Prequel

A prequel is a literary, dramatic, or cinematic work whose story precedes that of a previous work,[1][2] by focusing on events that occur before the original narrative.[3] A prequel is a work that forms part of a backstory to the preceding work.

All "prequels" are, by definition, essentially sequels in that they "expand on a previous or preceding work."[4] The term is a 20th-century neologism that is a portmanteau of the prefix "pre-" (from Latin prae, "before") and "sequel".[1][2]

Like other sequels, prequels may or may not concern the same plot as the work from which they are derived. Often, they explain the background which led to the events in the original, but sometimes the connections are not as explicit. Sometimes, prequels play on the audience's knowledge of what will happen next, using deliberate references to create dramatic irony.

History

Though the word "prequel" is of recent origin, works fitting this concept existed long before. The Cypria, presupposing hearers' acquaintance with the events of the Homeric epic, confined itself to what preceded the Iliad, and thus formed a kind of introduction.

According to the Oxford English Dictionary the word "prequel" first appeared in print in 1958 in an article by Anthony Boucher in The Magazine of Fantasy & Science Fiction, used to describe James Blish's 1956 story They Shall Have Stars, which expanded on the story introduced in his earlier 1955 work, Earthman Come Home. The term came into general usage in the 1970s and 1980s.[2]

Butch and Sundance: The Early Days (1979) may have introduced the term "prequel" into the mainstream.[5] The term has since been popularized by the Star Wars prequel trilogy (1999-2005).[6]

Usage

Rather than being a concept distinct from that of a sequel, a prequel still adheres to the general principle of serialization, defined only by its internal chronology and publication order. For example, Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999) is a prequel to Star Wars: Episode VI – Return of the Jedi (1983) but is only a predecessor rather than a prequel of Star Wars: Episode II – Attack of the Clones (2002) because of the release order. Likewise, 1984's Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom is a prequel to 1981's Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark, in that it is set in 1935, one year before the first film.

Complications

Sometimes "prequel" describes followups where it is not always possible to apply a label defined solely in terms of intertextuality.[7] In the case of The Godfather Part II, the narrative combines elements of a prequel with those of a more generalized sequel by having two intercut narrative strands, one continuing from the first film (the mafia family story under the leadership of Michael Corleone), and one, completely separate, detailing events that precede it (the story of his father Vito Corleone in his youth). In this sense the film can be regarded as both a "prequel and a sequel" (i.e., both a prior and a continuing story), and is often referred to in this manner.[7]

In the original Planet of the Apes series, even though the latter three films depict world events chronologically prior to those of the first two films, the narrative itself is continuous for the main characters, as three apes from the first two films go back in time. The later installments (Escape from...,[8] Conquest of...,[9][10] and Battle for...[11]) are sometimes called "prequels" in a broad sense of the word, but they are primarily sequels, as defined both broadly (as later installments) and narrowly (as continuation of the previously established storyline).[1]

In recent times the term "prequel" has also been applied to origin-story reboots, such as Rise of the Planet of the Apes, Batman Begins, and Casino Royale.[12][13] The creators of both Batman Begins and Rise of the Planet of the Apes also stated their intent to dispense with the continuity of the previous films so they would exist as separate pieces of work, with Christopher Nolan—director of Batman Begins—explicitly stating he does not consider it a prequel.[13][14] Here, "prequel" denotes status as a "franchise-renewing original" that depicts events earlier in the (internally inconsistent) narrative cycle than those of a previous installment.[13] Most reviewers require that a prequel must lead up to the beginning of its original work,[3] which is inconsistent with works that dispense with the narrative of previous work and are not significantly within the same continuity. At times, the term has been used to refer to a work that was released, as well as chronologically set, before any other work.[15][16] However, that usage conflicts with the fact that a prequel is a type of sequel.

