Precognition

Precognition (from the Latin prae-, "before" and cognitio, "acquiring knowledge"), also called prescience, future vision, future sight is a claimed psychic ability to see events in the future.

As with other paranormal phenomena, there is no accepted scientific evidence that precognition is a real effect and it is widely considered to be pseudoscience. Precognition also appears to violate the principle of causality, that an effect cannot occur before its cause.

Precognition has been widely believed in throughout history. Despite the lack of scientific evidence, many people still believe it to be real; it is still widely reported and remains a topic of research and discussion within the parapsychology community.

History

Antiquity

Since ancient times, precognition has been associated with trance and dream states involved in phenomena such as prophecy, fortune telling and second sight, as well as waking premonitions. These phenomena were widely accepted and reports have persisted throughout history, with most instances appearing in dreams.[1]

Such claims of seeing the future have never been without their sceptical critics. Aristotle carried out an inquiry into allegedly prophetic dreams in his On Divination in Sleep. He accepted that "it is quite conceivable that some dreams may be tokens and causes [of future events]" but also believed that "most [so-called prophetic] dreams are, however, to be classed as mere coincidences...". Where Democritus had suggested that emanations from future events could be sent back to the dreamer, Aristotle proposed that it was, rather, the dreamer's sense impressions which reached forward to the event.[2]

17th–19th centuries

The term "precognition" first appeared in the 17th century but did not come into common use among investigators until much later.[1]

An early investigation into claims of precognition was published by the missionary Fr. P. Boilat in 1883. He claimed to have put an unspoken question to an African witch-doctor whom he mistrusted. Contrary to his expectations, the witch-doctor gave him the correct answer without ever having heard the question.[1]

Early 20th century

In the early 20th century J. W. Dunne, a British aeronautics engineer, experienced several dreams which he regarded as precognitive. He developed techniques to record and analyse them, identifying any correspondences between his future experiences and his recorded dreams. He reported his findings in his 1927 book An Experiment with Time. In it he alleges that 10% of his dreams appeared to include some element of future experience. He also persuaded some friends to try the experiment on themselves, with mixed results. Dunne concluded that precognitive elements in dreams are common and that many people unknowingly have them.[3][4] He suggested also that dream precognition did not reference any kind of future event, but specifically the future experiences of the dreamer. He was led to this idea when he found that a dream of a volcanic eruption appeared to foresee not the disaster itself but his subsequent misreading of an inaccurate account in a newspaper.[5][3] In 1932 he helped the Society for Psychical Research to conduct a more formal experiment, but he and the Society's lead researcher Theodore Besterman failed to agree on the significance of the results.[6][7] Nevertheless, the Philosopher C. D. Broad remarked that, "The only theory known to me which seems worth consideration is that proposed by Mr. Dunne in his Experiment with Time."[8]

In 1932 Charles Lindbergh's infant son was kidnapped, murdered and buried among trees. The psychologists Henry Murray and D. R. Wheeler tested precognitive dreams by inviting the public to report any dreams of the child. A total of 1,300 dreams were reported. Only five percent envisioned the child dead and only 4 of the 1,300 envisioned the location of the grave as amongst trees. This number was no better than chance.[9]

The first ongoing and organized research program on precognition was instituted by Joseph Banks Rhine in the 1930s at Duke University's Parapsychology Laboratory. Rhine used a method of forced-choice matching in which participants guessed the order of a deck of 25 cards, each five of which bore one of five geometrical symbols. Although his results were positive and gained some academic acceptance, his methods were later shown to be badly flawed and subsequent researchers using more rigorous procedures were unable to reproduce his results. His mathematics was sometimes flawed, the experiments were not double-blinded or even necessarily single-blinded and some of the cards to be guessed were so thin that the symbol could be seen through the backing.[10][11][12]

