President of Brazil

The President of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente do Brasil), officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Portuguese: Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil) or simply the President of the Republic, is both the head of state and the head of government of Brazil. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the Brazilian Armed Forces. The presidential system was established in 1889, upon the proclamation of the republic in a military coup d'état against Emperor Pedro II. Since then, Brazil has had six constitutions, three dictatorships, and three democratic periods. During the democratic periods, voting has always been compulsory. The Constitution of Brazil, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president, their term of office and the method of election.[2]

Jair Bolsonaro of São Paulo is the 38th and current President. He was sworn in on 1 January 2019 following the 2018 presidential election.[3]

President of the Federative Republic of Brazil
Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil
Coat of arms of Brazil
Presidential Standard of Brazil
Presidente Bolsonaro
Jair Bolsonaro

since 1 January 2019
StyleMr. President or even simply President
Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic
His Excellency
(alternative formal, diplomatic)
ResidencePalácio da Alvorada
Term lengthFour years
Renewable once
Inaugural holderDeodoro da Fonseca
FormationProclamation of the Republic
November 15, 1889
DeputyVice President of Brazil
SalaryR$ 402,151 annually[1]

Constitutional powers

As a republic with a presidential executive, Brazil grants significant powers to the president, who effectively controls the executive branch, represents the country abroad, and appoints the cabinet and, with the approval of the Senate, the judges for the Supreme Federal Court. The president is also the commander-in-chief of the armed forces.

Presidents in Brazil have significant lawmaking powers, exercised either by proposing laws to the National Congress or by using Medidas Provisórias (provisional measures), an instrument with the force of law that the president can enact in cases of urgency and necessity except to make changes to some areas of law (provisional measures cannot be used to change criminal law or electoral law). A provisional measure comes into effect immediately, before Congress votes on it, and remains in force for up to 60 days unless Congress votes to rescind it. The 60-day period can be extended once, up to 120 days. If Congress, on the other hand, votes to approve the provisional measure, it becomes an actual law, with changes decided by the legislative branch. The provisional measure expires at the end of the 60-day period (or the 120-day, in the case of extension), or sooner, if rejected by one of the Houses of Congress.[4]

Article 84 of the current Federal Constitution, determines that the president has the power to

  1. appoint and dismiss the ministers of state;
  2. exercise, with the assistance of the ministers of state, the higher management of the federal administration
  1. start the legislative procedure, in the manner and in the cases set forth in the constitution;
  2. sanction, promulgate and order the publication of laws, and issue decrees and regulations for the true enforcement thereof;
  3. veto bills, wholly or in part;
  4. provide, by means of decree, on organization and structure of federal administration if there is neither increase of expenses nor creation or extinction of public agencies; and extinction of offices or positions, when vacant;
  5. maintain relations with foreign States and to accredit their diplomatic representatives;
  6. conclude international treaties, conventions and acts, subject to the ratification of the National Congress of Brazil;
  7. decree the state of defense and the state of siege, in accordance with the constitutional procedures that precede and authorize those emergency decrees;
  8. decree and enforce federal intervention, in accordance with the constitutional procedures that precede and authorize such exceptional action;
  9. upon the opening of the legislative session, send a government message and plan to the National Congress, describing the state of the nation and requesting the actions he deems necessary;
  10. grant pardons and reduce sentences, after hearing the entities instituted by law, if necessary;
  11. exercise the supreme command of the armed forces, appoint the commanders of navy, army and air force, promote general officers and to appoint them to the offices held exclusively by them;
  12. appoint, after approval by the Federal Senate, the Justices of the Supreme Federal Court and those of the superior courts, the Governors of the territories, the Prosecutor General of the Republic, the president and the directors of the Central Bank and other civil servants, when established by law;
  13. appoint, with due regard for the provisions of Article 73, the Justices of the Court of Accounts of the Union;
  14. appoint judges in the events established by this constitution and the Attorney General of the Union;
  15. appoint members of the Council of the Republic, in accordance with article 89, VII;
  16. summon and preside over the Council of the Republic and the National Defense Council;
  17. declare war, in the event of foreign aggression, authorized by the National Congress or confirmed by it, whenever it occurs between legislative sessions and, under the same conditions, to decree full or partial national mobilization;
  18. make peace, authorized or confirmed by the National Congress;
  19. award decorations and honorary distinctions;
  20. permit, in the cases set forth by supplementary law, foreign forces to pass through the national territory, or to remain temporarily therein;
  21. submit to the National Congress the pluriannual plan, the bill of budgetary directives and the budget proposals set forth in this constitution;
  22. render, each year, accounts to the National Congress concerning the previous fiscal year, within sixty days of the opening of the legislative session;
  23. fill and abolish federal government positions, as set forth by law;
  24. issue provisional measures, with force of law, according to Article 62;
  25. perform other duties set forth in the constitution.



