President of Argentina

The President of Argentina (Spanish: Presidente de Argentina), officially known as the President of the Argentine Republic (Spanish: Presidente de la República Argentina), is both head of state and head of government of Argentina. Under the national Constitution, the President is also the chief executive of the federal government and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces.

Through Argentine history, the office of the Head of State has undergone many changes, both in its title as in its features and powers. Current President Mauricio Macri was sworn into office on December 10, 2015.[2] The Constitution of Argentina, along with several constitutional amendments, establishes the requirements, powers, and responsibilities of the president and term of office and the method of election.

President of the
Argentine Republic
Presidente de la República Argentina
Standard of the President of Argentina Afloat
Presidential Standard
Presidente Macri en el Sillon de Rivadavia (cropped)
Incumbent
Mauricio Macri

since December 10, 2015
StyleExcelentísimo Señor (m) Excelentísima Señora (f)
ResidenceCasa Rosada (government office)
Quinta de Olivos (official residence)
Chapadmalal (summer house)
AppointerDirect popular election
Term lengthFour years, immediate re-election once
(No term limits)
Inaugural holderBernardino Rivadavia
Formationfirst: 1826 Constitution
current: 1853 Constitution, (amended in 1994)
DeputyVice President of Argentina
SalaryARS 208,000/month (as of August 2017)[1]
WebsiteCasa Rosada Argentina

History

The origins of Argentina as a nation can be traced to 1776, when it was separated by the Spanish King from the existing Viceroyalty of Peru, creating the new Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata. The Head of State continued to be the King, but he was represented locally by the Viceroy. These Viceroys were seldom natives of the country.

By the May Revolution of May 25, 1810, the first Argentine autonomous government, known as the Primera Junta, was formed in Buenos Aires. It was later known as the Junta Grande when representatives from the provinces joined. These early attempts at self-government were succeeded by two Triumvirates and, although the first juntas had presidents, the King of Spain was still regarded as Head of State (as independence had not yet been declared), and the executive power was still not in the hands of a single person.

Bernardino Rivadavia 2
Bernardino Rivadavia, the first president of the Argentine Republic

This power was vested in one man when the position of Supreme Director was created by the 1813 National Assembly. The Supreme Directors became Heads of State after Independence was declared on 9 July 1816, but there was not yet truly a presidential system.

In 1816, Congress declared Independence and composed a Constitution. This established an executive figure, named Supreme Director, who was vested with presidential powers. This constitution gave the Supreme Director the power of appointing Governors of the provinces. Due to political circumstances, this constitution never came into force, and the central power was dissolved, leaving the country as a federation of provinces.

A new constitution was drafted in 1826. This constitution was the first to create a President, although this office retained the powers described in the 1816 constitution. This constitution did come into force, resulting in the election of the first President, Bernardino Rivadavia. Because of the Cisplatine War, Rivadavia resigned after a short time, and the office was dissolved shortly after.

A civil war between unitarios (unitarians, i.e. Buenos Aires centralists) and federalists ensued in the following decades. In this time, there was no central authority, and the closest to that was the Chairman of Foreign Relations, typically the Governor of the Province of Buenos Aires. The last to bear this title was Juan Manuel de Rosas, who in the last years of his governorship was elected Supreme Chief of the Confederation, gaining effective rule of the rest of the country.

In 1852, Rosas was deposed, and a constitutional convention was summoned. This constitution, still in force, established a national federal government, with the office of the President. The term was fixed as six years, with no possibility of reelection. The first elected President under the constitution was Justo José de Urquiza, but Buenos Aires seceded from the Argentine Confederation as the State of Buenos Aires. Bartolomé Mitre was the first president of the unified country, when Buenos Aires rejoined the Confederation. Thus, Rivadavia, Urquiza, and Mitre are considered the first presidents of Argentina by different historians: Rivadavia for being the first one to use the title, Urquiza for being the first one to rule under the 1853 constitution, and Mitre for being the first president of Argentina under its current national limits.[3]

In 1930, 1943, 1955, 1962, 1966, and 1976, military coups deposed elected Presidents. In 1966 and 1976, the federal government was undertaken by a military junta, where power was shared by the chiefs of the armed forces. In 1962, the President of the Senate ruled, but in the other cases, a military chief assumed the title of President.

