Pre-production

Pre-production is the process of planning some of the elements involved in a film, play, or other performance. There are three parts in a production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production ends when the planning ends and the content starts being produced.

In film

In filmmaking and video production, pre-production formally begins once a project has been greenlit. At this stage, finalizing preparations for production go into effect. Financing will generally be confirmed and many of the key elements such as principal cast members, director and cinematographer are set. By the end of pre-production, the screenplay is usually finalized and satisfactory to all the financiers and other stakeholders.

During pre-production, the script is broken down into individual scenes storyboards and all the locations, props, cast members, costumes, special effects and visual effects are identified. An extremely detailed schedule is produced and arrangements are made for the necessary elements to be available to the film-makers at the appropriate times. Sets are constructed, the crew is hired, financial arrangements are put in place and a start date for the beginning of principal photography is set. At some point in pre-production there will be a read-through of the script which is usually attended by all cast members with speaking parts, the director, all heads of departments, financiers, producers, and publicists.

In music

In the music industry, pre-production is a process whereby a recording artist spends time creating and refining their musical ideas. The artist thus produces a song's demo recording, or rough draft, in order to pre-establish the song's creative premise. This reduces the time and money spent in expensive studios. The goal is to enter into the major recording phase of production with the basic and most promising ideas having been already established.

Notable producers who preferred this process have included Bruce Fairbairn and Bob Rock. They have both produced successful albums such as Bon Jovi's Slippery When Wet, Mötley Crüe's Dr. Feelgood, Metallica's The Black Album and Aerosmith's Permanent Vacation.

See also

Design change

A design change is the modification conducted to the product. It can happen at any stage in the product development process.

The design changes that happen early in the design process are less expensive when compared to those that take place after it is introduced into full-scale production. The cost of the change increases with its development time. Fundamentally, the design changes can be classified into pre production and post production design changes. The pre-production changes can happen in the conceptual design stage, prototype stage, detailing stage, testing stage. The post -production stage change will happen almost immediately the product is introduced into the production. This might be due to several reasons such as market response, design faults uncovering, design mistakes, not meeting customer requirements, so on and so forth. One of the tools to minimize this type of design change is House of Quality.

Director of audiography

The director of audiography, (DA) within Indian-style filmmaking, is the head of the sound department and the person responsible for planning the audiography and managing the audiographers of a film.

The title is not used professionally in most of the world. The role of audiographer and the title "director of audiography" derives from Bollywood-style filmmaking in India, where it is an established title credit.

The DA works to carry out the director's vision, identifies the tasks necessary to realize this vision, budgets for those tasks and coordinates all the work from pre-production to post-production whilst keeping an eye on overall sound quality.

Since the onset of the "talkies", a creative and professional conflict has emerged from the ongoing tension between the visual and aural dimensions of film. Production sound crews often complain about the lack of consideration given to sound on film productions.

Having a DA in pre-production helps to exert a powerful presence to defend the dimension of sound in film.

In the early days of the Hollywood studio system, every studio had a sound director (SD) or a recording director (RD), who headed the sound department and took sole credit for the work done by a large crew of sound technicians.

Hollywood sound editor David Yewdall bemoans the loss of the SD in Hollywood and recalls the story of film producer Ross Hunter, working on the film Airport, who neglected to take the advice of sound editor Joe Sikorski to record aircraft sound effects on location; an SD would have immediately appreciated the financial implications of not taking such advice.Following the demise of the studio system and the loss of the sound director, part of this role was delegated to the post-production supervisor, supervising sound editor, sound designer or production sound mixer - each role allegedly having less influence, responsibility and scope than the former SD. Where no DA is hired - as is the case when making films in the West - there has been some debate on the most appropriate role to head the sound department; a supervising sound editor is seen as a technical manager - comparable to an art director - whereas a sound designer is viewed as a creative visionary, analogous to a production designer.