The 2009 film Star Trek features characters from the 1960s TV series Star Trek, but earlier in their careers. However, the film is set in an alternate timeline caused by a Romulan captain from the universe of the original series going back in time and interfering with history. Thus, the film has been described as simultaneously a prequel and a reboot.[17]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (10th ed.). Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 1993. pp. 921, 915, 1068, 246.
  2. ^ a b c "prequel, n.". Oxford English Dictionary (online)|format= requires |url= (help) (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. March 2012 [March 2007]. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  3. ^ a b Silverblatt, Art (2007). Genre Studies in Mass Media: A Handbook. M. E. Sharpe. p. 211. ISBN 9780765616708. Prequels focus on the action that took place before the original narrative. For instance, in Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith the audience learns about how Darth Vader originally became a villain. A prequel assumes that the audience is familiar with the original—the audience must rework the narrative so that they can understand how the prequel leads up to the beginning of the original.
  4. ^ merriam-Webster Dictionary, Entry for sequel
  5. ^ Burgess, Steve (1999-06-26). "Richard Lester: A Hard Day's Life". Lester may also have locked up the dubious distinction of inaugurating the term 'prequel' in 1979 when he directed 'Butch and Sundance: The Early Days.'
  6. ^ Deever, Chris (28 May 2001). "On prequels and The Prequel". TruthInStuff. Archived from the original on 1 January 2004.
  7. ^ a b Jess-Cooke, Carolyn (2009). Film Sequels: Theory and Practice from Hollywood to Bollywood. Edinburgh University Press. p. 6. ISBN 9780748626038.
  8. ^ Dirks, Tim. "Science Fiction Films Part 5". AMC Filmsite. A sequel and prequel to the first two films.
  9. ^ Britt, Ryan; Tor.com. "Who's Your Caesar? Rewatching Conquest of the Planet of the Apes". Macmillan Publishing. Conquest is in a separate category of films as it serves as both a sequel to the previous film and a prequel to the first two films.
  10. ^ Matheou, Demetrios (August 14, 2011), "Ascent of Ape", The Sunday Herald, Washington, D.C., archived from the original on June 11, 2014, Aficionados of the original series of five films will know that a prequel already exists, namely Conquest Of The Planet Of The Apes.
  11. ^ Chappell, Arthur (2011-08-20). Film Review: Rise of the Planet of the Apes: After the Tim Burton travesty, the Apes are back in a genuinely fantastic movie. History. Socyberty/Triond. Stunning prequel to the original Planet Of The Apes movie, with some elements of the original franchise sequel / prequel Battle For The Planet Of The Apes.
  12. ^ Associated Press. "With the documentary 'Chimpanzee' opening, a look at 5 prime primate movies". The Statesman. Retrieved 5 May 2012.
  13. ^ a b c Sutton, Paul (2010). "8. Prequel: The "Afterwardsness" of the Sequel". In Jess-Cooke, Carolyn; Verevis, Constantine. Second Takes: Critical Approaches to the Film Sequel. State University of New York Press. pp. 139–152. ISBN 9781438430294.
  14. ^ Keegan, Rebecca (11 August 2011). "'Rise of the Planet of the Apes': 21 nods to classic 'Apes'". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
  15. ^ "5 Bollywood movies which are better then their prequels". India Today.
  16. ^ "'Singam 3' will have connection with prequels: Director". 22 June 2015.
  17. ^ Skipper, Ben (September 23, 2014). "Star Trek 3 to Include Spock and Kirk Reunion With William Shatner and Leonard Nimoy". International Business Times.
Alien (franchise)

Alien is a science-fiction horror/action media franchise centered on the film series depicting warrant officer Ellen Ripley (Sigourney Weaver) and her battles with an extraterrestrial lifeform, commonly referred to as "the Alien". Produced and distributed by 20th Century Fox, the series began with Alien (1979), directed by Ridley Scott, and was followed by three sequels, Aliens (1986), Alien³ (1992), and Alien Resurrection (1997), directed by James Cameron, David Fincher, and Jean-Pierre Jeunet, respectively.

Scott also directed a prequel series, composed of Prometheus (2012) and Alien: Covenant (2017), which follows the exploits of the David 8 android and the creators of the titular creatures referred to as the "Engineers". The series has led to numerous novels, comics, and video game spin-offs. The Alien vs. Predator franchise combines the continuities of the Alien franchise with the Predator franchise and consists of two films as well as varying series of comics, books, and video games.

Annabelle (film)

Annabelle is a 2014 American supernatural horror film directed by John R. Leonetti, written by Gary Dauberman and produced by Peter Safran and James Wan. It is a prequel to 2013's The Conjuring and the second installment in the Conjuring Universe franchise. The film was inspired by a story of a doll named Annabelle told by Ed and Lorraine Warren. The film stars Annabelle Wallis, Ward Horton, and Alfre Woodard.

