Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar[1] (প্রভাত রঞ্জন সরকার) (21 May 1921 – 21 October 1990), also known by his spiritual name, Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti (শ্রী শ্রী আনন্দমূর্তি) (Ánanda Múrti="Bliss Embodiment"), and known as Bábá (বাবা) ("Father") to his disciples, was a Spiritual Guru, Indian philosopher, yogi, author, cult-leader, poet, composer, and linguist. Sarkar was the founder of Ananda Marga (the Path of Bliss) in 1955, a spiritual and social organisation that offers instruction in meditation and yoga. Gyani Zail Singh, seventh President of India, has said about Sarkar: "Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar was one of the greatest modern philosophers of India."[2]

Sarkar's system of spiritual practice has been described as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies.[3] He denounced materialism and capitalism, and described the universe as a result of macropsychic conation – the entire universe exists within the cosmic mind, which itself is the first expression of consciousness coming under the bondage of its own nature.

Sarkar was a prolific author and produced an extensive body of works that includes theories aimed at increasing human welfare such as the Law of Social Cycle, the Progressive Utilization Theory, the Theory of Microvitum, as well as the philosophy of Neohumanism.

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
PRSarkar GentlemanPhoto 3
Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
Born21 May 1921
Died21 October 1990 (aged 69)
NationalityIndian
Alma materVidyasagar College
University of Calcutta
OccupationPhilosopher, Author, Social Revolutionary, Writer, Poet, Composer, Intellectual, linguist and Spiritual Teacher
Known forFounder of Ananda Marga, Progressive Utilization Theory

Biography

Sarkar was born during the full moon of the Indian month of Vaeshakh (Buddha Purnima), on 11 May 1922 (at 6:07 in the morning) to Lakshmi Narayan Sarkar, a homoeopathic doctor of considerable renown.[4] His family hailed from Bamunpara (Brahmanpara), Burdwan District in West Bengal. Sarkar was known as an exceptionally bright child in his youth, practising meditation by himself at an early age and displaying great knowledge of various languages and various topics; knowledge which was reportedly not gained in school, by reading books, nor by listening to teachers, nor from any other outer source.

In 1939 Sarkar left Jamalpur for Kolkata to attend Vidyasagar College of the University of Calcutta.[5] Sarkar had to quit his studies to support his family after the death of his father, and from 1944 until the early 1950s, Sarkar worked as an accountant at the Indian railways headquarters in Jamalpur, Bihar.[4] He taught the techniques of ancient Tantra meditation to a select number of his colleagues and gradually more and more people were drawn to the spiritual practices he taught.

In 1955, Sarkar founded Ananda Marga (the Path of Bliss), a socio-spiritual movement with a two-part mission that Sarkar stated as "self-realization and service to all". His system of spiritual practice has been described as a practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies. Sarkar's ideas are collected in the series of books called "Subháśita Samgraha", which form part of the philosophical scriptures of Ananda Marga ideology. Sarkar's ideas are steeped in the ancient spiritual tradition of humanity, considerably developed in India, yet revitalised by him with new meaning and universal approach.

During the latter part of his life his main residence was in Lake Gardens in Kolkata, West Bengal. He also spent much time, especially early on, in the all-round development community he founded based on his PROUT theory at Anandanagar. Ananda Marga opened regional offices in various countries, including the USA in 1969, and by 1973 had established approximately 100 local centres teaching yogic and social philosophies, with several thousand members, some living communally in the ashrams.[6][7]

In 1971, Sarkar was imprisoned in India for the alleged murder of Ananda Marga members. In February 1973, Sarkar was poisoned in prison, allegedly by the jail doctor on orders from the higher echelons of government. On 1 April, after recovering his health, Sarkar began fasting in support of a demand for an inquest into his poisoning. That demand was never met. So he continued his fast for the next five years, four months, and two days, until 2 August 1978 when he was released from jail after having been acquitted of all charges.

In 1979, Sarkar took two world tours to meet disciples in various countries around the world, including Switzerland, Germany, France, Scandinavia, the Middle East, Philippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Jamaica and Venezuela. He was barred from entering the USA by the State Department, so instead he met his American disciples in Jamaica in 1979.[8] Just before he died on 21 October 1990, he founded Ananda Marga Gurukula on 7 September 1990, an educational network to preserve and develop his legacy through research, teaching and service.