It is debatable whether these military presidents can properly be called Presidents, as there are issues with the legitimacy of their governments. The position of the current Argentine government is that military Presidents Jorge Rafael Videla and Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri were explicitly not legitimate presidents. They and their immediate successors were denied the right to a presidential pension after the conclusion of their terms. The status of earlier military presidents, however, remains more uncertain.

Powers and duties

The President of the Nation has the following powers:

  • Is the supreme head of the Nation, head of government and is politically responsible for the general administration of the country.
  • Issues the instructions and regulations necessary for the execution of the laws of the nation, without altering their spirit with regulatory exceptions.
  • Participates in the making of laws under the Constitution, promulgates them and has them published. The Executive Power shall in no case under penalty, and void, issue legislative provisions. Only when exceptional circumstances make it impossible to follow the ordinary procedures foreseen by this Constitution for the enactment of laws, and not try to rules governing criminal matters, taxation, electoral or political party regime, may issue decrees on grounds of necessity and urgency, which will be decided by a general agreement of ministers who shall countersign them together with the head of cabinet of ministers. The head of personally and within ten days submit the decision to the consideration of the Joint Standing Committee, whose composition should respect the proportion of the political representation of each chamber. This commission shall submit its report within ten days to the plenary of each House for its specific treatment, they immediately considered the Chambers. A special law enacted with the absolute majority of all the members of each House shall regulate the procedure and scope of Congress intervention.
  • Appoints the judges of the Supreme Court with the Senate by two-thirds of the members present, at a public meeting convened for that purpose. Appoints the other judges of the lower federal courts according to a binding three candidates proposed by the Judiciary Council, with the Senate, in public session, in which the suitability of candidates will be considered. A new appointment, the same consent, it is necessary to keep in under any of those judges, once they reach the age of seventy-five years. All appointments of judges whose age is indicated or over shall be five years and may be repeated indefinitely, by the same procedure.
  • May grant pardons or commute sentences for crimes subject to federal jurisdiction, following a report of the court, except in cases of impeachment by the House of Representatives.
  • Grant pensions, retirements, pensions and licenses under the laws of the Nation.
  • Appoints and removes ambassadors, ministers plenipotentiary and business with the Senate; alone appoints and removes the chief of cabinet ministers and other cabinet ministers, the officers of his Secretariat, consular agents and employees whose appointments are not otherwise regulated by this Constitution.
  • Annually attends the opening session of the Congress, both Houses assembled for this purpose, this time realising the state of the Nation, on amendments promised by the Constitution, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient.
  • Attends regular sessions of Congress, or convokes extraordinary sessions when a serious interest order or progress requires.
  • Oversees the performance of the duties of the Chief of the Ministerial Cabinet as regards the collection of the revenues of the Nation and its investment in accordance with the law or budget of national expenditures.
  • Traditionally, the president is the godfather of the seventh sons or the seventh daughters. This tradition came from Tsarist Russia and became law in 1974. A similar tradition is attached to the king and queen of the Belgians.[4][5]

Features of the office

Requirements

Section 90 of the Argentine Constitution establishes the requirements for becoming President. The President must be a natural-born citizen of the country, or have been born to an Argentine citizen if born abroad. The President must also be at least 30 years old. In addition, all the requirements for becoming a Senator apply.

Sections 94 to 98 detail the electoral requirements. A two-round system is used (Section 94). In order to win the election in the first round, the winning candidate's party must receive either more than 45 percent of so-called "votos positivos" (Section 97) or at least 40 percent of "votos positivos" and be more than 10 percentage points ahead of the next most-voted candidate (Section 98). "Votos positivos" (positive votes) are the votes validly cast for any of the candidates, leaving out of the count blank and spoil votes.

If no candidate obtains the necessary votes to win in the first round, then the two candidates with the most votes compete in the second round, held two weeks later, when the candidate with the most votes in that round is elected president.

Term duration

Under the 1994 constitutional amendment, the President serves for four years, with a possibility of immediate reelection for one more term. However, unlike the President of the United States, in Argentina, a person may be reelected again after serving for two terms and staying out of office for the following term. So after serving for two consecutive periods, the president is not allowed to run for a third consecutive one, but may return for the two following elections and so on. There is no limit for a person to be a candidate if he or she does not win the elections.

Also, a person being vice-president for two consecutive periods, or president and then vice-president, or vice-president and then president, is under the same restrictions mentioned above.

Under the constitution of 1853, the President served for six years, with no possibility of consecutive reelection. In 1949, the constitution was amended to allow the president to run for an unlimited number of six-year terms. This provision was repealed in 1957. After the 1966 military coup, the rulers shortened the presidential term to four years, but there was a period of political instability during these terms, which had led to the situation that they were never completed.