The Constitution of Brazil requires that a President be a native-born citizen of Brazil, at least 35 years of age, a resident of Brazil, in full exercise of their electoral rights, a registered voter, and a member of a political party (write-in or independent candidates are prohibited).[5]

Term limits

The president of Brazil serves for a term of four years,[6] and may be reelected for a single consecutive term.[7] This two-term limit, however, is not for life—a former President who has served for two consecutive terms may, at a later time, run again for office, as long as at least one term has elapsed.

A vice president or other officer who succeeds to the presidency or who serves, albeit briefly, as acting president during a certain presidential term may subsequently be elected or reelected to the presidency only once, as the consecutive term limit already applies.[7] In practice, Brazilian vice-presidents almost always serve as acting president at some point during a presidential term, given that, according to the Constitution, the vice-president becomes acting president during the president's travels abroad.

Running for other offices

A sitting president (or governor or mayor) who wishes to run for a different office, regardless of the intended jurisdiction or branch of government, must resign from office at least six months before election day.[8]


The current term of four years was established by the 5th Amendment to the Constitution, in 1994, and the possibility of reelection by the 16th Amendment, in 1997. Before that, Presidents had been barred from immediate reelection for all of Brazil's republican history, with the single exception of the latter half of the Vargas Era, from 1937 to 1945. The office was limited to men until the 1937 Constitution.

Compensation and privileges of office

Presidential styles of
Jair Messias Bolsonaro
Presidential Standard of Brazil
Reference styleExcelentíssimo Senhor Presidente da República
"The Most Excellent Mr. President of the Republic"
Spoken styleVossa Excelência
"Your Excellency"
Alternative styleSenhor Presidente or Presidente
"Mr. President" or "President"[9]

As of 2015,[10] the president receives a monthly salary of R$30,934.70,[1] along with an undisclosed expense account to cover travel, goods and services while in office.[11] Given that in Brazil all private and public sector employees and civil servants receive an additional compensation equivalent to one monthly salary after a year of work (this compensation is known as the thirteenth salary), the President receives 13 payments per year, resulting in an annual salary of R$402,151.10.

The Palácio do Planalto in Brasília is the official workplace of the President and the Palácio da Alvorada their official residence; he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities.[12][13] The Residência Oficial do Torto, popularly known as Granja do Torto, is a ranch located on the outskirts of the capital and is used as a country retreat by the president.[14] The Palácio Rio Negro in Petrópolis, Rio de Janeiro, is a summer retreat of the president, although used rarely.[15]

In addition, the presidency of the republic also maintains the Jaburu Palace in Brasília for use by the Vice President of the Republic as his or her official residence.

In the 2000s, the federal government decided to establish Regional Offices of the Presidency of the Republic in certain key Brazilian cities. Those regional offices are not presidential residences, but they are fully staffed offices ready to receive the president and his ministers at any time, and they function as a presidential workplace when the President is in those cities. The first regional office of the presidency was established in the city of São Paulo, and is located at the Banco do Brasil building at the Paulista Avenue; the building also houses Banco do Brasil's regional headquarters in São Paulo. The presidency of the republic also maintains regional offices in Porto Alegre and in Belo Horizonte.

