Premier of the Soviet Union

The Premier of the Soviet Union (Russian: Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). Twelve individuals became Premier during the time span of the office. Two of the twelve Premiers died in office of natural causes (Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin), three resigned (Alexei Kosygin, Nikolai Tikhonov and Ivan Silayev) and three had the offices of party secretary and Premier simultaneously (Lenin, Stalin and Nikita Khrushchev). The first Premier was Lenin, who was inaugurated during 1922 after the Treaty on the Creation of the Soviet Union. Ivan Silayev spent the briefest time in office at 126 days during 1991. At more than 16 years, Kosygin spent the longest time in office and became the only premier to serve in more than two government cabinets. He died soon after his resignation during 1980.

The Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom) was established on 8 November 1917 by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) Government. Article 38 of the 1924 Soviet Constitution stated that the Council's powers, functions and duties were given to it by the Central Executive Committee (CEC) which supervised the Council's work and legislative acts. The Council of People's Commissars published decrees and decisions that were binding throughout the USSR.[1] During 1946, the Council of People's Commissars was transformed into the Council of Ministers (Sovmin) at both all-Union and Union Republic levels.[2]

After the ousting of Khrushchev in 1964, a plenum of the Party's Central Committee (CC) forbade any single person to hold the two most powerful jobs in the country (the offices of General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Premier)[3] and Kosygin was placed in charge of economic administration in his role as Premier of the Council of Ministers of the USSR. However, Kosygin's prestige was weakened when he proposed the economic reform of 1965.[4] Under the 1977 Soviet Constitution, the Premier of the Council of Ministers was the head of government of the USSR. The Premier was the chief of the executive branch and head of the Soviet government as a whole, the premiership was the most powerful governmental office in the USSR by influence and recognition until the establishment of the presidency during 1990. The Premier was responsible and accountable to the Supreme Soviet and during the period between sessions of the Supreme Soviet he was also accountable to the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.[5] The Premier was tasked with resolving all state administrative duties within the jurisdiction of the USSR to the degree which were not the responsibility of the Supreme Soviet or the Presidium. The Premier managed the national economy, formulated the five-year plans and ensured socio-cultural development.[6]

When Nikolai Ryzhkov was replaced as premier by Valentin Pavlov, the Council of Ministers was renamed the Cabinet of Ministers. The premier's title was changed to Prime Minister of the Soviet Union, though most non-Soviet sources had referred to the job as "Premier" or "Prime Minister" for some time before then. After the failed August coup of 1991 and the revelation that the majority of the cabinet members endorsed the coup, the Cabinet of Ministers was dissolved and replaced by the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy during 1991. The Operational Management Committee was renamed the Inter-Republican Economic Committee of the USSR[7] and it was replaced later by the Interstate Economic Committee (IEC). The IEC was also known officially as the Economic Community.[8]

Premier of the Soviet Union
Глава Правительства СССР
State Emblem of the Soviet Union
ResidenceKremlin Senate, Moscow
PrecursorChairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR
Formation30 December 1922
First holderVladimir Lenin
Final holderIvan Silayev
Abolished25 December 1991
SuccessionPrime Minister of the Russian Federation