In practice, the industry sees both roles as equivalent.The DA should not be confused with a production supervisor or post-production supervisor - both are administrative roles in the production department. In contrast, the DA is a technical role blending leadership, management and administrative skills with creative audiography ranging over pre-production, production and post-production - constrained only by the Director's vision and the production's schedule and budget. In many ways the DoA role is a natural extension of the more limited post-production role of supervising sound editor.

The term director of sound (DoS) has also been proposed as an alternative title to that of DA.

Film producer

A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working independently, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting the script; coordinating writing, directing, and editing; and arranging financing.During the "discovery stage," the producer finds and selects promising material for development. Then, unless the film is based on an existing script, the producer has to hire a screenwriter and oversee the development of the script. Once a script is completed, the producer will lead a pitch to secure the financial backing (a "green light") to allow production to begin.

The producer also supervises the pre-production, production, and post-production stages of filmmaking. One of the most important tasks is to hire the director and other key crew members. Whereas the director makes the creative decisions during the production, the producer typically manages the logistics and business operations, though some directors also produce their own films. The producer is tasked with making sure the film is delivered on time and within budget, and has the final say on creative decisions. Finally, the producer will oversee the marketing and distribution.

For various reasons, producers cannot always supervise all of the production. In this case, the main producer may hire and delegate work to executive producers, line producers, or unit production managers.

Filmmaking

Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.

Green-light

To green-light is to give permission or a go ahead to move forward with a project. The term is a reference to the green traffic signal, indicating "go ahead". In the context of the film and television industries, to green-light something is to formally approve its production finance and to commit to this financing, thereby allowing the project to move forward from the development phase to pre-production and principal photography.

The power to green-light a project is generally reserved to those in a project or financial management role within an organization. The process of taking a project from pitch to green light formed the basis of a successful reality TV show titled Project Greenlight.At the Big Five major film studios in the United States and the mini-majors, green-light power is generally exercised by committees of the studios' high-level executives. However, the studio president, chairman, or chief executive is usually the person who makes the final judgment call. For the largest film budgets involving several hundred million U.S. dollars, the chief executive officer or chief operating officer of the studio's parent conglomerate may hold final green-light authority.

Henschel Hs 122

The Henschel Hs 122 was a German army cooperation/reconnaissance aircraft of the mid-1930s, radial-engined and with a parasol wing. Though only pre-production variants entered service, the Hs 122 led on to the Hs 126 which was produced in large numbers.

Hook (film)

Hook is a 1991 American fantasy adventure film directed by Steven Spielberg and written by James V. Hart and Malia Scotch Marmo. It stars Robin Williams as Peter Banning / Peter Pan, Dustin Hoffman as Captain Hook, Julia Roberts as Tinker Bell, Bob Hoskins as Smee, Maggie Smith as Wendy, Caroline Goodall as Moira Banning, and Charlie Korsmo as Jack Banning. It acts as a sequel to J. M. Barrie's 1911 novel Peter and Wendy focusing on an adult Peter Pan who has forgotten all about his childhood. In his new life, he is known as Peter Banning, a successful but unimaginative and workaholic corporate lawyer with a wife (Wendy's granddaughter) and two children. However, when Captain Hook, the enemy of his past, kidnaps his children, he returns to Neverland in order to save them. Along the journey, he reclaims the memories of his past and becomes a better person.

Spielberg began developing the film in the early 1980s with Walt Disney Productions and Paramount Pictures, which would have followed the storyline seen in the 1924 silent film and 1953 animated film. It entered pre-production in 1985, but Spielberg abandoned the project. James V. Hart developed the script with director Nick Castle and TriStar Pictures before Spielberg decided to direct in 1989. It was shot almost entirely on sound stages at Sony Pictures Studios in Culver City, California. Released on December 11, 1991, Hook received unfavorable reviews from critics, and while it was a commercial success, its box office take was lower than expected. It was nominated in five categories at the 64th Academy Awards. It also spawned merchandise, including video games, action figures, and comic book adaptations.