For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car, which is an armored version of the 2011 Ford Fusion Hybrid[16][17] built on a Ford CD3 platform. A 1952 Rolls Royce Silver Wraith is used by the president on ceremonial occasions, such as Independence Day commemorations, state visits and the inauguration of the president-elect.[18] A modified version of the Airbus A319, air force designation VC-1A, is used to transport the president on all medium and long-range international flights.[19][20] Two modified Embraer 190 jets, air force designation VC-2, are used for short and medium range presidential travel.[21] When the president is on board, the aircraft receive the call sign "Brazilian Air Force One".[20] Two modified military versions of the Eurocopter Super Puma, air force designation VH-34, are currently used as the main presidential helicopters.[22]

Embraer VC-2, Brazil - Air Force JP6903556

Secondary presidential aircraft (VC-2)

PR helicoptero

Presidential helicopter (VH-34 and VH-36)


The President may be removed from office[23] using one of two procedures. In either case, two-thirds of the Chamber of Deputies must accept charges against the officeholder (impeachment); and if the Senate accepts the investigation, the president is suspended from exercising the functions of office for up to 180 days. In the case of "common criminal offenses", a trial then takes place at the Supreme Federal Court. In the case of "crimes of malversation", which must fall into one of seven broad areas and which is defined in more detail in law, a trial takes place at the Federal Senate. During the trial, the vice president exercises executive power. If the trial does not result in a conviction within 180 days, the president resumes office; a conviction results in removal from office and succession by the vice president. The seven areas are:[23]

  1. The existence of the Union
  2. The free exercise of the Legislative Power, the Judicial Power, the Public Prosecution and the constitutional Powers of the units of the Federation
  3. The exercise of political, individual and social rights
  4. The internal security of the country
  5. Probity in the administration
  6. The budgetary law
  7. Compliance with the laws and with court decisions


The following privileges are guaranteed to former presidents by law:

  • Permanent security protection (by the presidential guard – Batalhão da Guarda Presidencial)
  • The use of two official vehicles (for life)
  • Repository funding for a presidential library
  • Lifelong monthly pension for their widows and unmarried daughters
  • Pension for sons of deceased ex-presidents until they come of age
Sarney no Senado em Posse presidencial - 2019

José Sarney,
served 1985–1990
April 24, 1930 (age 88)

Fernando Collor no Senado em Posse presidencial - 2019

Fernando Collor de Mello,
served 1990–1992
August 12, 1949 (age 69)

FHC 2017

Fernando Henrique Cardoso,
served 1995–2002
June 18, 1931 (age 87)

Luiz Marinho e Lula (cropped2)

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva,
served 2003–2010
October 27, 1945 (age 73)

Dilma Rousseff 2017

Dilma Rousseff,
served 2011–2016
December 14, 1947 (age 71)

Michel Temer com a faixa Presidencial (cropped)

Michel Temer,
served 2016–2018
September 23, 1940 (age 78)


All presidents of Brazil bore the title President of the Republic. That title has been used by all the constitutions of Brazil since the proclamation of the Republic to refer to the head of the Executive Branch.

However, from the proclamation of the Republic in 1889 until 1937 the country was officially styled Republic of the United States of Brazil, and from 1937 to 1967 the country was styled simply The United States of Brazil, and thus the full title of the Presidents of the Republic from 1891 until 1967—that is, from Deodoro da Fonseca's inauguration as President (between 1889 and 1891 he served as Head of the Provisional Government) until the end of Humberto Castello Branco's term in 1967—was President of the Republic of the United States of Brazil. On 15 March 1967, the country's official name was changed to Federative Republic of Brazil. On that same date, Arthur da Costa e Silva was sworn in as President succeeding Castello Branco. Since Costa e Silva, therefore, all presidents of Brazil have borne the full title of President of the Federative Republic of Brazil.

