red and white squares on each side. In the centre of the blue field is the main shield of the coat of arms of Croatia with the historical arms of Croatia surrounding the main shield. From left to right, these are the oldest known coats of arms of Croatia, the Republic of Dubrovnik, Dalmatia, Istria and Slavonia, adorned with bands of gold, red and white stripes extending down vertically. Atop the shield there is a Croatian tricolour ribbon with golden letters RH that stand for the Republic of Croatia, executed in Roman square capitals. The presidential standard is flown on buildings of the Office of the President of Croatia, the residence of the president, transportation vehicles when in use by the president, and in other ceremonial occasions. The presidential standard was designed by Miroslav Šutej in 1990.
The presidential sash is a Croatian tricolour band, trimmed with gold and adorned with the coat of arms of Croatia, which is placed in a white field, with the tricolour at the front. The arms are bordered by oak branches on the left and olive branches on the right. The sash is worn diagonally, over the right shoulder, and is fastened using a square clasp trimmed with golden Croatian interlace. The sash is adorned with the arms used on the presidential standard, although without the ribbon used in the arms. The constitution specifies that the sash is worn on Statehood Day, during awards ceremonies, during the acceptance of letters of credence and in other ceremonial occasions. The presidential sash was not in use since 2000 inauguration of Stjepan Mesić.
Former presidents of the Republic of Croatia are provided with an office and two staff members paid by the state once they leave the office. In addition, former presidents are assigned a driver, an official car and bodyguards. The government of Croatia is required to provide these benefits within 30 days following the end of the term of president, upon a president's personal request. Stjepan Mesić's office is located in Grškovićeva Street in Zagreb. The office employs a public-relations advisor and a foreign policy advisor. The office was established in 2010 and assigned an annual budget of 1.3 million kuna (c. 175,000 euro). According to Mesić himself, his new office of the former president shall be at the disposal of Croatian companies to help them expand their market. Since the office has been established, former president Mesić also receives foreign diplomats and visits abroad where he meets officials and delivers lectures on occasion.
The rights of the former presidents are defined by a parliamentary Act enacted in 2004, during the first term of Stjepan Mesić. Before that act was enacted, the constitution provided that the former presidents shall become members of the Chambers of Counties of the Parliament of Croatia for life, unless otherwise requested by the president. This was never exercised in practice, since Franjo Tuđman died in office and the Chamber of Counties was abolished before the end of the first term of Stjepan Mesić.
There are two living former Presidents of Croatia:
There is one living former Acting President of Croatia:
This is a graphical timeline listing of the Presidents of Croatia since the first multi-party elections in 1990.
Presidential elections were held in Croatia for the first time on 2 August 1992 alongside simultaneous parliamentary elections. The result was a victory for incumbent Franjo Tuđman of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), who received 57.8% of the vote, becoming the first popularly elected president of Croatia. Voter turnout was 74.9%.The 1,519,000 votes received by Tuđman remains the highest number of votes won by any president to date. Having previously been selected as president by Parliament, he was sworn in for his first constitutional five-year term as president on 12 August 1992 at Saint Mark's square in Zagreb.Andrija Hebrang (son)
Andrija Hebrang (Croatian pronunciation: [ˈandrija ˈxebraŋk]; born 27 January 1946) is a Croatian physician and politician. A member of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), he is a former member of the Croatian Parliament. A physician by vocation, Hebrang had served three terms as Croatia's Minister of Health (1990–1992, 1993–1998 and 2003–2005) and spent three months as Minister of Defence (May–October 1998) under six different Prime Ministers. In addition, he was his party's candidate in the 2009–2010 Croatian presidential election, eventually finishing third behind Ivo Josipović and Milan Bandić, winning 12 percent of the vote in the first round.Ante Marković
Ante Marković (pronounced [ǎːnte mǎːrkoʋit͡ɕ]; 25 November 1924 – 28 November 2011) was the last Prime Minister of Yugoslavia.Bombing of Banski dvori
The bombing of Banski dvori (Croatian: bombardiranje Banskih dvora) was a Yugoslav Air Force strike on the Banski dvori in Zagreb—the official residence of the President of Croatia at the time of the Croatian War of Independence. The airstrike occurred on 7 October 1991, as a part of a Yugoslav Air Force attack on a number of targets in the Croatian capital city. One civilian was reported killed by strafing of the Tuškanac city district and four were injured.