Samuel G. Soal was described by Rhine as one of his harshest critics, running many similar experiments with wholly negative results. However, from around 1940 he ran forced-choice ESP experiments in which a subject attempted to identify which of five animal pictures a subject in another room was looking at. Their performance on this task was at chance, but when the scores were matched with the card that came after the target card, three of the thirteen subjects showed a very high hit rate.[13] Rhine now described Soal's work as "a milestone in the field".[13] However analyses of Soal's findings, conducted several years later, concluded that the positive results were more likely the result of deliberate fraud.[14][14] The controversy continued for many years more.[13] In 1978 the statistician and paragnost Betty Markwick, while seeking to vindicate Soal, discovered that he had tampered with his data.[14] The untainted experimental results showed no evidence of precognition.[13][15]

Late 20th century

As more modern technology became available, more automated techniques of experimentation were developed that did not rely on hand-scoring of equivalence between targets and guesses, and in which the targets could be more reliably and readily tested at random. In 1969 Helmut Schmidt introduced the use of high-speed random event generators (REG) for precognition testing, and experiments were also conducted at the Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research Lab.[16] Once again, flaws were found in all of Schmidt's experiments, when the psychologist C. E. M. Hansel found that several necessary precautions were not taken.[17]

In 1963 the BBC television programme Monitor broadcast an appeal by the writer J.B. Priestley for experiences which challenged our understanding of Time. He received hundreds of letters in reply and believed that many of them described genuine precognitive dreams.[18][19] In 2014 the BBC Radio 4 broadcaster Francis Spufford revisited Priestley's work and its relation to the ideas of J.W. Dunne.[20]

David Ryback, a psychologist in Atlanta, used a questionnaire survey approach to investigate precognitive dreaming in college students. His survey of over 433 participants showed that 290 or 66.9 percent reported some form of paranormal dream. He rejected many of these reports, but claimed that 8.8 percent of the population was having actual precognitive dreams.[21]

G. W. Lambert, a former Council member of the SPR, proposed five criteria that needed to be met before an account of a precognitive dream could be regarded as credible:[1]

  1. The dream should be reported to a credible witness before the event.
  2. The time interval between the dream and the event should be short.
  3. The event should be unexpected at the time of the dream.
  4. The description should be of an event destined literally, and not symbolically, to happen.
  5. The details of dream and event should tally.

21st century

In 2011 the psychologist Daryl Bem, a Professor Emeritus at Cornell University, published findings showing statistical evidence for precognition in an upper tier journal, the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.[22] The paper was heavily criticised and the criticism widened to include the journal itself and the validity of the peer review process.[23][24] Public controversy over the paper continued until in 2012 the results were published of an independent attempt to reproduce Bem's results, which failed to do so.[25][26][27][28][29]

Scientific criticism

Claims of precognition are, like any other claims, open to scientific criticism. However the nature of the criticism must adapt to the nature of the claim.[30]

Claims of precognition are criticised on two main grounds:

  • There is no known scientific mechanism which would allow precognition. It appears to require either action-at-a-distance or telepathic effects, which break known scientific laws.[31]
  • A large body of experimental work has produced no accepted scientific evidence that precognition exists.

Consequently, precognition is widely considered to be pseudoscience.[32][33][34]

Violation of natural law

Precognition would violate the principle of antecedence (causality), that an effect does not happen before its cause.[35][30] Information passing backwards in time would need to be carried by physical particles doing the same. Experimental evidence from high-energy physics suggests that this cannot happen. There is therefore no direct justification for precognition from physics."[36]

Precognition contradicts "most of the neuroscience and psychology literature, from electrophysiology and neuroimaging to temporal effects found in psychophysical research."[37] It is considered a delusion by mainstream psychiatry.[38]

The relatively new discovery of evidence for quantum retrocausality is sometimes suggested as a possible mechanism for precognition.[39] However it is generally held that such "quantum weirdness", even if it is shown to exist, cannot carry information at a macroscopic level.

Lack of evidence

A great deal of evidence for precognition has been put forward, both as witnessed anecdotes and as experimental results, but none has yet been accepted as rigorous scientific proof of the phenomenon.