Spiritual philosophy

Sarkar's teachings on spiritual philosophy are based on a rational and universalistic approach that has been described as an innovative and practical synthesis of Vedic and Tantric philosophies. He considered himself to be "an incorrigible optimist" in his thinking.[10]

Cosmology

Sarkar describes the universe as a result of macropsychic conation – the entire universe exists within the cosmic mind, which itself is the first expression of consciousness coming under the bondage of its own nature. With the evolution of unit beings, individual life, the extroversial projection of the "Cosmic Mind" starts the return journey in an always unique and colourful fashion. No two entities of this universe are the same, and yet all have the same goal to merge once more with their source, the infinite Cosmic consciousness. As such, the cosmological flow is from limitless consciousness to limited consciousness and back to limitless consciousness, attained by meditation.[11]

Realms of the Mind

According to Sarkar's philosophy the individual mind is composed of five layers called Kosas:

  1. Kamamaya Kosa ("layer of desire") or "Crude Mind": is the layer that controls the body. It operates on instinct or passion. This layer is sometimes conscious and sometimes subconscious.
  2. Manomaya Kosa ("layer of thinking") or "Subtle Mind": is the layer of thought and memory. This Kosa gives experience of pleasure and pain and is developed naturally through physical clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by pranayama with cosmic ideation.
  3. Atimanasa Kosa or "Supramental Mind": is the intuitive layer. This Kosa gives the capacity of intuitive dreams, clairvoyance, telepathy and creative insight. It is developed naturally through psychic clash, and in Ananda Marga sadhana by methods of pratyahara (withdrawal) such as shuddhis and Guru Puja.
  4. Vijinanamaya Kosa ("layer of the special knowledge") or "Subliminal Mind": is the layer of conscience or discrimination (viveka) and vaeragya (non-attachment). This Kosa is developed naturally through psychic clash, and its development is accelerated by the process of dharana.
  5. Hiranyamaya Kosa ("golden level") or "Subtle Causal Mind": is the subtlest layer. Here the awareness of mind is very close to the direct experience of "Supreme Consciousness". Here there is only the separation of a thin veil of ignorance. This Kosa is developed naturally through the attraction for the Great, and dhyana accelerates this process for sadhakas (spiritual aspirants).

Biopsychology

Sarkar's "Biopsychology" explains how the traditional tantric science of chakras ("wheels") with their subtle energies are related with the body through nerve plexi as physiologic counterparts, influencing the associated endocrine glands with the neuroendocrine system and the psychic part of the body. The philosophy of Ananda Marga consider the human body as composed of the same five fundamental factors as the rest of the universe as explained in P.R. Sarkar's theory of Brahmachakra.[12] Every factor is distributed throughout the body, but is controlled by a controlling nucleus, or Chakra, substations of the mind, each controlling their own assigned area. And just as the mind functions directly through the brain, the Chakras function through their own physical counterparts – the endocrine glands. The biopsychology of Ananda Marga expands with further explanations the concept of the seven basic chakras and in general, mainly considers:[13]

  1. The Muladhara Chakra: at the tip of the spine (controls the solid factor).
  2. The Svadhisthana Chakra: at the level of the genitals (controls the liquid factor and is associated with the reproductive glands).
  3. The Manipura Chakra: at the level of the navel (controls the luminous factor and is associated with Pancreas).
  4. The Anahata Chakra: at the center of the chest (controls the aerial factor and is associated with Thymus).
  5. The Vishuddha Chakra: at the throat (controls the ethereal factor and is associated with the Thyroid gland).
  6. The Ajina Chakra: between the eyebrows (associated with the Pituitary gland).
  7. The Sahasrara Chakra: at the crown of the head (associated with the Pineal gland). Mind's propensities (vrttis) associated with each Chakra affect the glands and the hormones secreted from those glands (hence the emotions, physical behaviour and functioning of the various body systems). But the glands and the hormones they secrete may also affect the mind in a chain of feedbacks.

Microvita Hypothesis

"Microvita" is plural for "Microvitum" and literally means "possessing or with micro-life". The Microvita theory was first introduced by Sarkar on 1986 through a series of lectures. According to this intuitional theory microvita are entities which come within the realms both of physicality and psychic expression. They are smaller and subtler than physical atoms and subatomic particles, and in the psychic realm they may be subtler than mind–stuff, and contribute to "pure consciousness".[14] Sarkar predicted that they will soon be recognised by conventional science. In Sarkar's microvita theory microvita seems to be the first expressions of life. However, this concept, still in its infancy, conceives of various types of microvita, both positive and negative, at varying degrees of evolutionary existence.