List of Premiers

#
[note 1]
Name
(birth–death)
Tenure Electorate Cabinets
1 Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (1922–1946)
Vladimir Lenin
(1870–1924)[9]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-71043-0003, Wladimir Iljitsch Lenin 30 December 1922 – 21 January 1924 Lenin I–II
Regarded as the first Soviet Premier, Lenin led the Bolshevik Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP), later known as the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), through the Russian Revolution (February and October Revolution)[10] and successfully created the world's first socialist state, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR).[11] In 1922, he established the Soviet Union.[12]
2 Alexei Rykov
(1881–1938)[13]
Alexejrykov 2 February 1924 – 19 December 1930 1924, 1925, 1927, 1929 Rykov I
A member of the moderate faction within the Bolshevik Party, he was forced, along with other moderates, to "admit their mistakes" to the party and in 1930 lost his premiership because of it.[14]
3 Vyacheslav Molotov
(1890–1986)[15]
Molotov.bra 19 December 1930 – 6 May 1941 1931, 1935, 1936, 1937 Molotov I
Molotov oversaw Stalin's collectivization of agriculture, the implementation of the first five-year plan, industrialisation of the Soviet Union and the Great Purge of 1937–1938.[16] Despite the great human cost,[17] the Soviet Union under Molotov's nominal premiership made great strides in the adoption and widespread implementation of agrarian and industrial technology.[18]
4 Joseph Stalin
(1878–1953)[19]
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 6 May 1941 – 15 March 1946 1946 Stalin I
Stalin led the country through the Great Patriotic War (World War II) and started the country's reconstruction period. He renamed the office of the People's Commissars to the Council of Ministers.[20]
Chairman of the Council of Ministers (1946–1991)
Joseph Stalin
(1878–1953)[19]
JStalin Secretary general CCCP 1942 15 March 1946 – 5 March 1953 1950 Stalin II
After the war, Stalin installed communist governments in most of Eastern Europe, forming the Eastern Bloc,[20] behind what was referred to as an "Iron Curtain" of Soviet rule during the long period of antagonism between the Western world and the Soviet Union, known as the Cold War.[21]
5 Georgy Malenkov
(1902–1988)[22]
Georgy Malenkov 1964 6 March 1953 – 8 February 1955 1954 Malenkov I–II
Malenkov took over after Stalin's death, but he lost in the ensuing power struggle against Khrushchev. He continued to hold the office of Premier until Khrushchev started the process of de-Stalinisation. He was replaced on Khrushchev's orders by Nikolai Bulganin.[23]
6 Nikolai Bulganin
(1895–1975)[24]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-29921-0001, Bulganin, Nikolai Alexandrowitsch 8 February 1955 – 27 March 1958 1958 Bulganin I
Bulganin oversaw the period of de-Stalinisation.[25] While being a strong supporter of Khrushchev at first, he started doubting some of his more radical policies and accused of being a member of the Anti-Party Group was eventually replaced by Khrushchev himself.[26]
7 Nikita Khrushchev
(1894–1971)[22]
Bundesarchiv Bild 183-B0628-0015-035, Nikita S. Chruschtschow 27 March 1958 – 14 October 1964 1962 Khrushchev I–II
Khrushchev led the country through the Cuban Missile Crisis and oversaw numerous reforms and policy innovations, such as the 1961 monetary reform. His increasingly erratic behaviour led to his removal by the nomenklatura both as Premier and First Secretary of the Communist Party.[25]
8 Alexei Kosygin
(1904–1980)[27]
A. Kosygin 1967 15 October 1964 – 23 October 1980 1966, 1970, 1974, 1979 Kosygin IV
One of three leading members of the collective leadership with Leonid Brezhnev and Nikolai Podgorny, Kosygin ruled through the era known as the "Era of Stagnation".[4] He initiated three large scale economic reforms under his leadership: the 1965, the 1973 and the 1979 reform.[28] He retired from office in October 1980 and died two months later.[29]
9 Nikolai Tikhonov
(1905–1997)[30]
23 October 1980 – 27 September 1985 1984 Tikhonov III
After Kosygin's departure, Tikhonov became the new Premier.[31] He held the office through Brezhnev's last years, the rules of Yuri Andropov and Konstantin Chernenko and the very beginning of Mikhail Gorbachev's tenure.[32]
10 Nikolai Ryzhkov
(born 1929)[30]
Nikolai Ryzhkov 27 September 1985 – 14 January 1991 1989 Ryzhkov I–II
Ryzhkov supported Gorbachev's attempt to revive and restructure the Soviet economy through decentralising planning and introducing new technology. However, he resisted Gorbachev's later attempts to introduce market mechanisms into the Soviet economy.[33] He was forced to resign when his office as Chairman of the Council of Ministers was dissolved.[34]
11 Prime Minister of the Soviet Union (1991)
Valentin Pavlov
(1937–2003)[35]
14 January 1991 – 22 August 1991 Pavlov I
Pavlov was elected to the new position of Prime Minister as a compromise candidate. He carried out a highly unsuccessful monetary reform which failed[36] and led him to join the State Committee of the State of Emergency. The State Committee attempted to depose Gorbachev on 19 August. With the collapse of the coup, Pavlov was arrested on 29 August.[37]
12 Chairman of the Interstate Economic Committee – Prime Minister of the Economic Commonwealth (1991)
Ivan Silayev
(born 1930)[38]
6 September 1991 – 26 December 1991 Silayev I
After the August coup of 1991, the Soviet government lost much of its power over the Soviet Republics. Along with Gorbachev, Silayev was unable to hold the Soviet state together which eventually led to its demise in December 1991.[39]

See also

Sources

Notes

  1. ^ These numbers are not official.