Alternative explanations

Various known psychological processes have been put forward to explain experiences of apparent precognition. These include:

  • Déjà vu or identifying paramnesia, where people conjure up a false memory of a vision having occurred before the actual event.
  • Unconscious perception, where people unconsciously infer, from data they have unconsciously learned, that a certain event will probably happen in a certain context. When the event occurs, the former knowledge appears to have been acquired without the aid of recognized channels of information.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy and unconscious enactment, where people unconsciously bring about events which they have previously imagined.
  • Memory biases, where people selectively remember or distort past experiences to match subsequent events.[40] In one experiment, subjects were asked to write down their dreams in a diary. This prevented the selective memory effect, and the dreams no longer seemed accurate about the future.[41] Another experiment gave subjects a fake diary of a student with apparently precognitive dreams. This diary described events from the person's life, as well as some predictive dreams and some non-predictive dreams. When subjects were asked to recall the dreams they had read, they remembered more of the successful predictions than unsuccessful ones.[42]
  • Coincidence, where apparent instances of precognition in fact arise from the law of large numbers.[43][44]
  • Retrofitting, which involves after-the-fact matching of an event to an imprecise previous prediction. Retrofitting provides an explanation for the supposed accuracy of Nostradamus's vague prediction. For example, quatrain I:60 states "A ruler born near Italy ..... He's less a prince than a butcher." The phrase "near Italy" can be construed as covering a very broad range of geography, while no details are provided by Nostradamus regarding the era when this ruler will live. Because of this vagueness, and the flexibility of retrofitting, this quatrain has been interpreted by some as referring to Napoleon, but by others as referring to the Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand II, and by others still as a reference to Hitler.[45]

Cultural impact

Popular belief

Premonitions have sometimes affected the course of important historical events. Related activities such as prophecy and fortune telling have been practised throughout history and are still popular today.

Despite the lack of scientific evidence, many people still believe in precognition.[19][46] A 1978 poll found that 37% of Americans surveyed believed in it.[47] According to some psychologists, belief is greater in college women than in men, and a 2007 poll found that women were more prone to superstitious beliefs in general.[48] Some studies have been carried out on psychological reasons for such a belief. One such study suggested that greater belief in precognition was held by those who feel low in control, and the belief can act as a psychological coping mechanism.[49]