Annabelle premiered at the TCL Chinese Theatre in Los Angeles on September 29, 2014, and was theatrically released in the United States on October 3, 2014. The film received generally negative reviews from critics but was a box office success, grossing over $257 million against its $6.5 million production budget. A prequel, titled Annabelle: Creation, was released on August 11, 2017. A sequel, Annabelle Comes Home, will be released on June 28, 2019.

Bates Motel (TV series)

Bates Motel is an American psychological horror drama television series that aired from March 18, 2013 to April 24, 2017. It was developed by Carlton Cuse, Kerry Ehrin, and Anthony Cipriano, and is produced by Universal Television and American Genre for the cable network A&E.The series, a contemporary prequel to Alfred Hitchcock's 1960 film Psycho; based on Robert Bloch's 1959 novel of the same name, depicts the lives of Norman Bates (Freddie Highmore) and his mother Norma (Vera Farmiga) prior to the events portrayed in the novel and film, albeit in a different fictional town (White Pine Bay, Oregon, as opposed to Fairvale, California) and in a modern-day setting. However, the final season loosely adapts the plot of Psycho.

Max Thieriot and Olivia Cooke both starred as part of the main cast throughout the series' run. After recurring in the first season, Nestor Carbonell was added to the main cast from season two onward.

The series begins in Arizona with the death of Norma's husband, after which Norma purchases the Seafairer motel located in a coastal Oregon town so that she and Norman can start a new life. Subsequent seasons follow Norman as his mental illness becomes dangerous, and Norma as she struggles to protect her son, and those around him, from himself. The series was filmed outside Vancouver in Aldergrove, British Columbia, along with other locations within the Fraser Valley of British Columbia.

A&E chose to skip a pilot of the series, opting to go straight-to-series by ordering a 10-episode first season. On June 15, 2015, the series was renewed for a fourth and fifth season, making Bates Motel A&E's longest-running original scripted drama series in the channel's history. The series' lead actors, Vera Farmiga and Freddie Highmore, received particular praise for their performances in the series, with the former receiving a Primetime Emmy Award nomination and winning a Saturn Award for Best Actress on Television. Bates Motel also won three People's Choice Awards for Favorite Cable TV Drama, and for Favorite Cable TV Actress (Farmiga) and Actor (Highmore).

Darth Vader

Darth Vader is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise. He is a primary antagonist in the original trilogy, but, as Anakin Skywalker, is the main protagonist of the prequel trilogy. Star Wars creator George Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader."Originally a Jedi prophesied to bring balance to the Force, Anakin Skywalker is lured to the dark side of the Force by Palpatine, who is secretly a Sith Lord. After fighting a lightsaber battle with his former mentor Obi-Wan Kenobi in which he is dismembered, Vader is transformed into a cyborg. He then serves the Galactic Empire as Darth Vader until he redeems himself by saving his son, Luke Skywalker, from Palpatine, sacrificing his own life in the process. He is also the father of Princess Leia, the secret husband of Padmé Amidala, and grandfather of Kylo Ren, the main villain of the Star Wars sequel trilogy.

The character has been portrayed by numerous actors. His cinematic appearances span the first six Star Wars films, as well as Rogue One, and he is referenced in both The Force Awakens and The Last Jedi. He also appears in television series (most substantially The Clone Wars) and numerous iterations of the Star Wars Expanded Universe, including video games, novels, and comic books.

Darth Vader has become one of the most iconic villains in popular culture, and has been listed among the greatest villains and fictional characters ever. The American Film Institute listed him as the third greatest movie villain in cinema history on 100 Years... 100 Heroes and Villains, behind Hannibal Lecter and Norman Bates. His role as a tragic hero in the prequel trilogy was met with positive reviews.

Harry Potter prequel

An 800-word, untitled short story, unofficially known as the Harry Potter prequel, was written by J. K. Rowling in 2008 as part of a charity auction event, for which it fetched £25,000. The story recounts an encounter with Muggle police experienced by Sirius Black and James Potter, taking place before the events of the Harry Potter series. The manuscript was stolen in 2017.

