|Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment|
— III —
Преображенский спасательный полк
2013–present as the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment
Banner of the regiment
Badge of the regiment
The Preobrazhensky Lifeguard Regiment was one of the oldest and most elite guard regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. Along with the Semyonovsky Regiment, the Preobrazhensky Regiment also served as a gendarmerie unit for the state Secret Chancellery (secret police) in the 18th century, headed by Prince Fyodor Romodanovsky.
It was formed by Peter the Great in the late 17th century from his poteshnye voiska ("toy forces"), during his military games in the village of Preobrazhenskoye (now a district in Moscow). The Preobrazhensky Regiment distinguished itself during the Great Northern War of 1700–1721, the Patriotic War of 1812, and the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878.
As the body-guard of Catherine the Great, as well as the main supporter of her bloodless coup against her husband Peter III, this regiment was declared the highest in the order of military precedence from 14 July 1762.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, membership was reserved for young Russian aristocrats and was considered a proof of loyalty to the government and the tsar. Among its membership was the Russian composer Modest Mussorgsky.
The regiment was disbanded in December 1917 by its last commander, Colonel Alexander Kutepov (later a general). In 2013, it was recreated for the Russian Armed Forces as the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment.
This colour was given to the regiment in order to celebrate its action at Kulm, where the outnumbered Preobrazhensky regiment withstood the charge of French troops.
The March of the Preobrazhensky Regiment (ru) was written in the time of Peter the Great. It was also used as an unofficial national anthem in imperial times. It is used often in Russia, also in the annual Victory Day parade for the trooping the colours (Flag of Russia and Banner of Victory). It is also the slow march of the Royal Marines. Several people have written lyrics for the song. It is not believed to have been officially used in the Soviet Union, but it had been played by Soviet military orchestras.
For the original Russian Imperial Army unit see: Preobrazhensky Regiment
154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment serves as the official honor guard regiment of the Russian Armed Forces and serves as the main honor guard unit of the armed forces, stationed in Moscow. Aside from being the honor guard unit it is also charged with duties assisting the Commander, Moscow Garrison, and to serve garrison and protection duties in the protection of the capital city and its military infrastructure. Its barracks is at Lefortovo District, Moscow, part of the South-Eastern Administrative Okrug.Alexander Balashov
Alexander Dmitriyevich Balashov (Russian: Александр Дмитриевич Балашов) (13 July 1770 in Moscow – 8 May 1837) was a Russian general and statesman.
Balashov came from a noble family. When the boy turned 6 years, his father, a Privy Counsellor and Senator, had him enrolled in the Preobrazhensky Regiment though it was not until November 1781 that he entered the Page Corps, matriculating in 1787 with the rank of camer-page. On 9 January 1791 he joined the Izmaylovsky Regiment as lieutenant. From 1795 he was a lieutenant colonel in the regular army. He was promoted Colonel in April 1798 and Major General in 1799.
On 21 January 1800 Balashov was dismissed from the military service, but in November of the same year he was appointed governor general and chief of garrisons regiment in Tallinn. On 23 September 1804 he resigned for family reasons, but within three months he was appointed the chief of police in Moscow. In November 1807 he became the general-krigs-komissar, on 29 March 1808 he replaced Fyodor Ertell in the office of chief of police in Saint Petersburg and thereupon his career soared.
In February 1809 Alexander I conferred on Balashov the rank of Adjutant general and appointed him the War Governor of Saint Petersburg. In March 1809 he was promoted to lieutenant-general. From 1 January 1810 he was a member of the newly established State Council. In June the same year he became the Minister of Police.
In 1812, during Napoleon's Invasion of Russia, Balashov was present in the front-line army stationed in Vilnius. After La Grande Armée crossed the frontier on June 12, Balashov was dispatched to deliver the Emperor's letter to Napoleon. He participated in the organization of the People's Militia (Народное ополчение) and was a member of the extraordinary committee choosing the commander-in-chief of the Russian army.