Prior to the 1994 constitutional reform, the President and Vice President were required to be Roman Catholics. This stipulation was abolished in 1994.

Compensation and privileges of office

Presidential styles of
Mauricio Macri
Standard of the President of Argentina Afloat
Reference styleExcelentísimo Señor Presidente de la Nación
"His Most Excellent Mister President of the Nation"
Spoken stylePresidente de la Nación
"President of the Nation"
Alternative styleSeñor Presidente
"Mister President"

As of 2015, The President and Vice President enjoy a salary paid by the National Treasury, which can not be altered during the period of their appointment. During the same period they may not hold any other office nor receive any other emolument from the Nation or from any province. The president's salary is $131,421 Argentine pesos per month.[6]

The Casa Rosada in Buenos Aires is the official workplace of the President and the Quinta de Olivos their official residence; he or she is entitled to use its staff and facilities. It has a summer residence in the town of Chapadmalal, in the Buenos Aires Province, which is called the Presidential Unit Chapadmalal. The Presidential Guard is responsible for the security of the entire presidential family.

To move the president uses aircraft that are part of the Presidential Air Group:

The main aircraft is a Boeing 757 known as Tango 01 after its military registry: "T-01" (the "T" stands for "Transport", although it is fortuitously pronounced "Tango", as in the Argentine national dance, in the NATO alphabet). The 757 entered in service in 1995 replacing the former T-01, a Boeing 707. The aircraft is nicknamed Virgen de Luján after Argentina's patron saint. The Tango 01 757 has been an object of political contention for the last decade (and a political campaign hot-topic during the 1999 Presidential election), with many politicians and media commentators denouncing this aircraft as an unnecessary and expensive luxury prone to abuse by presidents, their families, friends and political allies.

The current Presidential fleet also includes two Fokker F28 (T-02 and T-03) (one always in service) and Learjet 60 (T-10). The Learjet is also used by the Air Force Chief of Staff.

As helicopters, a Sikorsky S-70 (H-01pic) and two Sikorsky S-76 (H-02pic and H-03pic) also make-up the fleet, with an additional Air Force Bell 212, as needed. During Néstor Kirchner and Cristina Fernández administration AAP used different aircraft for their global flights, most notably Boeing 747 loaned from Aerolíneas Argentinas and a private Bombardier Global 5000[7]

Despacho Presidencial I

The President's office

Sillón presidencial de Mauricio Macri 03

Presidential armchair

Argentina Boeing 757-200 Tango 01 Transporte Presidencial 1 Lebeda

Tango 01

De facto governments

Following military coups that overthrew the constitutional government were de facto military presidents in 1930–1932, 1943–1946, 1955–1958, 1966–1973 and 1976–1983 that brought in addition to the powers of the president also corresponding to Congress. The subsequent analysis of the validity of their actions led to the subsequent formulation of the doctrine of de facto governments.

That doctrine was nullified by the constitutional reform of 1994, which added Article 36 (see below).

Article 29 of the Constitution of 1853 had an article that considered the usurpation of public power as 'treason', but was referred to the de jure rulers. For this reason the constitutional reform of 1994 included Article 36 which says:[8]

"Article 36. This Constitution shall rule even when its observance is interrupted by acts of force against the institutional order and the democratic system. These acts shall be irreparably null.
"Their authors shall be punished with the penalty foreseen in Section 29, disqualified in perpetuity from holding public offices and excluded from the benefits of pardon and commutation of sentences.
"Those who, as a consequence of these acts, were to assume the powers foreseen for the authorities of this Constitution or for those of the provinces, shall be punished with the same penalties and shall be civil and criminally liable for their acts. The respective actions shall not be subject to prescription.
"All citizens shall have the right to oppose resistance to those committing the acts of force stated in this section.
"He who, procuring personal enrichment, incurs in serious fraudulent offence against the Nation shall also attempt against the democratic system, and shall be disqualified to hold public office for the term specified by law.
"Congress shall enact a law on public ethics which shall rule the exercise of public office."

In summary, the article states:

  • Absolute nullity of the acts issued by the government installed by force;
  • The authors shall be punished as traitors;
  • These crimes are barred and the authors can not receive the benefit of the amnesty;
  • Every citizen has the right to resistance against these acts of force.

