The President of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente do Brasil), officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.
|President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil
since 1 January 2019
|Style||Mr. President or even simply President|
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
(alternative formal, diplomatic)
|Residence||Palácio da Alvorada|
|Term length||Four years|
|Inaugural holder||Deodoro da Fonseca|
|Formation||Proclamation of the Republic|
November 15, 1889
|Deputy||Vice President of Brazil|
|Salary||R$ 402,151 annually|
As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who effectively controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, and appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias (provisional measures), an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law (provisional measures cannot be used to change criminal law or electoral law). A provisional measure comes into effect immediately, before Congress votes on it, and remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it. The 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch. The provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period (or the 120-day, in the case of extension), or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress.
Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to
The Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, and a member of a political party (write-in or independent candidates are prohibited).
The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years, and may be reelected for a single consecutive term. This two-term limit, however, is not for life—a former President who has served for two consecutive terms may, at a later time, run again for office, as long as at least one term has elapsed.
A vice president or other officer who succeeds to the presidency or who serves, albeit briefly, as acting president during a certain presidential term may subsequently be elected or reelected to the presidency only once, as the consecutive term limit already applies. In practice, Brazilian vice-presidents almost always serve as acting president at some point during a presidential term, given that, according to the Constitution, the vice-president becomes acting president during the president's travels abroad.
A sitting president (or governor or mayor) who wishes to run for a different office, regardless of the intended jurisdiction or branch of government, must resign from office at least six months before election day.
The current term of four years was established by the 5th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1994, and the possibility of reelection by the 16th Amendment, in 1997. Before that, Presidents had been barred from immediate reelection for all of Brazil's republican history, with the single exception of the latter half of the Vargas Era, from 1937 to 1945. The office was limited to men until the 1937 Constitution.
|Presidential styles of|
Jair Messias Bolsonaro
|Reference style||Excelentíssimo Senhor Presidente da República|
"The Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic"
|Spoken style||Vossa Excelência |
|Alternative style||Senhor Presidente or Presidente |
"Mr. President" or "President"
As of 2015, the president receives a monthly salary of R$30,934.70, along with an undisclosed expense account to cover travel, goods and services while in office. Given that in Brazil all private and public sector employees and civil servants receive an additional compensation equivalent to one monthly salary after a year of work (this compensation is known as the thirteenth salary), the President receives 13 payments per year, resulting in an annual salary of R$402,151.10.
The Palácio do Planalto in Brasília is the official workplace of the President and the Palácio da Alvorada their official residence; he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities. The Residência Oficial do Torto, popularly known as Granja do Torto, is a ranch located on the outskirts of the capital and is used as a country retreat by the president. The Palácio Rio Negro in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, is a summer retreat of the president, although used rarely.
In addition, the presidency of the republic also maintains the Jaburu Palace in Brasília for use by the Vice President of the Republic as his or her official residence.
In the 2000s, the federal government decided to establish Regional Offices of the Presidency of the Republic in certain key Brazilian cities. Those regional offices are not presidential residences, but they are fully staffed offices ready to receive the president and his ministers at any time, and they function as a presidential workplace when the President is in those cities. The first regional office of the presidency was established in the city of São Paulo, and is located at the Banco do Brasil building at the Paulista Avenue; the building also houses Banco do Brasil's regional headquarters in São Paulo. The presidency of the republic also maintains regional offices in Porto Alegre and in Belo Horizonte.
For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car, which is an armored version of the 2011 Ford Fusion Hybrid built on a Ford CD3 platform. A 1952 Rolls Royce Silver Wraith is used by the president on ceremonial occasions, such as Independence Day commemorations, state visits and the inauguration of the president-elect. A modified version of the Airbus A319, air force designation VC-1A, is used to transport the president on all medium and long-range international flights. Two modified Embraer 190 jets, air force designation VC-2, are used for short and medium range presidential travel. When the president is on board, the aircraft receive the call sign "Brazilian Air Force One". Two modified military versions of the Eurocopter Super Puma, air force designation VH-34, are currently used as the main presidential helicopters.
The President may be removed from office using one of two procedures. In either case, two-thirds of the Chamber of Deputies must accept charges against the officeholder (impeachment); and if the Senate accepts the investigation, the president is suspended from exercising the functions of office for up to 180 days. In the case of "common criminal offenses", a trial then takes place at the Supreme Federal Court. In the case of "crimes of malversation", which must fall into one of seven broad areas and which is defined in more detail in law, a trial takes place at the Federal Senate. During the trial, the vice president exercises executive power. If the trial does not result in a conviction within 180 days, the president resumes office; a conviction results in removal from office and succession by the vice president. The seven areas are:
The following privileges are guaranteed to former presidents by law:
All presidents of Brazil bore the title President of the Republic. That title has been used by all the constitutions of Brazil since the proclamation of the Republic to refer to the head of the Executive Branch.