At the time of the attack, Croatian President Franjo Tuđman was in the building, meeting Stjepan Mesić, then President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia, and Ante Marković, then Prime Minister of Yugoslavia, but none of them were injured in the attack. In immediate aftermath, Tuđman remarked that the attack was apparently meant to destroy the Banski dvori as the seat of the statehood of Croatia. Marković blamed Yugoslav Defence Secretary General Veljko Kadijević, who denied the accusation and suggested the event was staged by Croatia. The attack prompted international condemnation and consideration of economic sanctions against Yugoslavia. The presidential residence was immediately moved to the Presidential palace, which was formerly known as Villa Zagorje. The Banski dvori sustained significant damage, but repairs started only in 1995. The building later became the seat of the Croatian Government.Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia
The Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Croatia (Croatian: Načelnik Glavnog stožera Oružanih snaga Republike Hrvatske) is the Chief of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Croatia. He is appointed by the President of Croatia, who is the commander-in-chief. The current Chief of the General Staff is Lieutenant General Mirko Šundov.Croatian National Theatre in Osijek
The Croatian National Theatre (Croatian: Hrvatsko narodno kazalište u Osijeku) is a theatre building in Osijek, capital of the Croatian region of Slavonia.
Opened in 1866, and the building was expanded and fully completed in 1907 according to the plans of its local architect, Karlo Klausner. Designed in baroque style and exterior, it was damaged by the JNA during the Croatian War of Independence in the 1990s, and has been extensively restored. The theatre was officially re-opened by then-President of Croatia, Franjo Tuđman in December 1994.
A McDonald's restaurant occupies the street-front area of the theatre.Dobroslav Paraga
Dobroslav Paraga (born 9 December 1960) is a Croatian right-wing politician. He was first president of the Croatian Party of Rights, after party was reestablished in 1991. In 1993 he founded the Croatian Party of Rights 1861 following a political split from Anto Đapić.Dražen Budiša
Dražen Budiša (born 25 July 1948) is a retired Croatian politician who used to be leading opposition figure in the 1990s and a two-time presidential candidate. As leader of the Croatian Social Liberal Party through the 1990s he remains to date the only Leader of the Opposition not to have been from either the Croatian Democratic Union or Social Democratic Party.Franjo Tuđman
Franjo Tuđman, also written as Franjo Tudjman (Croatian: [frǎːɲo tûdʑman] (listen); 14 May 1922 – 10 December 1999), was a Croatian politician and historian. Following the country's independence from Yugoslavia he became the first President of Croatia and served as president from 1990 until his death in 1999. He was the 9th and last President of the Presidency of SR Croatia from May to July 1990.
Tuđman was born in Veliko Trgovišće, Croatia. In his youth he fought during World War II as a member of the 10th Zagreb Corps of the Yugoslav Partisans. After the war he took a post in the Ministry of Defence, later attaining the rank of major general of the Yugoslav Army in 1960. After his military career he dedicated himself to the study of geopolitics. In 1963 he became a professor on the Zagreb Faculty of Political Sciences. He received a doctorate in history in 1965 and worked as a historian until coming into conflict with the regime. Tuđman participated in the Croatian Spring movement that called for reforms in the country and was imprisoned for his activities in 1972. He lived relatively anonymously in the following years until the end of Communism, whereupon he began his political career by founding the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ) in 1989.