Line of succession

Vice President

The office of Vice President was established by the 1853 Constitution for the purpose of providing a succession in case the President is unable to complete their term. The Argentine Constitution (art. 88) entitles the Vice President to exercise the role and duties of the President, both in the case of a temporary absence and in the case of a permanent absence due to health reasons, death, resignation or removal.

Further succession

In the absence of both the President and the Vice President, the succession is regulated by the Law 20,972 ("Acephaly Law"). It provides that the Executive Power must be temporarily exercised (without assuming the title of President) by the provisional President of the Senate; in his absence, by the President of the Chamber of Deputies; and in the absence of both, by the President of the Supreme Court.

In case of the permanent absence of both the President and the Vice-President, due to resignation, death, or removal, the Constitution (art. 88) entitles the National Congress Assembled to select a new President from among the current Senators, Deputies and Governors, within the following two days of the death or resignation of the former President, and to provide him or her with a mandate to call for elections.

Living former presidents

Ma. Estela Martinez Cartas de Peron

Isabel Perón
1974–1976
4 February 1931 (age 88)

Menem con banda presidencial

Carlos Menem
1989–1999
2 July 1930 (age 88)

Fernando de la Rúa con bastón y banda de presidente

Fernando de la Rúa
1999–2001
15 September 1937 (age 81)

Asunción Rodríguez Saá

Adolfo Rodríguez Saá
2001
25 July 1947 (age 71)

Eduardo duhalde presidente

Eduardo Duhalde
2002–2003
5 October 1941 (age 77)

Cristina Fernández de Kirchner 2011-12-10

Cristina Kirchner
2007–2015
19 February 1953 (age 66)

Facts

See also

References

  1. ^ Iván Ruiz and Maia Jastreblansky (17 May 2017). "Por la paritaria estatal, el sueldo de Macri pasará a ser de $ 208.000". La Nación (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 September 2018.
  2. ^ "Buenos Aires mayor favored in Argentina's presidential election". latimes.com. Retrieved 23 November 2015.
  3. ^ Mendelevich, p. 24
  4. ^ http://www.gva.be/cnt/dmf20180126_03324113/ze-noemen-ons-sneeuwwitje-en-de-zeven-dwergen
  5. ^ https://www.rtl.be/people/royautes/voici-la-nouvelle-filleule-de-la-reine-mathilde-photos--909068.aspx
  6. ^ http://www.perfil.com/politica/el-sueldo-de-mauricio-macri-aumento-un-30-0211-0067.phtml
  7. ^ Cristina voló a Seúl en jet privado, los ministros en vuelo de línea (in Spanish)
  8. ^ biblioteca.jus.gov.ar (.pdf file)

Bibliography

  • Constitution of Argentina (PDF). Argentina: 1994 Constituent Assembly. 1994.
  • Mendelevich, Pablo (2010). El Final. Buenos Aires: Ediciones B. ISBN 978-987-627-166-0.

External links

Arturo Umberto Illia

Arturo Umberto Illia Francesconi (Spanish pronunciation: [aɾˈtuɾo umˈbeɾto ˈilja]; 4 August 1900 – 18 January 1983) was an Argentine politician and physician, who was President of Argentina from 12 October 1963, to 28 June 1966. He was a member of the centrist Radical Civic Union.

Bartolomé Mitre

Bartolomé Mitre Martínez (26 June 1821 – 19 January 1906) was an Argentine statesman, military figure, and author. He was the President of Argentina from 1862 to 1868.

Bernardino Rivadavia

Bernardino de la Trinidad González Rivadavia y Rivadavia (May 20, 1780 – September 2, 1845) was the first President of Argentina, then called the United Provinces of Rio de la Plata, from February 8, 1826 to June 27, 1827.

He was educated at the Royal College of San Carlos, but left without finishing his studies. During the British Invasions he served as Third Lieutenant of the Galicia Volunteers. He participated in the open Cabildo on May 22, 1810 voting for the deposition of the viceroy. He had a strong influence on the First Triumvirate and shortly after he served as Minister of Government and Foreign Affairs of the Province of Buenos Aires.

Although there was a General Congress intended to draft a constitution, the beginning of the War with Brazil led to the immediate establishment of the office of President of Argentina; with Rivadavia being the first to be named to the post. Argentina's Constitution of 1826 was promulgated later, but was rejected by the provinces. Strongly contested by his political party, Rivadavia resigned and was succeeded by Vicente López y Planes.