However, from the proclamation of the Republic in 1889 until 1937 the country was officially styled Republic of the United States of Brazil, and from 1937 to 1967 the country was styled simply The United States of Brazil, and thus the full title of the Presidents of the Republic from 1891 until 1967—that is, from Deodoro da Fonseca's inauguration as President (between 1889 and 1891 he served as Head of the Provisional Government) until the end of Humberto Castello Branco's term in 1967—was President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil. On 15 March 1967, the country's official name was changed to Federative Republic of Brazil. On that same date, Arthur da Costa e Silva was sworn in as President succeeding Castello Branco. Since Costa e Silva, therefore, all presidents of Brazil have borne the full title of President of the Federative Republic of Brazil.
|Candidate||Party||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Jair Bolsonaro||PSL||Hamilton Mourão||PRTB||49,277,010||46.03||57,796,972||55.13|
|Fernando Haddad||PT||Manuela d'Ávila||PCdoB||31,342,051||29.28||47,038,792||44.87|
|Ciro Gomes||PDT||Kátia Abreu||PDT||13,344,371||12.47|
|Geraldo Alckmin||PSDB||Ana Amélia||PP||5,096,350||4.76|
|João Amoêdo||NOVO||Christian Lohbauer||NOVO||2,679,745||2.50|
|Cabo Daciolo||PATRI||Suelene Balduino||PATRI||1,348,323||1.26|
|Henrique Meirelles||MDB||Germano Rigotto||MDB||1,288,950||1.20|
|Marina Silva||REDE||Eduardo Jorge||REDE||1,069,578||1.00|
|Álvaro Dias||PODE||Paulo Rabello de Castro||PSC||859,601||0.80|
|Guilherme Boulos||PSOL||Sônia Guajajara||PSOL||617,122||0.58|
|Vera Lúcia||PSTU||Hertz Dias||PSTU||55,762||0.05|
|José Maria Eymael||DC||Hélvio Costa||DC||41,710||0.04|
|João Vicente Goulart||PPL||Léo Dias||PPL||30,176||0.03|
|Source: TSE (runoff election at 99.99% of "sections" counted)|
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Jair Messias Bolsonaro (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒaˈiʁ meˈsi.ɐz bowsoˈnaɾu] or [ʒaˈiɾ]; born 21 March 1955) is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer, currently serving as the 38th President of Brazil since January 2019. He served in the country's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro, between 1991 and 2018. He currently is a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party.
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Júlio Prestes de Albuquerque (Portuguese pronunciation: ['ʒulju 'pɾɛstʃis dʒi awbu'kɛɾki];
March 15, 1882 – February 9, 1946) was a Brazilian poet, lawyer and politician. He was the last elected President of Brazil of the period known as República Velha, but never took office because the government was overthrown in the Revolution of 1930. Júlio Prestes was the only politician who was elected President of Brazil to be impeded of taking office. He was the last person born in São Paulo to be elected President of Brazil until the election of Jair Bolsonaro in 2018.
On June 23, 1930 he became the second Brazilian person to be covered on the Time magazine.Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales
Dr. Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (Portuguese pronunciation: [manuˈew feˈʁas dʒi ˈkãpus ˈsalis]; 15 February 1841 – 28 June 1913) was a Brazilian lawyer, coffee farmer and politician who served as the fourth President of Brazil. He was born in the city of Campinas, São Paulo. He graduated as a lawyer from the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, São Paulo, in 1863. He served as a provincial deputy three times, general-deputy once, and also as minister of justice (1889-1891), senator and governor of São Paulo (1896–1897). The pinnacle of his political career was his election as president of Brazil, an office he held between 1898 and 1902. Austere financial reforms were adopted during his tenure.Michel Temer
Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (Portuguese pronunciation: [miˈʃɛw miˈɡɛw eˈliɐs ˈtemeɾ luˈliɐ]; born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician who served as the 37th President of Brazil from 31 August 2016 to 31 December 2018. He took office after the impeachment and removal from office of his predecessor Dilma Rousseff. He had been Vice President since 2011 and Acting President since 12 May 2016, when Rousseff was suspended while she faced an impeachment trial. At the age of 75, he is the oldest person to have taken the office.
The Senate's 61–20 vote, on 31 August 2016, to remove Rousseff from office meant that Temer succeeded her to serve out the remainder of Rousseff's second term, ending 31 December 2018. In his first speech in office, Temer called for a government of "national salvation" and asked for the trust of the Brazilian people. He also signaled his intention to overhaul the pension system and labor laws, and to curb public spending.A 2017 poll showed that Temer's administration had 7% popular approval, with 76% of respondents in favor of Temer's resignation. Despite widespread protests, Temer refused to step down. Temer did not stand for President in the 2018 elections and was succeeded by Jair Bolsonaro on 1 January 2019.Mário Covas
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Covas studied engineering at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo. He entered politics in his native city of Santos, in the state of São Paulo.
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For the municipality in Maranhão see Presidente Juscelino, Maranhão
Presidente Juscelino is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,257 living in a total area of 696 km². The city belongs to the statistical mesoregion of Central Mineira and to the statistical microregion of Curvelo. It became a municipality in 1962.Presidente Juscelino is located at an elevation of 596 meters, 40 km. west of Curvelo on highway BR-259. The distance to the state capital, Belo Horizonte, is 216 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Corinto, Curvelo and Felixlândia. The name comes from former president of Brazil Juscelino Kubitschek.
The main economic activities are services, small industries, and agriculture. The production of charcoal from eucalyptus plantations is also important. The GDP in 2005 was R$21 million, with 9 million from services, 4 million from industry, and 7 million from agriculture. There were 286 rural producers on 35,000 hectares of land. Only 34 farms had tractors (2006). Approximately 1000 persons were dependent on agriculture. The main crops were beans and corn. There were 23,000 head of cattle (2006). There were no banks (2007) and 218 automobiles (108 motorcycles), giving a ratio of 20 inhabitants per automobile.There was 1 health clinic. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Curvelo. Educational needs were met by 5 primary schools, 1 middle school, and 2 pre-primary schools.
Municipal Human Development Index: 0.654 (2000)
State ranking: 733 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000
National ranking: 3,707 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000
Literacy rate: 77%
Life expectancy: 65 (average of males and females)In 2000 the per capita income of R$97.00 was well below the state and national average of R$276.00 and R$297.00 respectively.
The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country--0,467--putting it in last place.Presidente Tancredo Neves
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