Sadhana

A central point in Sarkar's philosophy is the concept of Sadhana. He describes Sadhana as a practice for "the transformation of fearful love into fearless love". Sadhana is concretised in particular with the practice of meditation for complete merger and unification. Sarkar recommends to his disciples the daily practice of individual meditation and the weekly practice of collective meditation. These meetings called Dharma Chakras are preceded by the collective singing of a few Prabhat Samgiita (or "Songs of the New Dawn", composed by P. R. Sarkar himself) followed by Baba Nam Kevalam kiirtan, then the mantra called Samgacchadvam. The mantra Nityam Shuddham marks the end of the collective meditation, then the spiritual gathering will end with the Guru Puja mantra.

Social and political philosophy

Law of Social Cycle

The concept of Varna describes four main socio-psychological types, whereby human psychological and physical endowment and social motivations are expressed: the Vipra (intellectual), Kshatriya (warrior), Vaishya (acquisitor) and Shudra (labourer). Varna, in Sarkar's perspective, however is more than just a psychological trait but rather an archetype, approximately to Michel Foucault's notion of epistemes, which are broader frameworks of knowledge defining what is true and real.[15]

Sarkar's "Law of Social Cycle" applies these traits in a theory of historical evolution, where ages rise and fall in terms of ruling elites representing one of the above-mentioned traits. This "law" possibly connects to the earlier cyclical historical ideas of Sri Aurobindo, with a focus on the psychology of human development, as well as Ibn Khaldun, among other macrohistorians ideas about cycles. However, along with a cyclical dimension — the rise and fall of ages — Sarkar's theory exhibits a correspondent linear dimension, in that economic and technological "progress" are considered critical in terms of meeting the changing material conditions of life. Ultimately, for Sarkar, true progress has to prioritise development in the spiritual dimension.

Spirituality for Sarkar is defined as the individual realising the "true self". In addition to yogic meditational practices and purity of thought and deed, Sarkar attached great importance to selfless social service as a means of liberation. Sarkar considered it necessary for the social arrangements to support the inner development of human beings and rejected both capitalism and communism as appropriate social structures for humanity to move forward to the golden age of a balanced way of life sustaining all-round progress. A serious problem with capitalism was according to Sarkar the concentration of wealth in a few hands and stoppages in the rolling of money which he considered root causes of recessions, even depressions. A spiritual way of life, however, would in no way be divorced from creating structures that help meet the basic, though ever changing, needs — food, housing, clothing, health and education.

Sarkar claims to have developed both Ánanda Márga and the Progressive Utilization Theory as practical means to encourage harmony and co-operation to help society escape this proposed cycle. Sarkar argues that once the social cycle is understood and sadvipras evolved, then the periods of exploitation can be largely reduced, if not eliminated. With leadership that is representative of all aspects of the varnas — that is, the leader engaged in service, who is courageous, who uses the intellect for the benefits of others, and who has innovative/entrepreneurial skills — the cycle can become an upward spiral.[16] Sarkar's concept of karma samnyasa refers to the principle that a yogi becomes a person with all-round development and a balanced mind, that he called a sadvipra; and that this is accomplished by someone who remains fixed on the "supreme" consciousness through transformative personal practices and engaging in the politics of social liberation as a form of service work.[17]

PROUT: progressive utilisation theory

By 1959, Sarkar had developed the socio-economic Progressive Utilization Theory (Prout).[18] In 1961, the theory was formally outlined in his book Ananda Sutram, published under his spiritual name Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrti.[19] In 1968, Sarkar founded the organisation "Proutist Block of India" (PBI), to further the ideals of his theory through political and social action.[20] The PBI was soon superseded by "Proutist Universal" (PU), which primarily consists of five federations (students, intellectuals, farmers, labour, and youth).

A Prout economy is cooperative and decentralised. Its focus is collective welfare rather than to profit, without neglecting individuals and their merits. "Progressive utilization" refers to the optimising the use of natural, industrial and human resources on a sustainable basis for the entire ecosystem. The theory claims to overcome the limitations of both capitalism and communism. It is inline with Sarkar's social theory of the Law of Social Cycle. The theory aims to encompass the whole of individual and collective existence for all beings, including physical, educational, social, political, mental, cultural and spiritual.