Deodoro da Fonseca (1889)
Deodoro da Fonseca
Floriano Peixoto (1891)
Floriano Peixoto
Prudente de Morais
Campos Sales
Campos Sales
Rodrigues Alves 3
Rodrigues Alves
Afonso Pena
Afonso Pena
Nilo Peçanha 02
Nilo Peçanha
Hermes da Fonseca (1910)
Hermes da Fonseca
Venceslau Brás
Venceslau Brás
Delfim Moreira (1918)
Delfim Moreira
Epitacio Pessoa (1919)
Epitácio Pessoa
Artur Bernardes (1922)
Arthur Bernardes
Washington Luís (foto)
Washington Luís
Getulio Vargas (1930)
Getúlio Vargas
José Linhares, presidente dos Estados Unidos do Brasil
José Linhares
Eurico Gaspar Dutra
17 - Getúlio Dorneles Vargas 1951 derivative
Getúlio Vargas
Café Filho
Café Filho
Carlos Luz
Presidente Nereu Ramos
Nereu Ramos
Juscelino Kubitschek
Janio Quadros
Jânio Quadros
João Goulart
Castelo Branco
Costa e Silva
Artur da Costa e Silva
Ernesto Geisel
Ernesto Geisel
João Figueiredo
Sarney (Gervásio Palácio do planalto)
José Sarney
Fernando Collor 1992 B&W
Fernando Collor de Mello
Itamar 1992 (Gurgel Planalto)
Itamar Franco
Fernando Henrique Cardoso (1994)
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09
Dilma Rousseff
Presidente Michel Temer (foto oficial) - cortada
Michel Temer
Presidente Bolsonaro
Jair Bolsonaro

Presidents by birth state

 Minas Gerais: 8 (Afonso Pena, Venceslau Brás, Delfim Moreira, Arthur Bernardes, Carlos Luz, Juscelino Kubitschek, Pedro Aleixo, Dilma Rousseff)

 São Paulo: 6 (Prudente de Morais, Campos Sales, Rodrigues Alves, Ranieri Mazzilli, Michel Temer, Jair Bolsonaro)

 Rio Grande do Sul: 6 (Hermes da Fonseca, Getúlio Vargas, João Goulart, Artur da Costa e Silva, Emílio Garrastazu Médici, Ernesto Geisel)

 Rio de Janeiro: 5 (Nilo Peçanha, Washington Luís, João Figueiredo, Fernando Collor de Mello, Fernando Henrique Cardoso)

 Alagoas: 2 (Deodoro da Fonseca, Floriano Peixoto)

 Ceará: 2 (José Linhares, Castelo Branco)

 Bahia: 1 (Itamar Franco)[24][25]

 Mato Grosso: 1 (Eurico Gaspar Dutra)

 Mato Grosso do Sul: 1 (Jânio Quadros)

 Maranhão: 1 (José Sarney)

 Paraíba: 1 (Epitácio Pessoa)

 Pernambuco: 1 (Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva)

 Rio Grande do Norte: 1 (Café Filho)

 Santa Catarina: 1 (Nereu Ramos)

Latest election

Candidate Party Running mate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Jair Bolsonaro PSL Hamilton Mourão PRTB 49,277,010 46.03 57,796,972 55.13
Fernando Haddad PT Manuela d'Ávila PCdoB 31,342,051 29.28 47,038,792 44.87
Ciro Gomes PDT Kátia Abreu PDT 13,344,371 12.47
Geraldo Alckmin PSDB Ana Amélia PP 5,096,350 4.76
João Amoêdo NOVO Christian Lohbauer NOVO 2,679,745 2.50
Cabo Daciolo PATRI Suelene Balduino PATRI 1,348,323 1.26
Henrique Meirelles MDB Germano Rigotto MDB 1,288,950 1.20
Marina Silva REDE Eduardo Jorge REDE 1,069,578 1.00
Álvaro Dias PODE Paulo Rabello de Castro PSC 859,601 0.80
Guilherme Boulos PSOL Sônia Guajajara PSOL 617,122 0.58
Vera Lúcia PSTU Hertz Dias PSTU 55,762 0.05
José Maria Eymael DC Hélvio Costa DC 41,710 0.04
João Vicente Goulart PPL Léo Dias PPL 30,176 0.03
Invalid/blank votes 10,313,159 8.79 11,094,570 10.58
Total 117,364,654 100.00 115,930,334 100.00
Registered voters/turnout 147,306,295 79.67 147,306,294 78.70
Source: TSE (runoff election at 99.99% of "sections" counted)