After the Patriotic War of 1812 Balashov was involved in important diplomatic missions. Between 1819 and 1828, he served as the war governor general of Orel, Tula, Ryazan, Tambov and Voronezh. On 23 September 1834 Balashov resigned his office. He died on 8 May 1837 on his way to Kronstadt.Alexander Karlovich Lieven
Alexander Friedrich Fürst von Lieven (Russian: Александр Карлович Ливен, Alexander Karlovich Liven; 1801–1880) was an Baltic German infantry-general and senator.
Alexander von Lieven was born on January 14, 1801 into an ancient noble family of Lieven. He received a good education at home and in 1818 enrolled into the Life Guards Grenadeer regiment and in 1820 was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (Russian: поручик). Four years later, in 1824, Lieven was transferred into the Moscow regiment and was promoted to the rank of aide-de-camp to the Emperor Nicholas I of Russia. During the campaign of the Russo-Turkish War, 1828–1829, Alexander Lieven participated in the siege of Varna. In 1831, during the November Uprising, his regiment was sent to subdue the rebels in the Congress Poland, and took part in the siege of Warsaw and Modlin Fortress. In 1832, after the war was over he was promoted to the rank of colonel and transferred into the Leib Guards of Preobrazhensky regiment. In 1838, he was made aide-de-camp to the commander of the 5th Infantry Corps, Lieutenant-General Anders, in 1842 Lieven was promoted to the rank of mayor-general and received the position of the second commander of Sevastopol. In 1844–1853 Lieven was Governor of Taganrog. In 1853, Lieven was promoted to the rank of lieutenant-general and was made senator. In 1857 he was appointed Chairman of the Inspection Committee (Russian: ревизионный комитет) in Moscow. In 1861 he was appointed full member of the Imperial Philanthropic Society (Russian: Императорское Человеколюбивое общество) and president of its Moscow-based committee. Lieven was promoted to the rank of the infantry general in 1875, keeping his senator's title. He died on February 17, 1880.Artur Nepokoychitsky
Artur Adamovich Nepokoychitsky (Russian: Артур Адамович Непокойчицкий; Russian (before 1918): Артуръ Адамовичъ Непокойчицкій; Polish: Artur Niepokojczycki; 20 December [O.S. 8] 1813 – 23 November [O.S. 11] 1881) was an Imperial Russian military leader of Polish extraction. A participant of the Crimean War and Russo-Turkish War, he was the chief of staff to Grand Duke Nicholas Nikolaevich of Russia during the Russo-Turkish War, until his dismissal at the end of the war.He joined the Page Corps before being promoted to the Preobrazhensky Regiment. From 1841 he served on the General Staff and participated in military operations in Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1849, he ran of the headquarters of General Alexander von Lüders which went to Transylvania. Nepokoychitsky distinguished himself during the occupation of Sibiu.Band of the 154th Preobrazhensky Regiment
The Band of the 154th Preobrazhensky Regiment is a special military unit that is the official regimental band for the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment. It is a branch of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia. The band serves the entire Moscow Region, which earned it the nickname HQ Band of the Moscow Garrison.Donajowsky
Donajowsky (first name unknown) is a non-existent Russian composer listed in English language sources as author of The Preobrajensky March, the march of the Preobrazhensky Regiment (Russian Empire), which later became the official slow march of the Royal Marines.Fifer
A fifer is a non-combatant military occupation of a foot soldier who originally played the fife during combat. The practice was instituted during the period of Early Modern warfare to sound signals during changes in formation, such as the line, and were also members of the regiment's military band during marches.
These soldiers, often boys too young to fight or sons of NCO's, were used to help infantry battalions to keep marching pace from the right of the formation in coordination with the drummers positioned at the centre, and relayed orders in the form of sequences of musical signals. The fife was particularly useful because of its high pitched sound, which could be heard over the sounds of battle.
The usual allocation of fifers in a battalion during the Early Modern warfare period varied from five to eight. The regimental bands, particularly of the high prestige units such as the guards had as many as 32 (in the Preobrazhensky regiment) or more fifers.Some fifers, as part of the fife-and-drum corps that accompanied Captain Arthur Phillip and the First Fleet, were present at important national historical events, such as the reading of the Governor's Commission on 2 February 1788 at Sydney Cove.Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia
The Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation serves as the official service of military bands in active service within the Russian Armed Forces and formerly the Soviet Armed Forces.Naum Senyavin
Naum Akimovich Senyavin (Наум Акимович Сенявин in Russian) (c. 1680 – June 4 [O.S. May 24] 1738) was a Vice Admiral (1727) of the Imperial Russian Navy.