Literary references

J. W. Dunne's main work An Experiment with Time was widely read and "undoubtedly helped to form something of the imaginative climate of [the interwar] years", influencing many writers of both fact and fiction both then and since.[50] Major writers whose work was significantly influenced by his ideas on dream precognition include H. G. Wells, J. B. Priestley and Vladimir Nabokov.[51][52] Philippa Pearce's 1958 childhood fantasy Tom's Midnight Garden won the British literary Carnegie Medal.[53]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Inglis (1985), Chapter on "Precognition"
  2. ^ Aristotle. (350 BC). On Prophesying by Dreams. Trans. J.I. Beare, MIT. (Retrieved 5 September 2018).
  3. ^ a b Dunne (1927).
  4. ^ Flew, Antony; "The Sources of Serialism, in Shivesh Thakur (Ed). Philosophy and Psychical Research, George Allen & Unwin Ltd. 1976, pp. 81–96. ISBN 0-04-100041-2
  5. ^ Sean O'Donnell, The Paranormal Explained. Lulu 2007.
  6. ^ Brian Inglis; The Paranormal: An Encyclopedia of Psychic Phenomena. Paladin (Grafton), 1986, p.92.
  7. ^ Dunne (1927), 3rd Edition, Faber, 1934, Appendix III: The new experiment.
  8. ^ C. D. Broad; "The Philosophical Implications of Foreknowledge", Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary Volumes, Vol. 16, Knowledge and Foreknowledge (1937), pp. 177–209
  9. ^ Murray, H. A.; Wheeler, D. R. (1937). "A Note on the Possible Clairvoyance of Dreams". Journal of Psychology. 3 (2): 309–313. doi:10.1080/00223980.1937.9917500.
  10. ^ Harold Gulliksen. (1938). Extra-Sensory Perception: What Is It?. American Journal of Sociology. Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 623–634.
  11. ^ Wynn & Wiggins (2001), p. 156.
  12. ^ Hines (2003), pp. 78–81.
  13. ^ a b c d Colman, Andrew M. (1988). Facts, Fallacies and Frauds in Psychology. Unwin Hyman. pp. 175–180. ISBN 978-0-04-445289-8.
  14. ^ a b c Hyman, Ray (2007). "Evaluating Parapsychological Claims". In Robert J. Sternberg; Henry L. Roediger; Diane F. Halpern (eds.). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. pp. 219–223. ISBN 978-0-521-60834-3.
  15. ^ Betty Markwick. (1985). The establishment of data manipulation in the Soal-Shackleton experiments. In Paul Kurtz. A Skeptic’s Handbook of Parapsychology. Prometheus Books. pp. 287–312. ISBN 0-87975-300-5
  16. ^ Odling-Smee, Lucy (March 1, 2007). "The lab that asked the wrong questions". Nature. 446 (7131): 10–11. Bibcode:2007Natur.446...10O. doi:10.1038/446010a. PMID 17330012. Archived from the original on June 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  17. ^ C. E. M. Hansel. (1980). ESP and Parapsychology: A Critical Re-Evaluation. Prometheus Books. pp. 222–232. Hansel found that in the experiments of Schmidt there was no presence of an observer or second-experimenter in any of the experiments, no counterchecking of the records and no separate machines used for high and low score attempts.
  18. ^ Brian Inglis; The Paranormal: An Encyclopedia of Psychic Phenomena. Paladin (Grafton), 1986, p.90.
  19. ^ a b Priestley (1964).
  20. ^ Francis Spufford, "I Have Been Here Before", Sunday Feature, BBC Radio 3, 14 Sep 2014.
  21. ^ Ryback, David, PhD. "Dreams That Came True". New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, 1988.
  22. ^ Bem, DJ (March 2011). "Feeling the future: experimental evidence for anomalous retroactive influences on cognition and affect" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 100 (3): 407–25. doi:10.1037/a0021524. PMID 21280961.
  23. ^ James Alcock, Back from the Future: Parapsychology and the Bem Affair, March/April 2011 Skeptical Inquirer, January 6, 2011.
  24. ^ "Room for Debate: When Peer Review Falters". The New York Times. January 7, 2011.
  25. ^ Rouder, J.; Morey, R. (2011). "A Bayes factor meta-analysis of Bem's ESP claim" (PDF). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review. 18 (4): 682–689. doi:10.3758/s13423-011-0088-7. PMID 21573926.
  26. ^ Bem, Daryl (6 January 2011). "Response to Alcock's "Back from the Future: Comments on Bem"". Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  27. ^ Alcock, James (6 January 2011). "Response to Bem's Comments". Retrieved 31 January 2012.
  28. ^ Galak, J.; LeBoeuf, R. A.; Nelson, L. D.; Simmons, J. P. (2012). "Correcting the past: Failures to replicate psi". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 103 (6): 933–948. doi:10.1037/a0029709. PMID 22924750.