Rivadavia retired to Spain, where he died in 1845. His remains were repatriated to Argentina in 1857, receiving honors as Captain General. Today his remains rest in a mausoleum located in Plaza Miserere, adjacent to Rivadavia Avenue, named after him.

Carlos Pellegrini

Carlos Enrique José Pellegrini (October 11, 1846 – July 17, 1906) was Vice President of Argentina and became President of Argentina from 6 August 1890 to 12 October 1892, upon Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman's resignation (see Revolución del Parque).

His administration he cleaned up the finances and created the Banco de la Nación Argentina, Argentina's national bank, and the prestigious high-school that carries his name, Escuela Superior de Comercio Carlos Pellegrini, public school of noted academic level, part of Universidad de Buenos Aires.

After the end of his term, he served as senator between 1895 and 1903, and in 1906, he was elected national representative in the lower house. Like many other nineteenth century Argentines prominent in public life, he was a freemason.

He died in his native city of Buenos Aires and is buried in La Recoleta Cemetery.

Casa Rosada

The Casa Rosada (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈkasa roˈsaða], English: Pink House) is the executive mansion and office of the President of Argentina. The palatial mansion is known officially as Casa de Gobierno, ("House of Government" or "Government House"). Normally, the President lives at the Quinta de Olivos, the official residence of the President of Argentina, which is located in Olivos, Greater Buenos Aires. The characteristic color of the Casa Rosada is baby pink, and is considered one of the most emblematic buildings in Buenos Aires. The building also houses a museum, which contains objects relating to former presidents of Argentina. It has been declared a National Historic Monument of Argentina.

Copa General Pedro Ramírez

The Copa General Pedro Ramírez (officially named Campeonato de la República) was an Argentine official football cup competition organized by the Argentine Football Association. The trophy was named after being donated by then de facto President of Argentina, General Pedro Ramírez.The first edition was contested by 35 teams from Primera División teams and others from regional leagues.The format was a group stage where teams directly affiliated to the Association competed each other, while the best placed teams of regional leagues competed in other groups. All games were played at neutral venues.From the quarterfinals, a total of eight teams from both groups (four directly affiliated and four from the regional leagues) faced in a knock-out tournament until a champion was crowned.

For the third and last edition of 1945, a record of 42 teams contested the tournament.

Domingo Faustino Sarmiento

Domingo Faustino Sarmiento (February 15, 1811 – September 11, 1888) was an Argentine activist, intellectual, writer, statesman and the seventh President of Argentina. His writing spanned a wide range of genres and topics, from journalism to autobiography, to political philosophy and history. He was a member of a group of intellectuals, known as the Generation of 1837, who had a great influence on nineteenth-century Argentina. He was particularly concerned with educational issues and was also an important influence on the region's literature.

Sarmiento grew up in a poor but politically active family that paved the way for much of his future accomplishments. Between 1843 and 1850 he was frequently in exile, and wrote in both Chile and in Argentina. His greatest literary achievement was Facundo, a critique of Juan Manuel de Rosas, that Sarmiento wrote while working for the newspaper El Progreso during his exile in Chile. The book brought him far more than just literary recognition; he expended his efforts and energy on the war against dictatorships, specifically that of Rosas, and contrasted enlightened Europe—a world where, in his eyes, democracy, social services, and intelligent thought were valued—with the barbarism of the gaucho and especially the caudillo, the ruthless strongmen of nineteenth-century Argentina.

While president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874, Sarmiento championed intelligent thought—including education for children and women—and democracy for Latin America. He also took advantage of the opportunity to modernize and develop train systems, a postal system, and a comprehensive education system. He spent many years in ministerial roles on the federal and state levels where he travelled abroad and examined other education systems.

Sarmiento died in Asunción, Paraguay, at the age of 77 from a heart attack. He was buried in Buenos Aires. Today, he is respected as a political innovator and writer. Miguel de Unamuno considered him among the greatest writers of Castilian prose.

Edelmiro Julián Farrell

Edelmiro Julián Farrell Plaul (Spanish: [eðelˈmiɾo faˈrel]; February 12, 1887 – October 21, 1980) was an Argentine general. He was the de facto president of Argentina between 1944 and 1946.

Farrell had a great influence on later Argentine history by introducing his subordinate Juan Perón into government and paving the way for Perón's subsequent political career.