References

  1. ^ Центральный Исполнительный Комитет съезда Советов. Статья №38 от Декабрь 1977 «Суверенные права союзных республик». (Central Executive Committee of the Congress of Soviets. Article #38 of December 1924 Sovereign Rights of the Member Republics. ).
  2. ^ "О преобразовании Совета Народных Комиссаров СССР в Совет Министров СССР и Советов Народных Комиссаров Союзных и Автономных республик в Советы Министров Союзных и Автономных республик" 15 марта 1946 года [On Reforming the Council of People's Commissars into the Council of Ministers of the USSR, and the Councils of People's Commissars of Union and Autonomous Republics into the Councils of Ministers of Union and Autonomous Republics, 15 March 1946]. Legislation of the USSR 1946-1952 (in Russian). World and Market Economy - Collection of Articles on Economy, Igor Averin. Retrieved 3 October 2010.
  3. ^ Service 2009, p. 378.
  4. ^ a b Brown 2009, p. 403.
  5. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №130 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #130 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  6. ^ Верховный Совет СССР. Федеральный конституционный закон №131 от 7 октября 1977 «Совета Министров СССР». (Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. Article #131 of 7 October 1977 The Council of Ministers of the USSR. ).
  7. ^ Ferdinand 1993, pp. 163–164.
  8. ^ Ferdinand 1993, p. 133.
  9. ^ Cull, Culbert & Welch 2003, p. 182.
  10. ^ Young & Braden 2005, p. 40.
  11. ^ Service 2000, p. 1.
  12. ^ Образование СССР (in Russian). Hrono.info. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  13. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 82.
  14. ^ Rappaport 1999, pp. 238–39.
  15. ^ Phillips 2000, p. 89.
  16. ^ Fainsod & Hough 1979, p. 295.
  17. ^ Sebag-Montefiore 2005, p. 125.
  18. ^ Sebag-Montefiore 2005, p. 236.
  19. ^ a b Totten & Bartrop 2008, p. 76.
  20. ^ a b Service 2005, pp. 3–4.
  21. ^ Service 2005, p. 503.
  22. ^ a b Duiker & Spielvogel 2006, p. 572.
  23. ^ Coppa 2006, pp. 170–71.
  24. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 69.
  25. ^ a b Gorbachev, Mikhail (26 April 2007). "The First Steps Towards a New Era". The Guardian. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  26. ^ Coppa 2006, p. 38.
  27. ^ Trahair & Miller 2004, p. 37.
  28. ^ ютуба, любитель (17 December 2010). "30 лет назад умер Алексей Косыгин" [A reformer before Yegor Gaidar? Kosygin died for 30 years ago]. Newsland (in Russian). Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  29. ^ Вергасов, Фатех. Организация здорового накала (in Russian). pseudology.org. Retrieved 4 September 2010.
  30. ^ a b Ploss 2010, p. 219.
  31. ^ Zemtsov 1989, p. 119.
  32. ^ Service 2009, pp. 403–4.
  33. ^ Garcelon 2005, pp. 128–29.
  34. ^ Harris 2005, p. 133.
  35. ^ Валентин Сергеевич Павлов [Valentin Sergeyevich Pavlov] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  36. ^ Dyker 1992, pp. 207–8.
  37. ^ Bonnell & Cooper 1994, pp. 63–64.
  38. ^ Иван Степанович Силаев [Ivan Stepanovich Silayev] (in Russian). RU: Hrono. Retrieved 6 December 2010.
  39. ^ Kotz & Weir 2007, p. 122.