  29. ^ Frazier, Kendrick (2013). "Failure to Replicate Results of Bem Parapsychology Experiments Published by Same Journal". csicop.org. Retrieved 7 August 2013.
  30. ^ a b Hyman, Ray (2007). "Evaluating Parapsychological Claims". In Robert J. Sternberg; Henry J. Roediger III; Diane F. Halpern (eds.). Critical Thinking in Psychology. Cambridge University Press. p. 217. ISBN 978-0-521-60834-3.
  31. ^ Wynn & Wiggins (2001), p. 165.
  32. ^ Alcock, James. (1981). Parapsychology-Science Or Magic?: A Psychological Perspective Pergamon Press. pp. 3–6. ISBN 978-0080257730
  33. ^ Zusne, Leonard; Jones, Warren H. (1989). Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-805-80507-9
  34. ^ Ciccarelli, Saundra E; Meyer, Glenn E. Psychology. (2007). Prentice Hall Higher Education. p. 118. ISBN 978-0136030638 "Precognition is the supposed ability to know something in advance of its occurrence or to predict a future event."
  35. ^ Bunge, Mario. (1983). Treatise on Basic Philosophy: Volume 6: Epistemology & Methodology II: Understanding the World. Springer. pp. 225–226. ISBN 978-9027716347
  36. ^ Taylor, John. (1980). Science and the Supernatural: An Investigation of Paranormal Phenomena Including Psychic Healing, Clairvoyance, Telepathy, and Precognition by a Distinguished Physicist and Mathematician. Temple Smith. p. 83. ISBN 0-85117-191-5.
  37. ^ Schwarzkopf, Samuel (2014). "We Should Have Seen This Coming". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. 8: 332. doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00332. PMC 4034337. PMID 24904372.
  38. ^ Greenaway, Katharine H., Winnifred R. Louis, and Matthew J. Hornsey. "Loss of control increases belief in precognition and belief in precognition increases control." PLOS ONE 8, no. 8 (2013): e71327. //journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0071327
  39. ^ Merali, Zeeya. "Back From the Future". Discover, April 2010. (recovered 5 September 2018).
  40. ^ Hines (2003).
  41. ^ Alcock, James E. (1981). Parapsychology: Science or Magic?: a psychological perspective. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 978-0-08-025773-0. via Hines (2003).
  42. ^ Madey, Scott; Thomas Gilovich (1993). "Effects of Temporal Focus on the Recall of Expectancy-Consistent and Expectancy-Inconsistent Information". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 65 (3): 458–68. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.65.3.458. PMID 8410650. via Kida, Thomas (2006). Don't Believe Everything You Think: The 6 Basic Mistakes We Make in Thinking. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-59102-408-8.
  43. ^ Wiseman, Richard. (2011). Paranormality: Why We See What Isn't There. Macmillan. pp. 163-167. ISBN 978-0-230-75298-6
  44. ^ Sutherland, Stuart. (1994). Irrationality: The Enemy Within. pp. 312–313. Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-016726-9
  45. ^ Nickell, Joe (2019). "Premonition! Foreseeing what cannot be seen". Skeptical Inquirer. 43 (4): 17–20.
  46. ^ Peake, Anthony; The Labyrinth of Time, Arcturus, 2012, Chapter 10: "Dreams and precognition".
  47. ^ American Bar Association (December 1978), ABA Journal, American Bar Association, pp. 1847–, ISSN 0747-0088
  48. ^ Stuart A. Vyse (1 September 2013), Believing in Magic: The Psychology of Superstition – Updated Edition, Oxford University Press, USA, pp. 45–, ISBN 978-0-19-999693-3
  49. ^ Greenaway, KH; Louis, WR; Hornsey, MJ (2013). "Loss of Control Increases Belief in Precognition and Belief in Precognition Increases Control". PLOS ONE. 8 (8): e71327. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...871327G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071327. PMC 3737190. PMID 23951136.
  50. ^ Anon,; "Obituary: Mr. J. W. Dunne, Philosopher and Airman", The Times, August 27, 1949, Page 7.
  51. ^ Stewart, V.; "J. W. Dunne and literary culture in the 1930s and 1940s", Literature and History, Volume 17, Number 2, Autumn 2008, pp. 62–81, Manchester University Press.
  52. ^ Vladimir Nabokov (ed. Gennady Barabtarlo); Insomniac Dreams: Experiments with Time, Princeton University Press, 2018.
  53. ^ "Pearce, Philippa : SFE : Science Fiction Encyclopedia". www.sf-encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2016-01-15.