Monsters University

Monsters University is a 2013 American 3D computer-animated comedy film produced by Pixar Animation Studios for Walt Disney Pictures. It was directed by Dan Scanlon and produced by Kori Rae, with John Lasseter, Pete Docter, Andrew Stanton and Lee Unkrich as executive producers. The music for the film was composed by Randy Newman, marking his seventh collaboration with Pixar. It is a prequel to Monsters, Inc. (2001), marking the first time Pixar has made a prequel film. Monsters University tells the story of two monsters, Mike and Sulley, and their time studying at college, where they start off as rivals, but slowly become best friends. John Goodman, Billy Crystal, Steve Buscemi, Bob Peterson, and John Ratzenberger reprise their roles as James P. Sullivan, Mike Wazowski, Randall Boggs, Roz, and the Abominable Snowman, respectively. Bonnie Hunt, who played Ms. Flint in the first film, voices Mike's grade school teacher Ms. Karen Graves.

Disney, as the rights holder, had plans for a sequel to Monsters, Inc. since 2005. Following disagreements with Pixar, Disney tasked its Circle 7 Animation unit to make the film. An early draft of the film was developed; however, Disney's purchase of Pixar in early 2006 led to the cancellation of Circle 7's version of the film. A Pixar-made sequel was confirmed in 2010, and in 2011, it was confirmed that the film would instead be a prequel titled Monsters University.Monsters University premiered on June 5, 2013 at the BFI Southbank in London, England, and was theatrically released on June 21, 2013, in the United States. It was accompanied in theaters by a short film, The Blue Umbrella, directed by Saschka Unseld. The film grossed $744 million against its estimated budget of $200 million, making it the seventh highest-grossing film of 2013. An animated short film titled Party Central, which takes place shortly after the events of Monsters University, premiered in fall 2013 before being released theatrically with Muppets Most Wanted in 2014.

Red Dragon (2002 film)

Red Dragon is a 2002 psychological horror film based on the novel of the same title by Thomas Harris. Anthony Hopkins stars as psychiatrist and serial killer, Dr. Hannibal Lecter. It is a prequel to The Silence of the Lambs (1991) and Hannibal (2001). The novel was originally adapted into the film Manhunter (1986).

The film was directed by Brett Ratner and written for the screen by Ted Tally, who also wrote the screenplay for The Silence of the Lambs. Hopkins reprises Lecter, a role he played twice before in The Silence of the Lambs and Hannibal, and Edward Norton as FBI agent Will Graham. The film also stars Ralph Fiennes, Harvey Keitel, Emily Watson, Mary-Louise Parker, and Philip Seymour Hoffman.

Scooby-Doo! The Mystery Begins

Scooby-Doo! The Mystery Begins (also known as Scooby-Doo 3 or Scooby-Doo 3: The Mystery Begins) is a 2009 American made-for-television comedy film directed by Brian Levant, produced by Warner Premiere and distributed by Warner Home Video. The film aired on Cartoon Network on September 13, 2009, and later released on September 22, 2009 on DVD and Blu-Ray. It is the third installment in the Scooby-Doo live-action film series, revealing how the Mystery Inc. gang met and the events of their very first case.

The live-action cast features Robbie Amell as Fred, Kate Melton as Daphne, Hayley Kiyoko as Velma and Nick Palatas as Shaggy. Scooby-Doo was created using computer-generated imagery and his voice is provided by Frank Welker, who also was a cast member of the animated series, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and The Scooby-Doo Show, providing the voice of Fred.

The music is scored by Academy Award-nominee David Newman, who had previously scored the theatrical films Scooby-Doo (2002) and Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed (2004). The film is dedicated to Lorena Gale, who died during production.

Its sequel, Scooby-Doo! Curse of the Lake Monster, was released on October 16, 2010.

Sean Paul

Sean Paul Francis Henriques (born 9 January 1973) is a Jamaican rapper, singer and record producer. Most of his albums have been nominated for the Grammy's Best Reggae Album, with Dutty Rock winning the award. His two hit singles "Get Busy" and "Temperature" topped charts in the United States. Sean Paul has also been featured in many other hit singles including chart-toppers "Baby Boy" by Beyoncé, "What About Us" by The Saturdays, and "Rockabye" by Clean Bandit.

Star Wars

Star Wars is an American epic space opera franchise, created by George Lucas and centered around a film series that began with the eponymous 1977 movie. The saga quickly became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon.