ISO 17100

ISO 17100:2015 Translation Services-Requirements for Translation Services was published on May 1, 2015. It was prepared by the International Organization for Standardization's Technical Committee ISO/TC 37, Terminology and other language and content resources, Subcommittee SC 5, Translation, interpreting and related technology.

Iron Man (2008 film)

Iron Man is a 2008 American superhero film based on the Marvel Comics character of the same name. The first installment of the Marvel Cinematic Universe, it was directed by Jon Favreau from a screenplay by Mark Fergus and Hawk Ostby, and Art Marcum and Matt Holloway. The film follows Tony Stark (Robert Downey Jr.), an industrialist and master engineer who builds a powered exoskeleton after a life-threatening incident, and becomes the technologically advanced superhero Iron Man.

The film had been in development since 1990 at Universal Pictures, 20th Century Fox, and New Line Cinema at various times, before Marvel Studios reacquired the rights in 2006. Marvel put the project in production as its first self-financed film, with Paramount Pictures as distributor. Favreau signed on as director, aiming for a naturalistic feel, and chose to shoot the film primarily in California, rejecting the East Coast setting of the comics to differentiate the film from numerous superhero films set in New York City-esque environments. Filming began in March 2007 and concluded in June. During filming, the actors were free to create their own dialogue because pre-production was focused on the story and action. Rubber and metal versions of the armor, created by Stan Winston's company, were mixed with computer-generated imagery to create the title character.

Iron Man premiered in Sydney on April 14, 2008, and was released in the United States on May 2, 2008. The film grossed over $585 million on its $140 million budget, becoming the eighth-highest grossing film of 2008. It received praise from critics for its acting (particularly Downey's), screenplay, direction, visual effects, and action sequences, and was selected by the American Film Institute as one of the ten best films of 2008. It received two nominations at the 81st Academy Awards for Best Sound Editing and Best Visual Effects, and was followed by the sequels Iron Man 2 and Iron Man 3 in 2010 and 2013, respectively.

It Chapter Two

It Chapter Two is an upcoming American supernatural horror film and the sequel to the 2017 film It. Both films are based on the 1986 novel It by Stephen King. The sequel film is directed by Andy Muschietti and written by Gary Dauberman. Set in 2016, 27 years after the events of 1989 depicted in the first film, it stars Bill Skarsgård, who reprises his role as Pennywise. It also stars James McAvoy, Jessica Chastain, Bill Hader, Isaiah Mustafa, Jay Ryan, James Ransone, and Andy Bean, who portray the adult versions of The Losers Club, while Jaeden Martell, Sophia Lillis, Finn Wolfhard, Chosen Jacobs, Jeremy Ray Taylor, Jack Dylan Grazer, and Wyatt Oleff return from the first film as the younger Losers, respectively. The film is produced by New Line Cinema, Vertigo Entertainment, and Rideback, and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures.

Talks for an It sequel began in February 2016, when Muschietti revealed the plan to get production underway. By September 2017, New Line Cinema announced that the sequel would be released in September 2019, with Dauberman writing the script, and Muschietti expected to direct the film. Principal photography on the film began on June 19, 2018, at Pinewood Toronto Studios and on locations in and around Port Hope, Oshawa, and Toronto, Ontario, and wrapped on October 31, 2018.

The film is scheduled to be theatrically released in the United States on September 6, 2019.

Location shooting

Location shooting is the shooting of a film or television production in a real-world setting rather than a sound stage or backlot. The location may be interior or exterior.

The filming location may be the same in which the story is set (for example, scenes in the film The Interpreter were set and shot inside the United Nations building), or it may stand in for a different locale (the films Amadeus and The Illusionist were primarily set in Vienna, but were filmed in Prague). Most films feature a combination of location and studio shoots; often, interior scenes will be shot on a soundstage while exterior scenes will be shot on location. Second unit photography is not generally considered a location shoot.