Neohumanism: liberation of intellect

In 1982, Sarkar extended his writings on the subject of human society with the introduction of his new theory of "Neohumanism".[21] If humanism tends to contemplate only humans in a human-centric view, Neohumanism, according to Sarkar's theory, is instead the elevation of humanism to universalism. Sarkar said "When the underlying spirit of humanism is extended to everything, animate and inanimate, in this universe – I have designated this as "Neohumanism". This Neohumanism will elevate humanism to universalism, the cult of love for all created beings of this universe."[21] Neohumanism is said to prefer to existential value over utility value for all living beings. Sarkar's Neohumanism places great emphasis on rationality and encourages what he calls a protospiritual mentality, a process of continually recognising each object with which we come in contact, externally or internally, as a manifestation of the Supreme Consciousness (Brahma). According to Sarkar, rationality helps to give rise to devotion, which he consider to be the "highest and most valuable treasure of humanity".[21] In Sarkar's view, Neohumanism leads to the liberation of human intellect from the constraints of imposed dogma and psychic complexes helping to bridge the gap between the inner and outer worlds.

Culture

In his series of discourses Talks on Prout, given in Ranchi in July 1961,[22] Sarkar makes a distinction between the terms "culture" and "customs". According to Sarkar "culture... is the collective name for different expressions of life..." but "...all of society has the same culture. There are local variations in the mode or state of cultural expression, but the expression is universal... These local variations are called customs... Thus local modes of expression bearing local or group specialities are customs, but the expression itself is culture. Therefore it is a mistake to readjust boundaries on the basis of language and culture. Indian culture and the culture of the world are one and the same."[23] The philosophy of Sarkar reinterprets the general concept of culture by inserting it into a new universalistic outlook. As described by Antonello Maggipinto:

...If the term "culture" is usually referred to the original meaning of this word (i.e. from the Greek "paidéia" to the Latin "humanitas", that is to human beings capable of distinguishably mastering the arts, rhetoric, and philosophy), then Sarkar offers a new point of view, with a large universalistic explanation: "the culture of the whole human race is one, but marked by different local manifestations... it is the same, but varying in expression." (Sarkar, P.R., 1987)...[24]

Language

The vast linguistic work of Sarkar has been published in several volumes including: Varna Vijinana (Science of Letters), Sarkar's English Grammar and Composition, Varna Vicitra (Various Uses of Letters) (8 volumes), and the encyclopaedic Shabda Cayanika (A Collection of Words) (26 volumes) in Bengali.

In Varna Vijinana (The Science of Letters),[25] he presents the eight criteria which define a language. In his book Talks on Prout (July 1961, Ranchi)[22] Sarkar considers languages as a part of natural diversity and calls for the adoption of a global language and script, to enable better global communication and understanding. "We should love all these languages, hate none, and adopt one of these languages as the world language. As all languages are our common property, we should not oppose the existence of other languages. We should not brand any language as foreign or national.".[23]

Transliteration

The Ánanda Márga organization uses a transliteration style which differs from the International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, as herein charted:

Devanāgarī I A S T Ánanda Márga Examples Examples Examples
Ā, ā Á, á ānanda = ánanda mārga = márga ācārya = ácárya
Kāpālika = Kápálika sādhanā = sádhaná Gopāl Dās = Gopál Dás
Ī, ī II, ii = jii mārgī = márgii yogī = yogii
līlā = liilá kīrtan = kiirtan jīva = jiiva
Ū, ū Ú, ú mūrti = múrti avadhūta = avadhúta sūtra = sútra
mūl = múl pūrṇa = púrńa rūpa = rúpa
अं Ṃ, ṃ [26] Ḿ, ḿ saṁgha = saḿgha saṁgraha = saḿgraha Saṁskṛta = Saḿskrta
Sāṁkhya = Sáḿkhya oṁkār = oḿkár saṁsāra = saḿsára
Ṅ, ṅ UN, un liṅga = liunga satsaṅg = satsaung saṅgīt = saungiit
Maṅgala = Maungala Aṅga = Aunga Gaṅgā = Gaungá
Ṇ, ṇ Ń, ń prāṇa = práńa Rāmāyaṇa = Rámáyańa Karuṇā = Karuńá
pūrṇa = púrńa Nārāyaṇa = Náráyańa purāṇa = puráńa
Ñ, ñ IN, in Rañjan = Rainjan jñāna = jinána sañcara = saincara
pañca = painca yajña = yajina kañcan = kaincan
Ṛ, ṛ R, r kṛta = krta jagṛtī = jagrtii amṛta = amrta
kṛpa = krpa Vṛndā = Vrndá prakṛti = prakrti
Ś, ś SH, sh Śrī = Shrii Śiva = Shiva Īśvara = Iishvara
vaiśya = vaeshya Śaiva = Shaeva Vaiśeṣika = Vaesheśika
Ṣ, ṣ Ś, ś kṛṣṇa = krśńa puruṣa = puruśa Viṣṇu = Viśńu
KṢ, kṣ KŚ, kś kṣatriya = kśatriya mokṣa = mokśa vṛkṣa = vrkśa
AI, ai AE, ae vaiśya = vaeshya dvaita = dvaeta kaivalya = kaevalya
Vaiṣṇava = Vaeśńava vairāgī = vaerágii Śaiva = Shaeva
AU, au AO, ao mauna = maona Bauddha = Baoddha kaupinam = kaopiinam