See also


  1. ^ a b Portal da Transparência, Ministry of Transparency, Supervision and Control. Retrieved on 29 May 2018. (in Portuguese)
  2. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, art. 15 and Chapter II
  3. ^ "Right-Wing Populist Jair Bolsonaro Sworn In As President Of Brazil". NPR. January 1, 2019. Retrieved January 1, 2019.
  4. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, art. 62 as amended by constitutional amendment n. 32
  5. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 3.
  6. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 82.
  7. ^ a b Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 5.
  8. ^ Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, article 14, paragraph 6.
  9. ^ Official Writing Manual of the Presidency of the Republic. 2nd edition 2002. ISBN 8585142162
  10. ^ Diário da União publica reajuste de salários de parlamentares, presidente e ministros ("Brazilian 'Federal Register' publishes a pay raise for senators, representatives, president and ministries"), Estado de Minas, Belo Horizonte, 19 December 2014. Retrieved on 29 May 2018. (in Portuguese)
  11. ^ Ajuste ainda não chegou aos gastos sigilosos ("Cuts have yet to be made to undisclosed expenses") Archived 14 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Ministério do Planejamento. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese)
  12. ^ Palácio do Planalto Archived 21 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  13. ^ Palácio da Alvorada Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  14. ^ Granja do Torto Archived 13 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  15. ^ Rio Negro Palace Prefeitura de Petrópolis. Retrieved on 2011-05-27.
  16. ^ Brazilian president receives Ford Fusion Hybrid at São Paulo Auto Show Ford. Retrieved on 2010-11-28.
  17. ^ Recibe Da Silva Ford Fusion Híbrido en Brasil Terra. Retrieved on 2010-11-28. (in Spanish).
  18. ^ Rolls-Royce presidencial é um dos destaques do desfile de 7 de setembro ("Presidential Rolls Royce is one of the highlights of the Independence Day parade") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  19. ^ Infográfico especial sobre o avião presidencial ("Special infographic of the presidential airplane") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  20. ^ a b FAB 001 – O Avião Presidencial Archived 26 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine DefesaBR. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  21. ^ Presidência da República nas asas da Embraer ("The Presidency on the wings of Embraer") Presidência da República. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  22. ^ Helicóptero Presidencial Brasileiro (VH-34 Super Puma VIP) ("Brazilian Presidential Helicopter (VH-34 Super Puma VIP))" Hangar20. Retrieved on 2011-05-27. (in Portuguese).
  23. ^ a b Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil 1988 - SECTION III - LIABILITY OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC (English translation)
  24. ^ Born in a ship at the sea, was registered in Salvador.
  25. ^

External links

Arthur Bernardes

Artur da Silva Bernardes (Portuguese: [aɾˈtuɾ da ˈsiwvɐ beɾˈnaɾdʒis]; 8 August 1875 – 23 March 1955) was a Brazilian politician who served as 12th President of Brazil during the First Brazilian Republic. Born in Viçosa, Minas Gerais, he was elected Governor of Minas Gerais in 1918. In 1922, he was elected President of Brazil and served until 1926. Facing a military rebellion, Bernardes ruled under a state of siege during most of the course of his term.

Esperidião Amin

Esperidião Amin Helou Filho (December 21, 1947) is a Brazilian politician. Born to a family of businessmen and politicians of Lebanese origin, he was twice elected governor of the state of Santa Catarina and twice mayor of the city of Florianópolis, its capital. He was Senator of the Republic between 1991 and 1999 and national president of the Progressive Party. In 1994, he ran for President of Brazil, but was not elected. He is married to Angela Amin, a federal congresswoman in the National Congress of Brazil and twice mayor of Florianópolis.