Before filming, the locations are generally surveyed in pre-production, a process known as location scouting and recce.

Principal photography

Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the bulk of the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production.Principal photography is typically the most expensive phase of film production, due to actor, director, and set crew salaries, as well as the costs of certain shots, props, and on-set special effects. Its start generally marks a point of no return for the financiers, because until it is complete, there is unlikely to be enough material filmed to release a final product needed to recoup costs. While it is common for a film to lose its greenlight status during pre-production – for example, because an important cast member drops out or unexpectedly dies, or some kind of scandal engulfs the studio or an actor – it is extremely uncommon for financing to be withdrawn once principal photography has begun.Feature films usually have insurance in place by the time principal photography begins. The death of a bankable star before completing all planned takes, or the loss of sets or footage can render a film impossible to complete as planned. For example, sets are notoriously flammable. Furthermore, professional-quality movie cameras are normally rented as needed, and most camera houses will not allow rentals of their equipment without proof of insurance.Once a film concludes principal photography, it is said to have wrapped, and a wrap party may be organized to celebrate. During post-production, it may become clear that certain shots or sequences are missing or incomplete and are required to complete the film, or that a certain scene is not playing as expected, or even, as seen in the late stages of filming The Hate U Give, that a particular actor's performance or behavior has not turned out as desired, causing him or her to be completely replaced with another. In these circumstances, additional material may have to be shot. If the material has already been shot once, or is substantial, the process is referred to as a re-shoot, but if the material is new and relatively minor, it is often referred to as a pick-up.

Seven (1995 film)

Seven (stylized as SE7EN) is a 1995 American neo-noir crime thriller film directed by David Fincher and written by Andrew Kevin Walker. It stars Brad Pitt, Morgan Freeman, Gwyneth Paltrow, John C. McGinley, R. Lee Ermey, and Kevin Spacey. It tells the story of David Mills (Pitt), a detective who partners with the retiring William Somerset (Freeman) to track down a serial killer (Spacey) who uses the seven deadly sins as a motif in his murders.

The screenplay was influenced by the time Walker spent in New York City trying to make it as a writer. Principal photography took place in Los Angeles, with the last scene filmed near Lancaster, California. The film's budget was $33 million.

Released on September 22, 1995, by New Line Cinema, Seven was the seventh-highest-grossing film of the year, grossing over $327 million worldwide. It was well received by critics, who praised the film's darkness, brutality and themes. The film was nominated for Best Film Editing at the 68th Academy Awards, but lost to Apollo 13.

Shazam! (film)

Shazam! is a 2019 American superhero film based on the DC Comics character of the same name. Produced by New Line Cinema and distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures, it is the seventh installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU). Directed by David F. Sandberg from a screenplay by Henry Gayden, and a story by Gayden and Darren Lemke, the film stars Asher Angel as Billy Batson, a teenage boy who can transform into an adult superhero, played by Zachary Levi. Mark Strong and Jack Dylan Grazer also star.

Development of a live-action Shazam! film began at New Line in the early 2000s but was delayed for many years. The film went into pre-production in 2009 with director Peter Segal and writer John August and Dwayne Johnson considered to star as the villain Black Adam, but the project fell through; Johnson acts as an executive producer on Shazam!. William Goldman, Alec Sokolow, Joel Cohen, Bill Birch, and Geoff Johns, among others, were all attached to the project as writers at various points. The film was officially announced in 2014, with Johnson attached to star as either Shazam or Black Adam. He would later be cast in January 2017 to lead a solo Black Adam development project. Sandberg signed on to direct Shazam! in February 2017 and Levi was cast that October, with Angel joining the following month. Principal photography began in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on January 29, 2018, with most of the film shot at Pinewood Toronto Studios, and wrapped on May 11, 2018.