Naum Senyavin began his military career as a soldier of the Preobrazhensky regiment in 1698. Soon, he became a sailor, joined the Baltic Fleet, and was then promoted to the rank of non-commissioned officer. Naum Senyavin first distinguished himself during the Great Northern War of 1700-1721. In 1713, he was appointed commander of a battleship. As a squadron commander, Senyavin forced three Swedish ships to surrender during the Battle of Ösel in 1719. In 1721, he became a member of the Admiralty Board (Адмиралтейств-коллегия). In 1728-1732, Senyavin commanded a galley fleet. In September 1737, he was appointed commander of the Dnieper Flotilla during the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739.
Peter the Great gave some lands close to Saint Petersburg to Senyavin, and the estate became known as the selo of Sinyavino. The selo was destroyed during World War II and never restored, but the name was transferred in the 1920s to the settlement of Sinyavino which was serving peat production. Currently it is an urban-type settlement in Kirovsky District of Leningrad Oblast, Russia.Nikita Trubetskoy
Prince Nikita Yurievich Trubetskoy (Russian: Никита Юрьевич Трубецкой) (26 May 1699 – 16 October 1767) was a Russian statesman and Field Marshal (1756), minister of defense of Russia 1760.
His parents were general-poruchik and senator Prince Yuri Yurievich Troubetzkoy (20 April 1668 – 8 September 1739), who was governor of Belgorod, and Princess Elena Grigorievna Tcherkassky (b. before 1696).
In 1715-1717, Nikita Trubetskoy was educated abroad. He started his military career as the batman of Peter I. In 1722 he joined the Preobrazhensky Regiment in the rank of sergeant and promoted to ensign in 1722. In 1730, Trubetskoy was one of staunch opponents of the Supreme Privy Council and supported the empress Anna Ivanovna. He had taken part in all of the Russian wars until 1740, then he presided the Voiennaia Kolleguia (ministere of army). He was appointed General-Prosecutor of the Governing Senate. Trubetskoy remained on this post until 1760. He headed the investigation and trial of Andrei Osterman (1741), Aleksei Bestuzhev-Ryumin (1758) and others. In 1760, Trubetskoy became a senator and president of the Military Board. He retired in 1763. He died Marechal of Russia, senator and actual private counsellor. His memories are published in Russkaya Starina in 1870.
Nikita Trubetskoy is known to have been a very enlightened man and connoisseur of art. He was a friend of prince Antioch Kantemir and writer Mikhail Kheraskov, and a patron of Yakov Shakhovsky.Nikolai Arkharov
Nikolai Petrovich Arkharov (Russian: Николай Петрович Архаров) (7 May 1740 – January 1814) was a Russian police chief best known for having given his name to the Russian term "arkharovtsy", an ironic appellation of policemen.
Nikolai Arkharov came from a noble family. In 1754 he was enrolled at the Guards, in 1756 started the service as soldier of the Preobrazhensky regiment and in 1761 was promoted to officer.
His rising began after the mission of 1771 into Moscow, envelopped by the disastrous epidemic of plague and mutiny (known as the Plague Riot), under the direction of Count Grigori Orlov. Count Orlov arrived to Moscow on 26 September 1771 with numerous doctors and four Guards regiments. Arkharov proved himself as energetic and executive officer. Apparently, with the aid of Orlov, with whom he was familiar earlier, Arkharov was familiar earlier he was transferred into the police with the rank of colonel.
After the successfully conducted inquest of the case of Yemelyan Pugachev Arkharov was appointed in 1775 the Chief of police in Moscow. Here he distinguished himself as one of the best detective of that time. His subordinates were called by people "arkharovtsy" - this word in the course of time became nominal. Catherine II sometimes invited Arkharov into Petersburg for the investigation of serious thefts.