Bibliography

1989 October Revolution Parade

The 1989 October Revolution Parade was a parade that took place in Red Square in Moscow on 7 November 1989 to commemorate the 72th anniversary of the socialist revolution in the Russian Empire in 1917. Mikhail Gorbachev the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and Nikolai Ryzhkov the Premier of the Soviet Union was on Lenin's Mausoleum watching the parade. This would be the last time that Gorbachev would be at the parade in the capacity of General Secretary. General of the Army and Minister of Defence Dmitry Yazov made his 3rd holiday address to the nation after he inspected the troops. It is one of the last traditional soviet parades in the USSR's existence. Col. Gen. Nikolai Vasilyevich Kalinin the head of the Moscow Military District was the 1989 parade commander. After the parade the Central band of the honor guard performed during a Military band show on Red square.

Administrator of Affairs of the Soviet Union

The Administrator of Affairs of the Soviet Union, or Secretary to the Premier, was a high-standing officer within the Soviet Government whose main task was to co-sign, with the Premier of the Soviet Union, decrees and resolutions made by either the Council of People's Commissars (1922–1946), Council of Ministers (1946–1991) or the Cabinet of Ministers (1991). The government apparatus prepared items of policy, which the office holder would check systematically against decrees of the Party-Government. This function consisted of several departments and other structural units. The Soviet Government apparatus was headed by the Administrator of Affairs who, in accordance with the established order, was a member of the federal government body.

Alexei Rykov

Alexei Ivanovich Rykov (25 February 1881 – 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician most prominent as Premier of Russia and the Soviet Union from 1924 to 1929 and 1924 to 1930 respectively.Rykov joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party in 1898, and after it split into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions in 1903, he joined the Bolsheviks—led by Vladimir Lenin. He played an active part in the 1905 Russian Revolution. Months prior to the October Revolution of 1917, he became a member of the Petrograd and Moscow Soviets, and was elected to the Bolshevik Party Central Committee in July–August of the same year, during the Sixth Congress of the Bolshevik Party. Rykov, a moderate, often came into political conflict with Lenin and more radical Bolsheviks, but nonetheless proved influential when the October Revolution finally did overthrow the Russian Provisional Government, and as such served many roles in the new government, starting October–November (old style) as People's Commissar for Internal Affairs on the first roster of the Council of People's Commissars (Sovnarkom), which was chaired by Lenin.

During the Russian Civil War (1918–20), Rykov oversaw the implementation of the "War Communism" economic policy, and helped oversee the distribution of food to the Red Army and Navy.

After Lenin was incapacitated by his third stroke in March 1923 Rykov—along with Lev Kamenev—was elected by the Sovnarkom to serve as Deputy Chairman to Lenin. While both Rykov and Kamenev were Lenin's deputies, Kamenev was the acting Premier of the Soviet Union.

Lenin died from a fourth stroke on 21 January 1924 and on 2 February Rykov was chosen by the Council of People's Commissars as Premier of both the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and of the Soviet Union, which he served as until 18 May 1929 and 19 December 1930, respectively. On 21 December 1930 he was removed from the Politburo.From 1931-37 Rykov served as People's Commissar of Communications on the Council he formerly chaired. On 17 February 1937—at a meeting of the Central Committee—he was arrested with Nikolai Bukharin. In March 1938 both were found guilty of treason and executed.

De-Stalinization

De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, destalinizatsiya) consisted of a series of political reforms in the Soviet Union after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953, and the ascension of Nikita Khrushchev to power.The reforms consisted of changing or removing key institutions that helped Stalin hold power: the cult of personality that surrounded him, the Stalinist political system, and the Gulag labour-camp system, all of which had been created and dominated by him. Stalin was succeeded by a collective leadership after his death in March 1953, consisting of Georgi Malenkov, Premier of the Soviet Union; Lavrentiy Beria, head of the Ministry of the Interior; and Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).

Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union

This is a list of all Deputy Premiers of the Soviet Union, meaning the government.