Amin studied Business Administration and Law at Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC). He completed his master's degree in management and is a professor in the areas of business, economics, law and planning at UFSC.

Federal University of Southern Bahia

The Federal University of Southern Bahia (Portuguese: Universidade Federal do Sul da Bahia, UFSB) is a public institution of higher education in Brazil.

UFSB was created by law 12.818/2013, signed by the president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff. It started academic activities in September 2014. UFSB has 1610 students enrroled.

First Lady of Brazil

The First Lady of Brazil (Portuguese: Primeira-dama do Brasil) is the spouse of the President of Brazil. If the holder of the title is a woman, she can be referred to by the honorific title Dona.

Floriano Peixoto

Floriano Vieira Peixoto (Portuguese pronunciation: [floriˈɐ̃nu viˈejrɐ pejˈʃotu] 30 April 1839 – 29 July 1895), born in Ipioca (today a district of the city of Maceió in the State of Alagoas), nicknamed the "Iron Marshal", was a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second President of Brazil. He is the first Vice President of Brazil to have succeeded a former President mid-term.

Forbes list of The World's 100 Most Powerful Women

Since 2004, Forbes has compiled a list of the 100 most powerful women in the world. It is edited by notable Forbes journalists, including Moira Forbes, and is based on visibility and economic impact. German Chancellor Angela Merkel has remained at the top spot since 2006, with the brief exception of 2010 where she was temporarily supplanted by the then U.S. First Lady Michelle Obama.

Hamilton Mourão

Antônio Hamilton Martins Mourão (born 15 August 1953) is a Brazilian politician who is the 25th and current Vice President of Brazil, since 1 January 2019. Mourão is a retired Brazilian Army General, the highest rank a Brazilian soldier can reach during peace time. He is a member of the Brazilian Labour Renewal Party.

Itamar Franco

Itamar Augusto Cautiero Franco (Portuguese pronunciation: [itaˈmaɾ ˈfɾɐ̃ku]; June 28, 1930 – July 2, 2011) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 33rd President of Brazil from December 29, 1992 to December 31, 1994. Previously he was Vice President of Brazil from 1990 until the resignation of President Fernando Collor de Mello. During his long political career Franco also served as Senator, Mayor, Ambassador and Governor. At the time of his death he was a Senator from Minas Gerais, having won the seat in the 2010 election.

Jair Bolsonaro

Jair Messias Bolsonaro (Brazilian Portuguese: [ʒaˈiʁ meˈsi.ɐz bowsoˈnaɾu] or [ʒaˈiɾ]; born 21 March 1955) is a Brazilian politician and retired military officer, currently serving as the 38th President of Brazil since January 2019. He served in the country's Chamber of Deputies, representing the state of Rio de Janeiro, between 1991 and 2018. He currently is a member of the conservative Social Liberal Party.

Bolsonaro was born in the small town of Glicério, in the northwest area of the state of São Paulo. He graduated from the Agulhas Negras Military Academy in 1977 and served in the Brazilian Army's field artillery and parachutist groups. He became known to the public in 1986, when he wrote an article for Veja magazine criticizing low wages for military officers, after which he was arrested and detained for fifteen days despite receiving letters of support from his peers in the army; he was acquitted two years later.He joined the reserve army in 1988 with the rank of Captain and ran for the Rio de Janeiro City Council in that same year, being elected while a member of the Christian Democratic Party. Bolsonaro was elected in 1990 to the lower chamber of Congress and was subsequently re-elected six times. During his 27-year tenure as a congressman, he became known for his strong support of national conservatism. He is a vocal opponent of same-sex marriage and homosexuality, abortion, affirmative action, drug liberalization and secularism. In foreign policy, he has advocated closer relations to the United States and Israel. During the 2018 presidential campaign, he started to advocate for economic liberal and pro-market policies. A polarizing and controversial politician, his views and comments, which have been described as far-right and populist in nature, have drawn both praise and criticism in Brazil.Bolsonaro announced his pre-candidacy for president in March 2016 as a member of the Social Christian Party. However, he left the party in 2018 and joined the Social Liberal Party, which launched his presidential campaign in August 2018 with retired general Hamilton Mourão as his running mate. He portrays himself as an outsider and a supporter of family values. He came in first place in the first round of the general election on 7 October 2018, with Workers' Party candidate Fernando Haddad coming in second place. The two candidates faced a run-off on 28 October 2018, and Bolsonaro was elected with 55.1% of the vote.