The first film, later subtitled Episode IV: A New Hope, was followed by two successful sequels, Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) and Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983); forming the original Star Wars trilogy. A subsequent prequel trilogy, consisting of Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999), Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith (2005), was met with mixed reactions from critics and fans. Finally, a sequel trilogy began with Episode VII: The Force Awakens (2015), continued with Episode VIII: The Last Jedi (2017), and will end with Episode IX in 2019. The first eight films were nominated for Academy Awards (with wins going to the first two released) and were commercially successful, with a combined box office revenue of over US$8.5 billion. Together with the theatrical spin-off films The Clone Wars (2008), Rogue One (2016), and Solo (2018), Star Wars is the second-highest-grossing film series of all time.The film series has spawned into other media, including books, television shows, computer and video games, theme park attractions and lands, and comic books, resulting in significant development of the series' fictional universe. Star Wars holds a Guinness World Records title for the "Most successful film merchandising franchise". In 2018, the total value of the Star Wars franchise was estimated at US$65 billion, and it is currently the fifth-highest-grossing media franchise.

Star Wars prequel trilogy

The Star Wars prequel trilogy is a set of three prequel films in the Star Wars franchise, an American space opera created by George Lucas. Like the original trilogy, it was produced by Lucasfilm Ltd. and distributed by 20th Century Fox. The trilogy consists of The Phantom Menace (1999), Attack of the Clones (2002), and Revenge of the Sith (2005). The first two films received mixed reviews, while the third received positive reviews.

The trilogy follows the Jedi training of Anakin Skywalker and his fall to the dark side of the Force (as Darth Vader), as well as the corruption of the Galactic Republic and rise of the Empire. Together with the original trilogy, Lucas has collectively referred to the first six episodic films of the franchise as "the tragedy of Darth Vader."

The Dark Crystal

The Dark Crystal is a 1982 high fantasy adventure film directed by Jim Henson and Frank Oz. It stars the voices of Stephen Garlick, Lisa Maxwell, Billie Whitelaw, Percy Edwards, and Barry Dennen. The film was produced by ITC Entertainment and Henson Associates and distributed by Universal Pictures. The plot revolves around Jen, an elf-like "Gelfling" on a quest to restore balance to his alien world by returning the lost shard of a powerful but broken gem.

It was marketed as a family film but was notably darker than the creators' previous material. The animatronics used in the film were considered groundbreaking. The primary concept artist was fantasy illustrator Brian Froud, famous for his distinctive fairy and dwarf designs. Froud also collaborated with Henson and Oz for their next project, the 1986 film Labyrinth.

The Dark Crystal was produced by Gary Kurtz, while the screenplay was written by David Odell whom Henson previously worked with as a staff writer for The Muppet Show. The film score was composed by Trevor Jones. The film earned mixed to positive reviews from mainstream critics, with particular praise on its special effects.

The Hobbit

The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien. It was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book remains popular and is recognized as a classic in children's literature.

The Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from light-hearted, rural surroundings into more sinister territory.

The story is told in the form of an episodic quest, and most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity, competence, and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic, fey, and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense. The story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.

Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story. The author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are often noted as influences.

The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, therefore, requested a sequel. As Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled.

The work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, screen, radio, board games, and video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits.

The Scorpion King

The Scorpion King is a 2002 American historical fantasy action film directed by Chuck Russell, starring The Rock, Kelly Hu, Grant Heslov, and Michael Clarke Duncan. It is a prequel of The Mummy franchise, which takes place before the events of The Mummy and tells the story of Mathayus and his rise to become the Scorpion King.

The events of The Scorpion King take place 5,000 years before those in The Mummy and The Mummy Returns, and reveal Mathayus' origins and his rise to power as the Scorpion King. The name is a reference to a historical king of the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, King Scorpion.

The Thing (2011 film)

The Thing is a 2011 science fiction horror film directed by Matthijs van Heijningen Jr., written by Eric Heisserer, and starring Mary Elizabeth Winstead, Joel Edgerton, Ulrich Thomsen, Adewale Akinnuoye-Agbaje, and Eric Christian Olsen. It is a prequel to the 1982 film of the same name by John Carpenter, which was an adaptation of the 1938 novella Who Goes There? by John W. Campbell. It tells the story of a team of Norwegian and American scientists who discover a parasitic alien buried deep in the ice of Antarctica, realizing too late that it is still alive.

The Thing premiered on October 10, 2011 and released several days later on October 14, 2011. The film was a commercial flop, grossing $31.5 million against a $38 million budget, with mostly negative reviews.

Transformers (film comic series)

Transformers is a comic book series by IDW Publishing, spun off from the 2007 Transformers movie and other films in the Transformers film series.

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