Hipólito Yrigoyen

Juan Hipólito del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús Yrigoyen (12 July 1852 – 3 July 1933) was a two-time President of Argentina who served his first term from 1916 to 1922 and his second term from 1928 to 1930.

His activism became the prime impetus behind the obtainment of universal suffrage in Argentina in 1912. Known as "the father of the poor," Yrigoyen presided over a rise in the standard of living of Argentina's working class together with the passage of a number of progressive social reforms, including improvements in factory conditions, regulation of working hours, compulsory pensions, and the introduction of a universally accessible public education system.

José Evaristo Uriburu

José Félix Evaristo de Uriburu y Álvarez de Arenales (November 19, 1831 – October 23, 1914) was President of Argentina from 23 January 1895 to 12 October 1898.

He was an adept diplomat; participating as arbiter on the peace negotiations on the War of the Pacific between Chile, Perú and Bolivia.

He was Vice-President and became President of Argentina in 1895 when Luis Sáenz Peña resigned.

His son was José Evaristo Uriburu y Tezanos Pinto (1880-1956), Argentinian Ambassador in London in the 1920s, and father of Clarita de Uriburu, Cecil Beaton's model.

José Figueroa Alcorta

José Maria Cornelio Figueroa Alcorta (Spanish pronunciation: [xoˈse ˈmaɾja koɾˈneljo fiɣeˈɾoa alˈkoɾta]; November 20, 1860 – December 27, 1931) was President of Argentina from 12 March 1906 to 12 October 1910.

Figueroa Alcorta was born in Córdoba as the son of José Figueroa and Teodosia Alcorta. He was elected a National Deputy for Córdoba before becoming Provincial Governor in 1895. In 1898 he returned to the Argentine Congress as a Senator. In 1904 he became Vice-President of Argentina and in 1906 succeeded Manuel Quintana as President. He was an active Freemason.He is the only Argentine President to date to have held office in - and presided - the three powers of democratic government: Legislative, as Deputy (1892) and Senator (1898); Executive, as President (1906); and Judiciary, as Justice of the Supreme Court (1915) and then President of the same (1929).

José Félix Uriburu

Lieutenant General José Félix Benito Uriburu y Uriburu (July 20, 1868 – April 29, 1932) was the first de facto President of Argentina. He achieved the position through a military coup, and his tenure lasted from September 6, 1930, to February 20, 1932.

Juan Carlos Onganía

Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈxwaŋ ˈkaɾlos oŋɡaˈni.a]; March 17, 1914 – June 8, 1995) was de facto President of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. He rose to power as military dictator after toppling the president Arturo Illia in a coup d'état self-named Revolución Argentina (Argentine Revolution). (Although Peronism - the chief political force in Argentina at the time - was proscribed, Illia's UCR was generally seen as legitimately elected.)

Julio Argentino Roca

Alejo Julio Argentino Roca Paz (July 17, 1843 – October 19, 1914) was an army general who served as 8th President of Argentina from 12 October 1880 to 12 October 1886 and 13th from 12 October 1898 to 12 October 1904. Roca is the most important representatives of the Generation of '80 and is known for directing the "Conquest of the Desert", a series of military campaigns against the indigenous peoples of Patagonia. During his two terms as president, many important changes occurred, particularly major infrastructure projects of railroads and port facilities; increased foreign investment, particularly from Great Britain; large-scale immigration from southern Europe; expansion of the agricultural and pastoral sectors of the economy; and laicizing legislation strengthening state power. Roca's main foreign policy concern was to set the limits with Chile, which had never been determined with precision. Roca took advantage of the fact that year of 1881, Chile was fighting the War of the Pacific against Bolivia and Peru, so for Chile it was strategically important not to have a second military front. Argentina gained territory by treaty with Chile.

La Recoleta Cemetery

La Recoleta Cemetery (Spanish: Cementerio de la Recoleta) is a cemetery located in the Recoleta neighbourhood of Buenos Aires, Argentina. It contains the graves of notable people, including Eva Perón, presidents of Argentina, Nobel Prize winners, the founder of the Argentine Navy, and a granddaughter of Napoleon. In 2011, the BBC hailed it as one of the world's best cemeteries, and in 2013, CNN listed it among the 10 most beautiful cemeteries in the world.

List of Vice Presidents of Argentina

The office of Vice President of Argentina is the second highest political position in Argentina, and first in the line of succession to the Presidency of Argentina. The office was established with the enactment of the Argentine Constitution of 1853.