First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union

The First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union, also known as First Vice Premier of the Soviet Union, was the deputy head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR); despite the title, the office was not necessarily held by a single individual. A total of 26 individuals had held this post; 18 of them held other posts simultaneously with their First Deputy Premiership. The first officeholder was Valerian Kuibyshev, who was inaugurated in 1934 as First Deputy Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars (Russian: Первый заместитель Председателя Совета Народных Комиссаров, abbreviated Sovnarkom). Lavrentiy Beria spent the shortest time in office and served for 113 days. At over seventeen years, Vyacheslav Molotov spent the longest time in office, and held his position through most of Joseph Stalin's tenure as Premier, as well as through the tenureships of Georgy Malenkov and Nikolai Bulganin.

A First Deputy Premier was usually given responsibility over one specific area. For example, Kirill Mazurov was responsible for industry, and Dmitry Polyansky was agriculture. However, after Polyansky's departure in 1973 Mazurov was left the sole First Deputy Premier until Tikhonov was appointed in 1976. An officeholder could also be responsible for coordinating the activities of ministries and state committees and other subordinate bodies of the Council of Ministers. To do this the First Deputy Premier had to give these bodies guidance in an expeditious manner to ensure the implementation of plans for economic and social development and to check if the orders and decisions of the Council of Ministers were being followed. If the Premier could not perform his duties one of the First Deputy Premiers would take on the role of acting Premier until the Premier's return. During the late 1970s, when the health of Premier Alexei Kosygin deteriorated, Nikolai Tikhonov, the First Deputy Premier, acted on his behalf during his absence. When Tikhonov took command of the Soviet economy, Kosygin served in a standby role. At a Central Committee plenum in June 1980, the Soviet economic development plan was outlined by Tikhonov, and not Kosygin.Before the transformation of the Council of People's Commissars to the Council of Ministers (Russian: Первый заместитель Председателя Совета Министров, abbreviated Sovmin) the post of vice-head of government was given to the Deputy Chairmen of the Sovnarkom; however, there were three exceptions: Nikolai Voznesensky, Kuibyshev and Molotov were elected First Deputy Chairmen in the mid-1930s and the 1940s. There was no First Deputy Premier from 1935 to 1941 because no one was elected to the post. Molotov, one of two First Deputy Premiers under Stalin's tenure, nearly lost his position when Stalin, the Premier, took a vacation; Molotov, in his capacity as First Deputy Premier, committed what Stalin saw as grave policy violations. Stalin's successor, Malenkov, promoted Bulganin, Beria and Lazar Kaganovich to the post of First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers. In a Council of Minister resolution it was stated that the Premier, the First Deputy Premiers and the Deputy Premiers made up the Presidium of the Council of Ministers. The Presidium was later expanded to include individuals hand-picked by the Premier. A decree had to be signed by the Premier or a First Deputy Premier, and in the case of the Premier's absence a First Deputy Premier would assume the duties of the Premier. The First Deputy Prime Ministers (Russian: Первый заместитель Председателя Совета Министров) were members of the Cabinet of Ministers (Russian: Кабинет Министров СССР), the executive and administrative body that replaced the Council of Ministers in 1990.

Frank Conniff (journalist)

Frank Conniff (April 24, 1914 – May 25, 1971) was an American journalist and editor who won a Pulitzer Prize in 1956.Conniff was born in Danbury, Connecticut. His first newspaper job was as a copyboy with the Danbury News-Times. He went to college at the University of Virginia, and after covering sports for one year in Danbury, joined Hearst Newspapers in New York. He was also a combat reporter during World War II in Africa and Europe, and covered the Korean War in 1950–51. In 1958 he became general director of the Hearst Headline Service, which provided news features, and contributed a Washington column. In New York he later wrote the "Coniff's Corner" column. While Hearst would introduce Conniff as their "house Democrat," Conniff also reportedly supported Joseph McCarthy, as Hearst Newspapers were a McCarthy supporter. He unsuccessfully challenged Republican Congressman Ogden Reid of New York's 26th congressional district in the 1964 election.Conniff interviewed Nikita S. Khrushchev, premier of the Soviet Union, in Moscow in 1955 for Hearst's International News Service, earning him a 1956 Pulitzer Prize, which he shared with William Randolph Hearst, Jr. and J. Kingsbury Smith for a series of exclusive interviews with leaders of the Soviet Union.Conniff was editor of Hearst Newspapers's World Journal Tribune of New York from 1966 to 1967, when the newspaper ceased publication. He was also national editor of Hearst Newspapers. He had a stroke shortly after the close of the World Journal Tribune which he partly recovered from.He was a regular panelist on the NBC game show, Who Said That?, along with H. V. Kaltenborn, Peggy Ann Garner, Deems Taylor, and Boris Karloff.