José Serra

José Serra (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ ˈsɛʁɐ]; born March 19, 1942) is a Brazilian politician who has served as a Congressman, Senator, Minister of Planning, Minister of Health, Mayor of São Paulo, Governor of São Paulo state, and Minister of Foreign Affairs of Brazil.

Júlio Prestes

Júlio Prestes de Albuquerque (Portuguese pronunciation: ['ʒulju 'pɾɛstʃis dʒi awbu'kɛɾki];

March 15, 1882 – February 9, 1946) was a Brazilian poet, lawyer and politician. He was the last elected President of Brazil of the period known as República Velha, but never took office because the government was overthrown in the Revolution of 1930. Júlio Prestes was the only politician who was elected President of Brazil to be impeded of taking office. He was the last person born in São Paulo to be elected President of Brazil until the election of Jair Bolsonaro in 2018.

On June 23, 1930 he became the second Brazilian person to be covered on the Time magazine.

Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales

Dr. Manuel Ferraz de Campos Sales (Portuguese pronunciation: [manuˈew feˈʁas dʒi ˈkãpus ˈsalis]; 15 February 1841 – 28 June 1913) was a Brazilian lawyer, coffee farmer and politician who served as the fourth President of Brazil. He was born in the city of Campinas, São Paulo. He graduated as a lawyer from the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, São Paulo, in 1863. He served as a provincial deputy three times, general-deputy once, and also as minister of justice (1889-1891), senator and governor of São Paulo (1896–1897). The pinnacle of his political career was his election as president of Brazil, an office he held between 1898 and 1902. Austere financial reforms were adopted during his tenure.

Michel Temer

Michel Miguel Elias Temer Lulia (Portuguese pronunciation: [miˈʃɛw miˈɡɛw eˈliɐs ˈtemeɾ luˈliɐ]; born 23 September 1940) is a Brazilian lawyer and politician who served as the 37th President of Brazil from 31 August 2016 to 31 December 2018. He took office after the impeachment and removal from office of his predecessor Dilma Rousseff. He had been Vice President since 2011 and Acting President since 12 May 2016, when Rousseff was suspended while she faced an impeachment trial. At the age of 75, he is the oldest person to have taken the office.

The Senate's 61–20 vote, on 31 August 2016, to remove Rousseff from office meant that Temer succeeded her to serve out the remainder of Rousseff's second term, ending 31 December 2018. In his first speech in office, Temer called for a government of "national salvation" and asked for the trust of the Brazilian people. He also signaled his intention to overhaul the pension system and labor laws, and to curb public spending.A 2017 poll showed that Temer's administration had 7% popular approval, with 76% of respondents in favor of Temer's resignation. Despite widespread protests, Temer refused to step down. Temer did not stand for President in the 2018 elections and was succeeded by Jair Bolsonaro on 1 January 2019.

Mário Covas

Mário Covas Almeida Júnior (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈmaɾju ˈkɔvɐz ˈʒunjoɾ] or [ˈkɔvɐˈʒːunjoʁ]; 21 April 1930 – 6 March 2001) was a Brazilian politician.

Covas studied engineering at the Polytechnic School of the University of São Paulo. He entered politics in his native city of Santos, in the state of São Paulo.

He was elected federal representative, mayor of São Paulo City (1983–1985), senator and twice Governor of the state of São Paulo (1994–1998 and 1998–2001). He was a founder and member of PMDB (Party of the Brazilian Democratic Movement) and later PSDB (Brazilian Social Democracy Party). In 1989, he was the PSDB presidential candidate, receiving 11% of the votes. In the run-off of that election, he supported, like his party, Luís Inácio Lula da Silva.