Thus:

Prabhāt Rañjan Sarkār = Prabhát Rainjan Sarkár
Ānanda Mārga Pracāraka Saṁgha = Ánanda Márga Pracáraka Saḿgha
Śrī Śrī Ānandamūrtijī = Shrii Shrii Ánandamúrtijii
Parampitā Bābā = Parampitá Bábá

Education

According to Sarkar, "Education is for Liberation." He defines education as the simultaneous development in the physical, mental and spiritual realms of human existence, by which, dormant human potentialities would be awakened and put to proper use. Sarkar firmly believed that real education leads to a pervasive sense of love and compassion for all creation. In Ananda Marga education system, special emphasis is given to moral education and the inculcation of idealism together with a proper psycho-pedagogical approach and a happy blending of occidental extroversial science and oriental introversial philosophy.He founded Ananda Marga Gurukula (University) with its headquarters at Anandanagar (India) just forty four days prior to His physical departure and gave it the mandate to "Serve humanity with neohumanist spirit and acquire knowledge for that purpose". He nominated Dr. Acharya Shambhushivananda Avadhuta as the founding Chancellor of the Gurukula. He also introduced the faculty of Neohumanist Education in Gurukula.There are currently over a thousand Neohumanist schools in about seventy countries around the world [www.gurukul.edu].

Works

Although Sarkar spent only seventeen years of his life working full-time for his organisations (1966–1971 & 1978–1990), he left behind a vast legacy, including over 250 books written on a wide variety of topics. Many of this books are compilations or collections of speeches given by him during spiritual or social meetings. He is primarily known as the spiritual teacher behind Ananda Marga, but Sarkar wrote over 1500 pages on his socio-politico-economic Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT), with several thousand more pages dedicated to linguistics and the study of languages; Sarkar's writings on linguistics included, among other works, Shabda Cayanika ("A Collection of Words"), an unfinished, twenty-six volume dictated encyclopaedia on the Bengali language.[27] Beyond this, he wrote books on sociology, agriculture, history, literature, education, medicine, cosmology, and philosophy, also notably founding the philosophy of Neohumanism in 1982 and the Theory of Microvita in 1986. In his Theory of Microvita, Sarkar "believed that the atoms and the subatomic particles throughout the boundless universe are imbued with life."[28]

Music

In 1982 Sarkar started composing songs. In eight years, until the date of his death, He completed the composition of 5018 songs in multiple languages.[29] This vast collection of songs is called Prabhat Samgiita ("Songs of the New Dawn").