Conniff died of a heart attack at age 57 in New York on May 25, 1971.His son Frank Conniff, Jr. is an actor and writer.

Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Правительство СССР, Pravitel'stvo SSSR) was the main part of the executive branch of government of the USSR. Its head of government was the officeholder known generally in the West as the Premier of the Soviet Union. However, the USSR was a one-party state governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the power of which was derived from the Constitution of the Soviet Union. The Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was de facto the most important policy-making organ of the country and made government policy, with the Government being subordinate to the Party.The members of the Soviet Government—- people's commissars, ministers, and directors of state committees—- were recommended by the Premier and appointed by the Praesidium of the Supreme Soviet. The Government of the USSR exercised its executive powers in conformity with the Soviet Constitution and legislation enacted by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union.

During the period between when the USSR was established on December 30, 1922, and the first Government of the USSR was formed on July 6, 1923, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic's government acted as an interim government of the USSR.

Ivan Silayev

Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Russian: Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев; born 21 October 1930) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. He served as Premier of the Soviet Union through the offices of chairman of the Interstate Economic Committee and chairman of the Committee on the Operational Management of the Soviet economy from 6 September to 26 December 1991. Responsible for overseeing the economy of the Soviet Union during the late Gorbachev Era, he was the last Premier of the Soviet Union.

After graduating in the 1950s, Silayev began his political career in the Ministry of Aviation Industry in the 1970s. During the Brezhnev Era he became Minister of Aviation Industry, a Central Committee member, and Minister of Machine-Tool and Tool Building Industry. When Nikolai Tikhonov's Second Government was dissolved, Mikhail Gorbachev appointed him deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers in Nikolai Ryzhkov's First Government. He left all posts in the central government in 1990 to focus in his post as chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian SFSR. He faced several cabinet difficulties during his tenure, and supported the majority of Boris Yeltsin's policies. Having opposed Yeltsin's secessionist policies during his tenure as Soviet Premier, he was removed from his post as Russian SFSR Premier and succeeded in his post by acting Premier Oleg Lobov.

When he became Premier of the Soviet Union on 6 September 1991, Silayev opposed some of Yeltsin's policies which led to the disintegration of the Soviet Union. After Silayev resigned as Soviet Premier, he continued to work for the Yeltsin administration as the Permanent Representative of Russia to the European Community until his resignation in 1994. During the 2007 legislative election Silayev ran as a candidate for the Agrarian Party of Russia.

Kamenev (surname)

Kamenev (Russian: Ка́менев; masculine) or Kameneva (Ка́менева; feminine) is a common Russian surname. It may refer to:

Lev Kamenev, Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician

Lev Lvovich Kamenev, Russian landscape painter

Olga Kameneva, Soviet politician, Lev Kamenev's wife and Leon Trotsky's sister

Sergey Kamenev, Soviet military leader

Gavriil Kamenev, Russian poet

Vladislav Kamenev, Russian hockey player

Alex Kamenev, Russian theoretical physicist

Ilya Kamenev, Russian footballer

Lieutenant Kamenev, an antagonist in As Far as My Feet Will Carry Me

Piotr Ilyich Kamenev, the Premier of the Soviet Union in The Shoes of the Fisherman

Lev Voronin

Lev Alekseyevich Voronin (Russian: Лев Алексеевич Воронин; 22 February 1928 – 24 June 2008) was a Soviet Russian official. He served as a First Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers, literally the Vice-Premier of the Soviet Union, from 1989 to 1990. Responsible for the "general issues" of the cultural and economic administration of the Soviet Union during the late Gorbachev Era, Voronin became acting Chairman of the Council of Ministers in between Nikolai Ryzhkov's hospitalisation and Valentin Pavlov's election as Prime Minister. Voronin worked as a banker following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

List of Soviet Union–United States summits

Soviet Union–United States summits were held from 1943 to 1991. The topics discussed at the summits between the President of the United States and either the General Secretary or the Premier of the Soviet Union ranged from fighting the Axis Powers during World War II to arms control between the two superpowers themselves during the Cold War.