He took a medical leave of absence on 22 January 2001, due to bladder cancer found during an operation to remove a prostate tumor. He died later the same year. His successor was his deputy, Geraldo Alckmin.

National Defense Council (Brazil)

The National Defense Council (CDN) (Portuguese: Conselho de Defesa Nacional) is a consultative body of the President of Brazil on matters of national security, foreign policy, and defence strategy. The Council was established on 29 November 1927 by President Washington Luís. It is composed of key ministers and military commanders and chaired by the President of Brazil.

Presidente Juscelino

For the municipality in Maranhão see Presidente Juscelino, Maranhão

Presidente Juscelino is a Brazilian municipality located in the northeast of the state of Minas Gerais. Its population as of 2007 was 4,257 living in a total area of 696 km². The city belongs to the statistical mesoregion of Central Mineira and to the statistical microregion of Curvelo. It became a municipality in 1962.Presidente Juscelino is located at an elevation of 596 meters, 40 km. west of Curvelo on highway BR-259. The distance to the state capital, Belo Horizonte, is 216 km. Neighboring municipalities are: Corinto, Curvelo and Felixlândia. The name comes from former president of Brazil Juscelino Kubitschek.

The main economic activities are services, small industries, and agriculture. The production of charcoal from eucalyptus plantations is also important. The GDP in 2005 was R$21 million, with 9 million from services, 4 million from industry, and 7 million from agriculture. There were 286 rural producers on 35,000 hectares of land. Only 34 farms had tractors (2006). Approximately 1000 persons were dependent on agriculture. The main crops were beans and corn. There were 23,000 head of cattle (2006). There were no banks (2007) and 218 automobiles (108 motorcycles), giving a ratio of 20 inhabitants per automobile.There was 1 health clinic. Patients with more serious health conditions are transported to Curvelo. Educational needs were met by 5 primary schools, 1 middle school, and 2 pre-primary schools.

Municipal Human Development Index: 0.654 (2000)

State ranking: 733 out of 853 municipalities as of 2000

National ranking: 3,707 out of 5,138 municipalities as of 2000

Literacy rate: 77%

Life expectancy: 65 (average of males and females)In 2000 the per capita income of R$97.00 was well below the state and national average of R$276.00 and R$297.00 respectively.

The highest ranking municipality in Minas Gerais in 2000 was Poços de Caldas with 0.841, while the lowest was Setubinha with 0.568. Nationally the highest was São Caetano do Sul in São Paulo with 0.919, while the lowest was Setubinha. In more recent statistics (considering 5,507 municipalities) Manari in the state of Pernambuco has the lowest rating in the country--0,467--putting it in last place.

Presidente Tancredo Neves

Presidente Tancredo Neves is a municipality in the state of Bahia in Brazil. The population is 27,505 (2015 est.) in an area of 417.20 km². The town is named after Tancredo Neves, elected president of Brazil in 1985.

Vice President of Brazil

The Vice President of Brazil (Portuguese: Vice-Presidente do Brasil), officially the Vice President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Vice-Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil), or simply the Vice President of the Republic (Vice-Presidente da República) is the second-highest ranking government official in the executive branch of the Government of Brazil, preceded only by the president. The Vice President's primary role is to replace the president on the event of his or her death, resignation, or impeachment, and to temporarily take over the presidential powers and duties while the President is abroad, or otherwise temporarily unable to carry out his or her duties. The Vice President is elected jointly with the president as his or her running mate.

The office has existed since the Proclamation of the Republic in 1889, although it was only officially instituted as of the 1891 Constitution. It has been in place throughout all of Brazil's republican history, save for the fifteen years of the Vargas Era, when it was abolished.

Washington Luís

Washington Luís Pereira de Sousa (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈwɔʃĩtõ luˈiz peˈɾejɾɐ dʒi ˈsowzɐ]; 26 October 1869 – 4 August 1957) was a Brazilian politician who served as the 13th President of Brazil, the last of the First Brazilian Republic.

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