HDZ won the first Croatian parliamentary elections in 1990 and Tuđman became the President of the Presidency of SR Croatia. As president, Tuđman introduced constitutional changes and pressed for the creation of an independent Croatia. On 19 May 1991, an independence referendum was held, which was approved by 93 percent of voters. Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia on 25 June 1991. Areas with a Serb majority revolted, backed by the Yugoslav army, and Tuđman led Croatia during its War of Independence. A ceasefire was signed in 1992, but the war had spread into Bosnia and Herzegovina, where Croats fought in an alliance with Bosniaks. Their cooperation fell apart in late 1992 and Tuđman's government sided with Herzeg-Bosnia during the Croat-Bosniak War with the goal to reunite the Croatian people, a move that brought criticism from the international community. In March 1994, he signed the Washington Agreement with Bosnian President Alija Izetbegović that re-allied Croats and Bosniaks. In August 1995, he authorized a major offensive known as Operation Storm which effectively ended the war in Croatia. In the same year, he was one of the signatories of the Dayton Agreement that put an end to the Bosnian War. He was re-elected president in 1992 and 1997 and remained in power until his death in 1999. While supporters point out his role in achieving Croatian independence, critics have described his presidency as authoritarian. Surveys after Tuđman's death have generally shown a high favorability rating among the Croatian public.Ivo Josipović
Ivo Josipović (Serbo-Croatian pronunciation: [ǐːʋo josǐːpoʋitɕ] (listen); born 28 August 1957) is a Croatian jurist, composer and politician who served as the President of Croatia from 2010 to 2015.Josipović entered politics as a member of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ), and played a key role in the democratic transformation of the League of Communists of Croatia into the Social Democratic Party (SDP) as the author of its first statute. He left politics in 1994, but returned in 2003, winning a seat in the Croatian Parliament running as an independent candidate on the SDP party list. He won reelection to parliament as a member of the SDP in 2007. In addition to politics, Josipović has also worked as a university professor, legal expert, musician and composer.
Following the end of his first term in parliament in January 2008, he ran in the 2009–10 presidential election as the candidate of the Social Democrats, which he had rejoined in January 2008. In the first round he topped eleven rivals with 32.4% of the vote, and entered the run-off with independent conservative populist candidate and mayor of Zagreb, Milan Bandić, who had secured 14.8%. He won the election with 60.26% of the vote in the second round of the election.
His campaign was titled New Justice (Nova Pravednost), calling for a new legal framework to address deep social injustice, corruption and organised crime. This included protection of individual rights and promotion of fundamental values such as equality, human rights, LGBT rights, justice, diligence, social empathy and creativity. Josipović was inaugurated on 18 February 2010, at St. Mark's Square in Zagreb. His term officially began at midnight on 19 February.
Josipović sought re-election in the 2014–15 presidential election held on 28 December 2014. He won 38.46% of the vote in the first round, finishing narrowly ahead of conservative HDZ candidate Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović. They entered a run-off, which took place on 11 January 2015 and which Josipović ultimately lost by a slim margin of around 32.500 votes, winning 49.3% of the vote to Grabar-Kitarovi's 50.7%. He is the first President of Croatia not to be reelected to a second term.Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović
Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović (pronounced [ɡrǎbar kitǎːroʋitɕ] (listen); born 29 April 1968) is a Croatian politician and diplomat serving as the 4th and current President of Croatia since 2015. She is the first woman to be elected to the office since the first multi-party elections in 1990. At 46 years of age, she also became the youngest person to assume the presidency.Before her election as President of Croatia, Grabar-Kitarović held a number of governmental and diplomatic positions. She was Minister of European Affairs from 2003 to 2005, the first female Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration from 2005 to 2008 in both the first and second cabinets of Ivo Sanader, Croatian Ambassador to the United States from 2008 to 2011 and Assistant Secretary General for Public Diplomacy at NATO under Secretaries General Anders Fogh Rasmussen and Jens Stoltenberg from 2011 to 2014.Grabar-Kitarović contested the presidential election held in December 2014 and January 2015 as the only female candidate (out of four in total), finishing as the runner-up in the first round and thereafter proceeding to narrowly defeat incumbent President Ivo Josipović in the second round. Her strong performance in the first round was widely viewed as unexpected, as most opinion polls had given incumbent president Josipović a strong lead and some even showed it was possible that he would win outright by acquiring more than 50% of the vote. In the second round, Grabar-Kitarović defeated Josipović by the closest percentage margin of any presidential election to date (1.48%) and received the smallest number of votes of any elected president in Croatia (1.114 million votes). Furthermore, as the country had previously also had a female Prime Minister, Jadranka Kosor, from 2009 until 2011, Grabar-Kitarović's election as President of Croatia also included it into a small group of parliamentary republics which have had both a female head of state and head of government.