On 28 July 1777 he became major general, in 1779 received the Order of St. Anna of the 1st degree and from 1782, he was a Moscow governor. In 1783 Arkharov was elevated into general-ensign, in 1785 became the general-governor of Tver and Novgorod. From 1790 he was also the director of the water communications and significantly contributed to the canal-building in his region.
From 1795 to 1796 he was General Governor of St Petersburg. Upon his accession to the throne, Emperor Paul I awarded Arkharov the Order of Alexander Nevsky, promoted him to full general and appointed him the second general governor of St Petersburg (the first was Grand Prince Alexandr Pavlovich).
On 15 June 1797 Arkharov was dismissed and was exiled into Tambov governorate without the right to visit both the capitals. This right was returned to him in the next reign.
Nikolai Arkharov died and buried in his estate Rasskazovo near Tambov.Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy
Count Pyotr Aleksandrovich Tolstoy (Russian: Пётр Александрович Толстой) (1769 – 28 September 1844) was a Russian general and statesman.
Pyotr Tolstoy came from the Oryol branch of the Tolstoy family, his father Alexander Tolstoy was a grandson of Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy. In 1775 he was enrolled in the Leib Guard Preobrazhensky regiment and started the service on 21 May 1785 as an aide-de-camp of the staff of Prince Nikolai Saltykov. In the same year he was promoted to lieutenant colonel. In 1788–1790 he participated in the Gustav III's Russian War.
In 1794 he was prominent in the Siege of Warsaw and then promoted to colonel. On 24 October 1794 he commanded two battalions in the Battle of Praga. On return, Empress Catherine II awarded Tolstoy the Order of St. George of the 3rd degree with her own hand and appointed him the chief of the Pskov Dragoon regiment. On 9 November 1797 he obtained the rank of major general with appointment the chief of the Nizhny Novgorod Dragoon regiment and in the next year received the Order of St. Anna of the 1st degree.
In the end of 1798 he was sent to Archduke Charles of Austria for the communication with Alexander Suvorov. After the Campaigns of 1799 he was promoted to lieutenant general and became a member of the War Collegium and of the Governing Senate. In 1802 he was appointed the war governor of Vyborg and in the next year of St Petersburg. At this post Tolstoy became famous by his generosity, giving out money to poor and soldiers of guard regiments. In this time he also commanded the Preobrazhensky regiment.
In September 1805 he departed with 20,000 landing corps into Pomerania and operated in the North Germany under the general command of King Gustav IV Adolf of Sweden. He captured Hanover and returned to Russia after the battle of Austerlitz. In the beginning of the War of the Fourth Coalition Emperor Alexander sent Tolstoy to reconcile Corps Commanders Bennigsen and Buxhoeveden and to report about their quarrel personally to himself. After the Bennigsen's appointment the commander-in-chief, Tolstoy became on-duty General of the latter.
From 14 October 1807 to 1 October 1808 he was the ambassador in Paris. His main objective was to observe the Treaty of Tilsit, and Tolstoy wrote to Alexander that all friendly assurances of Napoleon are mendacious, he entreated him not to believe them, but to prepare for the rebuff in advance, and predicted the forthcoming French invasion of Russia. He recommended to the Russian government a system of measures for the protection of the interests of Russia against possible aggression from Napoleon I: to greatly increase the size of the army, to move it to the Western borders, to conclude a secret agreement with Austria, to finish the war with Turkey and Sweden, to conclude peace with England and to organize a new anti-French coalition with Prussia and Austria. Because of his lack of diplomatic experience, however, his efforts were useless and after the Congress of Erfurt Tolstoy was recalled. However, Tolstoy nevertheless observed worsening in the relations between Aleksander and Napoleon.
From 1809 to 1812 he lived in his estate near Tula. In 1812 he formed and then commanded the militia of Nizhny Novgorod, Simbirsk, Kazan, Vyatka and Orenburg governorates. In 1813 he participated in the taking of Dresden and Magdeburg.
On 19 June 1814 he was promoted to Full General, on 16 January 1816 appointed the chief of the 4th and then 5th infantry regiment. From 30 August 1823 he was a member of the State Council. During the reign of Emperor Nicholas I he received the Order of St. Andrew and took a different military post.