List of leaders of Russia

Leaders of Russia are political heads of state.

List of people on the postage stamps of Bhutan

The Kingdom of Bhutan has issued stamps since 1962.

John James Audubon, ornithologist - 1985

The Lord Baden-Powell, Founder of the Boy Scouts - 1982

The Prince of Wales, heir-apparent to the British and 15 other thrones - 1981

Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom - 1965

The Princess of Wales, then-wife of The Prince of Wales - 1981

Mahatma Gandhi, Indian independence activist - 1969

Grimm brothers, German folklorists and authors - 1985

Rowland Hill, British postal reformer - 1980

John F. Kennedy, President of the United States - 1964

Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States - 1982

Joseph Stalin, Premier of the Soviet Union - 1982

Mark Twain, US author - 1985

Jigme Dorji Wangchuck, King of Bhutan - 1966

Jigme Singye Wangchuck, King of Bhutan - 1974

George Washington, President of the United States - 1982

Prince William (now Duke of Cambridge), member of the British Royal Family - 1982, 1984

Maksim Saburov

Maksim Zakharovich Saburov (Russian: Максим Захарович Сабуров, 2 February 1900 – 24 March 1977) was a Soviet engineer, economist and politician, three-time Chairman of Gosplan and later First Deputy Premier of the Soviet Union. He was involved in the Anti-Party Group's attempt to displace Nikita Khrushchev in 1957.

Nikolai Bulganin

Nikolai Alexandrovich Bulganin (30 May [O.S. 17 May] 1895 – 24 February 1975) was a Soviet politician who served as Minister of Defense (1953–1955) and Premier of the Soviet Union (1955–1958) under Nikita Khrushchev, following service in the Red Army and as defense minister under Joseph Stalin.

Tikhonov

Tikhonov (Russian: Ти́хонов; masculine), sometimes spelled as Tychonoff, or Tikhonova (Ти́хонова; feminine) is a Russian surname that is derived from the male given name Tikhon and literally means Tikhon's. Notable people with the surname include:

Andrey Nikolayevich Tikhonov, Russian mathematician

Alexander Tikhonov, Russian biathlon athlete

Alexei Tikhonov, Russian figure skater

Andrey Tikhonov, Russian football player and coach

Konstantin Tikhonov, Soviet army officer and Hero of the Soviet Union

Mikhail Tikhonov, Soviet soldier and Hero of the Soviet Union

Nikita Tikhonov, suspect in Stanislav Markelov murder case

Nikolai Tikhonov, former Premier of the Soviet Union

Nikolai Tikhonov (writer), Russian writer

Nikolai Tikhonov (cosmonaut), Russian cosmonaut

Vasily Tikhonov (pilot), Soviet pilot and Hero of the Soviet Union

Vasily Tikhonov, Soviet rower

Vasily Tikhonov (ice hockey coach), Russian ice hockey coach

Vasily Ivanovich Tikhonov, Soviet soldier and Hero of the Soviet Union

Viktor Mykolayovych Tikhonov, Ukrainian politician (Party of Regions)

Viktor Pavlovich Tikhonov, Soviet pilot and Hero of the Soviet Union

Viktor Tikhonov (ice hockey, born 1930), former coach for the Soviet national ice hockey team

Viktor Tikhonov (ice hockey, born 1988), Russian ice hockey player

Vladimir Tikhonov, Russian politician

Vyacheslav Tikhonov (1928-2009), Soviet actor

William S. B. Lacy

William Sterling Byrd Lacy (February 5, 1910 – December 11, 1978) was an American diplomat who served as the third United States Ambassador to Korea from May to October 1955. Later, he negotiated a series of cultural exchanges with the Soviet Union, which indirectly created the setting of the Kitchen Debate between Richard Nixon, the Vice President of the United States, and Nikita Khrushchev, the Premier of the Soviet Union.

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