Grabar-Kitarović was a member of the conservative Croatian Democratic Union party from 1993 to 2015 and was also one of three Croatian members of the Trilateral Commission, but she was required to resign both positions upon taking office as president in 2015, as Croatian Presidents are not permitted to hold other political positions or party membership while in office. In 2017, Forbes magazine listed Grabar-Kitarović as the world's 39th most powerful woman.List of spouses of Presidents of Croatia
The current spouse of the President of Croatia is Jakov Kitarović (born 1968), husband of President Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović.Nadan Vidošević
Nadan Vidošević (born 30 January 1960 in Split) is a Croatian politician, businessman and entrepreneur. He was a long-time member of the Croatian Democratic Union, before he launched an independent and ultimately unsuccessful candidacy in the 2009–2010 Croatian presidential election.Next Croatian presidential election
The next elections for the President of Croatia are due to take place by direct popular vote on a date between 21 December 2019 and 20 January 2020, with a second round (if necessary) to take place on a date between 4 January 2020 and 3 February 2020 between the two candidates with the largest number of votes in the first round. Namely, the Constitution of Croatia states that a presidential election must be held no more than 60 days and no less than 30 days before the expiration of the incumbent president's term. They will be the seventh presidential elections since the first direct ones were held in 1992.Speaker of the Croatian Parliament
The Speaker of the Croatian Parliament (Croatian: Predsjednik Hrvatskog sabora, literally the President of the Croatian Parliament) is the presiding officer in the Croatian Parliament (Sabor), Croatia's legislative body.
Under Article 97 of the Constitution of Croatia, the Speaker of the Croatian Parliament is the only constitutional deputy to the President of Croatia and serves as Acting President if the elected President vacates the office before the expiration of the 5-year presidential term due to either death, resignation or removal from office (as determined by the Constitutional Court). In this case an early presidential election must be held within 60 days of the vacancy in the presidency having occurred and the Speaker shall serve as Acting President until the newly elected President is sworn in for a full 5-year term of office.
Under the same article of the constitution, the President of Croatia may unilaterally choose to temporarily delegate authority to the Speaker of the Parliament for shorter periods of time, e.g. whenever the President is not present in the country, is ill or is on vacation. In this case it is up to the President to determine when he or she wishes to fully resume authority once again. However, in case of longer periods of the President's illness or incapacitation, and especially in those cases when the President himself is not able to delegate authority to Speaker, the responsibility of determining when a Speaker should assume or renounce temporary authority rests upon the Constitutional Court, which acts upon the recommendation of the Government of Croatia.
The incumbent Speaker of the Croatian Parliament is Gordan Jandroković of the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), having taken office on 5 May 2017 following the resignation of the previous Speaker.Stjepan Mesić
Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (pronounced [stjêpaːn stǐːpe měːsit͡ɕ]; born 24 December 1934) is a Croatian politician who served as the President of Croatia from 2000 to 2010. Before serving two five-year terms as president, he was President of the Executive Council of SR Croatia (1990) after the first multi-party elections, the last President of the Presidency of Yugoslavia (1991) and consequently Secretary General of the Non-Aligned Movement (1991), as well as Speaker of the Croatian Parliament (1992–1994), a judge in Našice and mayor of his hometown of Orahovica.Mesić was a deputy in the Croatian Parliament in the 1960s, and was then absent from politics until 1990 when he joined the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ), and was named President of the Executive Council (Prime Minister) of the Socialist Republic of Croatia (then still a constituent republic of the SFR Yugoslavia) after HDZ won the elections. His cabinet is, despite holding office before Croatia's independence, considered by the Government of Croatia to have been the first government cabinet of the current Croatian Republic. He later resigned from his post and was appointed to serve as the Socialist Republic of Croatia's membership of the Yugoslav federal presidency where he served first as vice president and then in 1991 as the last President of Yugoslavia before Yugoslavia dissolved.