The Vice President assumes presidential duties in a caretaker in case of absence or temporary incapacity of the head of state, and may succeed to the Presidency in case of resignation, permanent incapacity, or death of the President. The longest Vice Presidential tenure as caretaker in Argentine history took place between 1865 and 1868, while President Bartolomé Mitre was preoccupied with the Paraguayan War. Seven Argentine Vice Presidents have succeeded to the Presidency: Juan Esteban Pedernera (1861); Carlos Pellegrini (1890); José Evaristo Uriburu (1895); José Figueroa Alcorta (1906); Victorino de la Plaza (1914); Ramón Castillo (1942); and Isabel Perón (1974).

The Argentine Constitution does not provide for the replacement of a Vice President should their tenure be ended for any reason, and their office was thus made vacant on seventeen occasions since 1861 (see list).

The 1994 amendments gave the Vice President the additional title of President of the Senate; this made the role a more legislative than executive one, with the power to vote in the case of a tie in the Senate. It also modified the Vice President's term -as well as the President's- from one unrenewable six-year term to two four-year terms renewable upon reelection of the joint ticket.

A list of the Vice Presidents follows, including de facto Vice Presidents during military regimes and vacant periods. The current Vice President of Argentina is Gabriela Michetti.

Miguel Ángel Juárez Celman

Miguel Angel Juárez Celman (September 29, 1844 – April 14, 1909) was President of Argentina from 12 October 1886 to 6 August 1890. A lawyer and politician, his career was defined by the influence of his kinsman, Julio Argentino Roca, who propelled him into a legislative career. He was a staunch promoter of separation of church and state and an aristocratic liberal.

As president of Argentina, he promoted public works but was not capable of maintaining economic stability and had to contend with the powerful opposition of the Civic Union Party, and his leader Leandro N. Alem. After the Revolución del Parque, after he defeated the uprising, he was forced to resign and retired from political life.

Ramón Castillo

Ramón Antonio Castillo Barrionuevo (November 20, 1873 – October 12, 1944) was a conservative Argentine politician who served as President of Argentina from June 27, 1942 to June 4, 1943. He was a leading figure in the period known as the Infamous Decade, characterised by electoral fraud, corruption, and rule by conservative landowners heading the alliance known as the Concordancia.

Castillo graduated in law from the University of Buenos Aires (UBA) and began a judicial career. He reached the Appeals Chamber of commercial law before retiring and dedicating himself to teaching. He was professor and dean at UBA between 1923 and 1928.

Castillo was named Federal Intervenor of Tucumán Province in 1930. From 1932 until 1935 he was elected to the Argentine Senate for Catamarca Province for the National Democratic Party and was also Minister of Interior.

From 1938 to 1942, Castillo was vice-president of Argentina under President Roberto Ortiz, who won the election by fraud at the head of the Concordancia. He served as acting president from July 3, 1940 to June 27, 1942 due to the illness of President Ortiz, who did not resign until less than a month before his death. Castillo maintained Argentina's neutrality during World War II. He was overthrown in the Revolution of '43 military coup in the midst of an unpopular attempt to impose Robustiano Patrón Costas as his successor. Juan Domingo Perón was a junior officer in the coup.

Roberto Eduardo Viola

Roberto Eduardo Viola (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was an Argentine military officer who briefly served as president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 as a military dictatorship.

May Revolution and Independence War Period
up to Asamblea del Año XIII (1810–1814)
Supreme Directors of the United Provinces
of the Río de la Plata
(1814–1820)
Unitarian Republic – First Presidential Government (1826–1827)
Pacto Federal and Argentine Confederation (1827–1862)
National OrganizationArgentine Republic (1862–1880)
Generation of '80Oligarchic Republic (1880–1916)
First Radical Civic Union terms, after secret ballot (1916–1930)
Infamous Decade (1930–1943)
Revolution of '43 military dictatorships (1943–1946)
First Peronist terms (1946–1955)
Revolución Libertadora military dictatorships (1955–1958)
Fragile civilian governments – Proscription of Peronism (1958–1966)
Revolución Argentina military dictatorships (1966–1973)
Return of Perón (1973–1976)
National Reorganization Process military dictatorships (1976–1983)
Return to democracy (1983–present)
History
Geography
Politics
Economy
Society
Executive
Legislative
Judiciary
Ministries
Law enforcement
President of South America
Sovereign states
Dependencies and
other territories
Heads of state of the South American countries
Monarchies
Presidencies
Former
monarchies

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