Shazam! was released in the United States by Warner Bros. Pictures in RealD 3D, Dolby Cinema, and IMAX 3D on April 5, 2019. The film has grossed $360 million worldwide, making it the sixth highest-grossing film of 2019, and received praise from critics for Sandberg's direction and the performances of Levi and Grazer, as well as its light tone and sense of fun. A sequel is in development.

Studio B Productions

Studio B Productions is a former name for a Canadian animation studio founded by Blair Peters and Chris Bartleman in Vancouver, British Columbia in 1988. The studio was acquired by DHX Media on December 4, 2007, and became a subsidiary there since then. The Studio B brand is no longer used and since September 2010 all shows are branded using the DHX Media name.

Television show

A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows. Television shows are most often scheduled well ahead of time and appear on electronic guides or other TV listings.

A television show might also be called a television program (British English: programme), especially if it lacks a narrative structure. A television series is usually released in episodes that follow a narrative, and are usually divided into seasons (US and Canada) or series (UK) – yearly or semiannual sets of new episodes. A show with a limited number of episodes may be called a miniseries, serial, or limited series. A one-time show may be called a "special". A television film ("made-for-TV movie" or "television movie") is a film that is initially broadcast on television rather than released in theaters or direct-to-video.

Television shows can be viewed as they are broadcast in real time (live), be recorded on home video or a digital video recorder for later viewing, or be viewed on demand via a set-top box or streamed over the internet.

Video production

Video production is the process of producing video content. It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with images recorded digitally instead of on film stock. There are three stages of video production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production involves all of the planning aspects of the video production process before filming begins. This includes scriptwriting, scheduling, logistics, and other administrative duties. Production is the phase of video production which captures the video content (moving images / videography) and involves filming the subject(s) of the video. Post-production is the action of selectively combining those video clips through video editing into a finished product that tells a story or communicates a message in either a live event setting (live production), or after an event has occurred (post-production).

Currently, the majority of video content is captured through electronic media like an SD card for consumer grade cameras, or on solid state storage and flash storage for professional grade cameras. Video content that is distributed digitally often appears in common formats such as the Moving Picture Experts Group format (.mpeg, .mpg, .mp4), QuickTime (.mov), Audio Video Interleave (.avi), Windows Media Video (.wmv), and DivX (.avi, .divx).

Waco C-62

The Waco C-62 was a proposed high wing transport airplane similar in size and capacity to the Douglas DC-3. 13 pre-production aircraft were ordered in October 1941, with a contract for 240 production models awarded in early 1942; however, the project was canceled in September 1943 in favor of the Curtiss-Wright C-76 Caravan before any aircraft were built.

Wonder Woman 1984

Wonder Woman 1984 is an upcoming American superhero film based on the DC Comics character Wonder Woman, distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures. It is intended to be the sequel to 2017's Wonder Woman and the ninth installment in the DC Extended Universe (DCEU). It is directed by Patty Jenkins; the film is written by Jenkins, Geoff Johns and David Callaham, from a story written by Johns and Jenkins. It stars Gal Gadot in the title role, with Chris Pine, Kristen Wiig, Pedro Pascal, Connie Nielsen and Robin Wright in supporting roles. It is the fourth live-action theatrical film featuring the titular character, following Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), Wonder Woman and Justice League (2017); it will be the second full-length feature film centered around the character.

Discussion of a sequel began shortly after the release of the first film in June 2017, and the decision to proceed was confirmed the following month. Principal photography began on June 13, 2018 – with filming taking place at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden in England, as well as the District of Columbia and Northern Virginia in the United States, London and Duxford in England, Tenerife and Fuerteventura in the Canary Islands, and Almería in Andalusia, Spain – and finished on December 22, 2018, after a six-month shoot.

Wonder Woman 1984 is scheduled to be released in the United States by Warner Bros. Pictures in RealD 3D, Dolby Cinema and IMAX 3D on June 5, 2020.

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