Bibliography

  • Dunne, J. W. (1927). An Experiment With Time. A. C. Black.
  • Hines, Terence (2003). Pseudoscience and the Paranormal. Prometheus Books. ISBN 978-1-57392-979-0.
  • Inglis, Brian. (1985). The Paranormal: An Encyclopedia of Psychic Phenomena. Paladin.
  • Priestley, J.B. Man and Time. Aldus 1964, 2nd Edition Bloomsbury 1989.
  • Wynn, Charles M., and Wiggins, Arthur W. (2001). Quantum Leaps in the Wrong Direction: Where Real Science Ends...and Pseudoscience Begins. Joseph Henry Press. ISBN 978-0-309-07309-7

Further reading

Brother Odd

Brother Odd is a novel by Dean Koontz, published in 2006. The novel is the third book in Koontz's series focusing on a young man named Odd Thomas.

Dream Boy (comics)

Rol Purtha, known as Dream Boy, is a comic book fictional character, a DC Comics superhero and comes from the planet Naltor. He first appeared in Supergirl and the Legion of Super-Heroes #18 at Legion Headquarters just after the death of his predecessor Dream Girl, presumably as a replacement by Naltor's High Seer. However, he later made a cryptic comment that he was not sent by Naltor.

Extrasensory perception

Extrasensory perception or ESP, also called sixth sense, includes claimed reception of information not gained through the recognized physical senses, but sensed with the mind. The term was adopted by Duke University psychologist J. B. Rhine to denote psychic abilities such as intuition, telepathy, psychometry, clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal operation as precognition or retrocognition.Second sight is a form of extrasensory perception, the power to perceive things that are not present to the 5 senses, whereby a person perceives information, in the form of a vision, about future events before they happen (precognition), or about things or events at remote locations (remote viewing). There is no scientific evidence that second sight exists. Reports of second sight are known only from anecdotal evidence given after the fact.

Help (Buffy the Vampire Slayer)

"Help" is the fourth episode of the seventh and final season of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer.

Kismet, Man of Fate

Kismet, Man of Fate is a fictional character, a superhero published by Elliot Publishing Company in the Golden Age of Comic Books. The series features adventures of an Algerian superhero who was thought lost by the Allies at the end of World War II. The character originally appeared in Bomber Comics #1 (1944), making him the first identified Muslim superhero.

MODAM

MODAM (Olinka Barankova) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.

Madame Web

Madame Web (Cassandra Webb) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. Madame Web first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #210, published November 1980, and was created by writer Denny O'Neil and artist John Romita Jr. She is usually depicted as a supporting character in the Spider-Man comic book series. She is depicted as an elderly woman with myasthenia gravis and thus was connected to a life support system that looked like a spider web. Due to her age and medical condition Madame Web never actively fought any villains.

Madame Web was a clairvoyant, and precognitive mutant who first showed up to help Spider-Man find a kidnap victim. Madame Web was not one of the mutants that lost their power during the Decimation storyline. She was attacked by Sarah and Ana Kravinoff, who killed her, but not before she was able to pass her powers of precognition as well as her blindness on to Julia Carpenter, who became the next Madame Web. Webb is the grandmother of the fourth Spider-Woman, Charlotte Witter.

Negasonic Teenage Warhead

Ellie Phimister (colloquial: Negasonic Teenage Warhead) is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by Grant Morrison and Frank Quitely, and named after the song "Negasonic Teenage Warhead" by Monster Magnet. The character is a mutant who displays telepathic and precognitive powers, and is a student of Emma Frost.

The character appears in the 2016 film Deadpool and its 2018 sequel Deadpool 2, albeit with a different look and superpowers to high-impact kinetic charges, much like New Mutants/X-Men member Cannonball. This was done through a deal between 20th Century Fox and Marvel Studios, which allowed Marvel Studios to use Ego the Living Planet in the 2017 film Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2 in exchange for changing the character's powers. In Deadpool and Deadpool 2, Negasonic Teenage Warhead is a member of the X-Men, portrayed by actress Brianna Hildebrand; she is the first LGBT character to star in a superhero film that openly features a same-sex couple.

Nia Nal

Nia Nal (also known by her code name Dreamer) is a fictional character from the television series Supergirl, portrayed by actress Nicole Maines. The character is based on and is depicted as an ancestor of the DC Comics character Nura Nal/Dream Girl. She debuts in the fourth season of the series. Nia Nal is the first transgender superhero on television.

Odd Hours

Odd Hours is the fourth novel in the Odd Thomas series by Dean Koontz. It was released on May 20, 2008.

Outline of parapsychology

Parapsychology is a field of research that studies a number of ostensible paranormal phenomena, including telepathy, precognition, clairvoyance, psychokinesis, near-death experiences, reincarnation, and apparitional experiences.