From 1839 he was in retirement. Pyotr Tolstoy died in Moscow and was buried in the Donskoy Monastery.Russian military bands
Russian Military bands fall under the jurisdiction of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia, which is the official music service for the Russian Armed Forces, and led by the Senior Director of Music, a billet of an officer with the rank of a Colonel or a general officer.Semyonovsky Regiment
The Semyonovsky Lifeguard Regiment was one of the two oldest guard regiments of the Imperial Russian Army. The other one was the Preobrazhensky Regiment. In 2013, it was recreated for the Russian Armed Forces as a rifle regiment, its name now becoming the 1st Semyonovsky Independent Rifle Regiment.Siege of Nöteborg (1702)
The Siege of Nöteborg was one of the first sieges of the Great Northern War, when Russian forces captured the Swedish fortress of Nöteborg (later renamed Shlisselburg) in October 1702. Peter the Great had assembled a force of 20,000 men for this task, and marched for ten days to his destination. About 12,000 of these men were positioned on the banks of the Neva river, where they camped until 6 October (N.S.). On that day, after giving command of the main force to Boris Sheremetev, he moved toward Nöteborg. After the Swedish commander, Wilhelm von Schlippenbach, refused to give up the fort immediately, the Russians began bombarding it. A final Russian assault on the fort was tactically unsuccessful, resulting in heavy casualties, but forced the fort's defenders to surrender on 22 October 1702. After taking control, Peter immediately began reconstructing the fort for his own purposes, renaming it Shlisselburg.Special Exemplary Military Band of the Guard of Honor Battalion of Russia
The Special Military Exemplary Band of the Honor Guard is a special military unit that performs military music for the guard of honor of Russia that greets foreign government delegations, as well as provide musical accompaniment for national events. It is a branch of the Military Band Service of the Armed Forces of Russia.The band participated in the welcoming ceremonies of more than 22 heads of state.The band forms part of the 154th Preobrazhensky Independent Commandant's Regiment.Spiridon Zhevakhov
Spiridon Eristovich Zhevakhov (Russian: Спиридон Эристович Жевахов) or Spiridon Javakhishvili (Georgian: სპირიდონ ჯავახიშვილი) (1768 – July 25, 1815) was a Russian general of Georgian noble descent and a participant of the Napoleonic Wars.
Zhevakhov was born in the émigré Georgian family of Prince Javakhishvili who had an estate in Ukraine. He enlisted in the Leib-Guard Preobrazhensky regiment in 1779 and took part in the war against the Turkey (1787-1792), Poland (1794), Persia (1796), and Suvorov’s campaign in Switzerland (1799). In 1797, he joined the Pavlograd hussar regiment of which he would become a commander in 1810. He fought against Napoleonic France from 1805 to 1807 and was promoted to a colonel in 1807. During the French invasion of Russia in 1812, Zhevakhov served in the 3rd Army of the West and successfully commanded cavalry units. He distinguished himself in the 1813 Battle of Leipzig and was made a major-general. In 1813, he contributed to the Allies’ victory in the Netherlands. After the end of the hostilities with France, he commanded a brigade in the 3rd hussar division.Transfiguration Cathedral (Saint Petersburg)
Transfiguration Cathedral (official name: Russian: собор Преображения Господня всей гвардии, The Cathedral of the Lord's Transfiguration of all the Guards) is an Eastern Orthodox cathedral. It is located on Transfiguration Square (Russian: Преображенская площадь), just off Liteyny Prospekt near the Chernyshevskaya metro station. Unlike most Russian churches, it has never ceased operating as a place of worship.The church has given names to both Transfiguration Square and a nearby lane, which was formerly known as Church Lane (Russian: Церковный переулок) and is now known as Radishchev Lane (Russian: переулок Радищева).Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov
Prince Vasily Vladimirovich Dolgorukov (Russian: князь Василий Владимирович Долгоруков) (c. January 1667 – 11 February 1746, Saint Petersburg) was a Russian commander and politician, promoted to Field Marshal (генерал-фельдмаршал) in 1728. His life and fortune swung like a weather vane, due to complex plots and the troubled time following Peter the Great's death.