Following the breakup of Yugoslavia and Croatia's independence, Mesić served as Speaker of the Croatian Parliament from 1992 to 1994, when he left HDZ. With several other members of parliament, he formed a new party called Croatian Independent Democrats (HND). In 1997 the majority of HND members, including Mesić, merged into the Croatian People's Party (HNS).After Franjo Tuđman died in December 1999, Mesić won the elections to become the next President of Croatia in February 2000. He was the last Croatian President to serve under a strong semi-presidential system, which foresaw the President as the most powerful official in the government structure and allowed him to appoint and dismiss the Prime Minister and his cabinet. This system was abolished in favor of an incomplete parliamentary system, which retained the direct election of the President but greatly reduced his powers in favor of strengthening the office of Prime Minister. He was re-elected in January 2005 for a second five-year term. Mesić always topped the polls for the most popular politician in Croatia during his two terms.Vesna Pusić
Vesna Pusić (pronounced [ʋɛ̂sna pǔːsitɕ]; born 25 March 1953) is a Croatian sociologist and politician who served as a First Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign and European Affairs in the centre-left Cabinet of Zoran Milanović. She was Croatia's second female Foreign Minister taking the office after Kolinda Grabar-Kitarović. She is known as outspoken liberal and an advocate of European integration, anti-fascism, gender equality and LGBT rights.
After becoming involved in politics in the early 1990s, Pusić served five consecutive terms as MP, having been elected to the Croatian Parliament in the 2000, 2003, 2007, 2011, 2015 and 2016 parliamentary elections. She also ran in the 2009–10 presidential election, coming in fifth out of twelve candidates. During her 2008–2011 parliament term she chaired the parliamentary committee for tracking the progress of Croatia's accession negotiations with the European Union. She also held the post of Vice-President of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party (ELDR).Zlatko Tomčić
Zlatko Tomčić (Croatian pronunciation: [zlâtko tǒːmt͡ʃit͡ɕ]; born 10 July 1945) is a former Croatian politician, the leader of the Croatian Peasant Party (Hrvatska seljačka stranka—HSS) from 1994 to 2005. He served as the President of the Croatian Parliament, as a representative in the Parliament, and as acting President of Croatia for a brief period. He has graduated from the University of Belgrade Faculty of Civil Engineering.Tomčić became leader of the Croatian Peasant Party in 1994 while serving as a Minister of Construction and Environment in the Croatian Democratic Union-led cabinet of Nikica Valentić. Under his leadership, the Peasant Party led the coalition that came in second in the 1995 elections, winning 18 seats, of which 10 went to members of HSS, including Tomčić.
In the 2000 elections the HSS-led coalition came in third, winning 25 seats, of which 17 went to HSS. These parties joined with the election winners (SDP-HSLS coalition) to form the government, and Tomčić became the President of the Parliament (Predsjednik Sabora). He was instated on 2 February 2000.As the speaker of parliament, Tomčić also briefly served as the acting President of Croatia, as the post was at the time vacant due to the death of President Franjo Tuđman in December 1999. He gave up the position to the newly elected president Stipe Mesić on 18 February 2000.
Tomčić remained President of the Parliament until December 2003, following new elections where the party lost seats and went into the opposition. Tomčić did, however, keep a seat in the Parliament.In 2005, the HSS ten-member club in the Parliament split between a group supporting Tomčić and another one insisting on change in leadership. In the party election of December 2005, Tomčić was opposed by Josip Friščić and defeated. After defeat he gave up his parliament seat and left politics.
As of 2011, Tomčić is the CEO of a successful small architecture firm.Đurđa Adlešič
Đurđa Adlešič (also Đurđa Adlešić; born August 9, 1960 in Bjelovar, Croatia) is a former Croatian politician and former leader of center-right Croatian Social Liberal Party.
Adlešić entered politics in 1990 and was one of the founders of Croatian Social Liberal Party in her hometown. She became an MP in 1995. In 2000, she won her second term and became the vice-president of the party. In 2001 she became the mayor of Bjelovar. In 2003 she won her third term in the Parliament, and was reelected as mayor in 2005. She served as the president of the Croatian Social Liberal party from 2006 to 2009.
In 2011, Adlešič retired from politics.
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