Precognition (Scots law)

Precognition in Scots law is the practice of taking a factual statement from witnesses by both prosecution and defence after indictment or claim but before trial. This is often undertaken by trainee lawyers or precognition officers employed by firms; anecdotal evidence suggests many of these are former policemen.This procedure is followed in both civil and criminal causes. The subsequent statement is generally inadmissible as evidence in the trial, but it allows the procurator fiscal, advocate or solicitor in Scotland to appear before the Courts of Scotland knowing what evidence each witness is likely to present. Following the judgement of the Appeal Court in Beurskens v HM Advocate [2014] HCJAC 99 it is possible for a precognition to be considered as a statement, and thus be admissible as evidence in court.Historically precognitions were not only a distinctive feature of Scottish criminal procedure, but vital to the defence. Before the passage of the Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010 there was limited disclosure by the prosecution to the defence. Section 121 of 2010 Act required the prosecutor to disclose all information that would "materially weaken or undermine the evidence... by the prosecution", "materially strengthen the accused's case", or "form part of the evidence to be by the prosecutor". This was in response to the 2007 review by Lord Coulsfield. Before this the accused was entitled to a copy of the indictment with all the charges laid against them, and to a list of prosecution witnesses and productions (other evidence) and to all statements taken by the prosecution and knowledge of witnesses prior criminal records.Police officers from Police Scotland can be asked to attend for precognition by solicitors for the defence, and it is possible for them to refuse to attend (except where a Sheriff orders a precognition on oath). However, as of 7 August 2013 Police Scotland had no record of how many officers had refused to attend a precognition for the defence.

Prophecy Girl

"Prophecy Girl" is the season finale of the WB Television Network's first season of the drama television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, and the 12th episode of the series. It first aired on June 2, 1997. Series creator Joss Whedon wrote and directed the episode.

The narrative features vampire Slayer Buffy Summers (Sarah Michelle Gellar) working to prevent vampire the Master (Mark Metcalf) from rising to power, despite a prophecy predicting her death at his hands.

Due to the first season of the show acting as a midseason replacement for Savannah, all twelve episodes were produced before the first episode aired (and as such, the conclusion of the episode serves to wrap the series up in case it were not renewed). All following seasons ran from September to May and received twenty-two episode pick-ups.

Saint Odd

Saint Odd (2015) is the seventh and final thriller novel in the Odd Thomas series by American writer Dean Koontz. The book was initially released on January 13, 2015 by Bantam Books.

Spider-Man (Pavitr Prabhakar)

Spider-Man (Pavitr Prabhakar) is a fictional character. An alternate version of Spider-Man debuting in Spider-Man: India, a comic book that originally published in India by Gotham Entertainment Group in 2004, retelling the story of Spider-Man in an Indian setting.

The Dead Zone (film)

The Dead Zone is a 1983 American horror thriller film directed by David Cronenberg. The screenplay, by Jeffrey Boam, is based on the 1979 novel of the same name by Stephen King. The film stars Christopher Walken, Brooke Adams, Tom Skerritt, Herbert Lom, Martin Sheen, Anthony Zerbe and Colleen Dewhurst. Walken plays a schoolteacher, Johnny Smith, who awakens from a coma to find he has psychic powers. The film received positive reviews and became the basis for a television series of the same name in the early 2000s, starring Anthony Michael Hall.

The Dead Zone (novel)

The Dead Zone is a horror/supernatural thriller novel by Stephen King published in 1979. It is his seventh novel and the fifth novel under his own name. It concerns Johnny Smith, who is injured in an accident and remains in a coma for nearly five years. Upon emergence, he exhibits clairvoyance and precognition with limitations, apparently because of a "dead zone," an area of his brain that suffered permanent damage as the result of his accident.

Though earlier King books were successful, The Dead Zone was the first of his novels to rank among the ten best-selling of the year in the United States. The book was nominated for the Locus Award in 1980 and was dedicated to King's son Owen.

The book spawned a 1983 film adaptation as well as a television series.

The Gift (2000 film)

The Gift is a 2000 American supernatural thriller film directed by Sam Raimi, written by Billy Bob Thornton and Tom Epperson, and based on the alleged psychic experiences of Thornton's mother.The film centers on Annie (Cate Blanchett) becoming involved in a murder case as a result of acquiring knowledge about the crime through extrasensory perception. The cast also includes Keanu Reeves, Giovanni Ribisi, Hilary Swank, Katie Holmes, and Greg Kinnear.

Volla (comics)

Volla is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. She is based on Fulla from Norse mythology.

Topics
Active organizations
Defunct organizations
People
Publications
Terminology
Examples
Related topics
Resources

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.