References

  1. ^ Ánanda Márga spelling: Prabhát Rainjan Sarkár.
  2. ^ Inayatullah, Sohail. (2002) Understanding Sarkar: The Indian Episteme, Macrohistory and Transformative Knowledge. Leiden: Brill, ISBN 9004121935, authors book page.
  3. ^ Ishwaran 1999, p. 9.
  4. ^ a b Ghista 2011, p. 1.
  5. ^ Joshi 2009, p. 91.
  6. ^ Ng 1995, p. 669.
  7. ^ Miller 1999, p. 108.
  8. ^ MacDougall 1983, p. 446.
  9. ^ Lombardo 2011, p. 125-6.
  10. ^ Ghista 2011, p. 88.
  11. ^ Ghista 2011, p. 54.
  12. ^ Acarya 1994, p. 144.
  13. ^ Dalal 2011, p. 21.
  14. ^ Dalal 2011, p. 325.
  15. ^ Galtung & Inayatullah 1997.
  16. ^ Inayatullah 1988, p. 54-65.
  17. ^ Hatley 1999, p. 139-151.
  18. ^ Craig 1998.
  19. ^ Irving, Terry; Cahill, Rowan J. (2010). "The Conspiracy Against Ananda Marga". Radical Sydney: Places, Portraits and Unruly Episodes. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. p. 316. ISBN 9781742230931. Retrieved January 19, 2013.
  20. ^ Fukui 1985, p. 357.
  21. ^ a b c Sarkar 1982.
  22. ^ a b Sarkar, Prabhat Ranjan. Talks on Prout (also in Prout in a Nutshell Part 15). Ananda Marga Publications. Archived from the original on 2013-09-02. Retrieved Sep 2013. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  23. ^ a b Sarkar 1968.
  24. ^ Maggipinto 2000.
  25. ^ Sarkar 2000.
  26. ^ ISO: Ṁ, ṁ
  27. ^ Ānandamūrti 1996, p. 9.
  28. ^ The Quarterly Review of Historical Studies. Institute of Historical Studies. 1998. p. 101. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  29. ^ Ghista 2006, p. 174.

Bibliography

Further reading

External links

1921 in India

Events in the year 1921 in India.

1962 in philosophy

1962 in philosophy

1990 in India

Events in the year 1990 in the Republic of India.

Amra Bangali

Amra Bangali ('AMB) (Bengali: আমরা বাঙালী; translation: We are Bengalis) is a radical Bengali political party in India. Founded by renowned philosopher Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar; the party was sparked off in reaction against anti-Bengali rhetoric in Indian politics that characterised Bengalis as infiltrators in Northeast India. Amra Bangali enjoyed a short stint in the spotlight in the mid-eighties when it even won some gram panchayat seats in border districts. Today, AMB is involved in various movements and protests including those against the Darjeeling Gorkhas calling for the creation of new state of Gorkhaland.The politics of Amra Bangali is based on Sarkar's ideas of economic and political democracy. The party is organized in West Bengal, as well as in other states with large Bengali populations such as Tripura, Bihar, Odisha, Assam and Jharkhand. The only real political breakthrough the party has had was in Tripura during the 1980s, when the party entered the Legislative Assembly in connection with the mounting ethnic tensions in the state.

The aims and objects of Amra Bangali include:

Restoration and development of Bengali language and culture.

Economic self-sufficiency.

Self-determination in socio-political field.Few radical elements of AMB have also suggested the re-organization of the territory of Bengal with all the like minded people having respect for Bengali language and culture and giving a new name “Bangalistan” to this territory.In West Bengal, Amra Bengali has vandalised signs in railway stations, obscuring English and Hindi place names with black tar, so that only the Bengali name remains visible.

Ananda Marga

Ánanda Márga (Bengali: আনন্দ মার্গ প্রচারক সংঘ, Hindi: आनंद मार्ग ānanda mārga "The Path of Bliss", also spelled Anand Marg and Ananda Marg) or officially Ánanda Márga Pracáraka Saḿgha (organisation for the propagation of the path of bliss) is a socio-spiritual organisation and movement founded in Jamalpur, Bihar, India in 1955 by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar. It is also the name of the philosophy and life-style propounded by Sarkar, described as a practical philosophy for personal development, social service and the all-around transformation of the society.

Dada Maheshvarananda

Dada Maheshvarananda, (born May 11, 1953 in the United States) is a yogic monk, activist, writer and the founder of the Prout Research Institute of Venezuela.

Since becoming a monk, in the socio-spiritual organisation and movement Ananda Marga, Dada Maheshvarananda has dedicated his life to traveling and living around the world teaching meditation, yoga and spreading the Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT).

Maheshvarananda's first book is titled After Capitalism: Prout's Vision for a New World (2003); prefaced by Noam Chomsky, it has been translated into 10 languages. His second book, a follow-up, is After Capitalism: Economic Democracy in Action (2012). His most recent book is Cooperative Games for a Cooperative World: Facilitating Trust, Communication and Spiritual Connection (2017).

Dada Pranakrsnananda

Dada Pranakrsnananda is a yogic monk of Ananda Marga since 1971 and a social activist in New York City, where he also teaches Astaunga yoga meditation. While participating in the Occupy Wall Street protests, he became one of the first to be arrested on Brooklyn Bridge on October 1, 2011.Pranakrsnanada was personally initiated by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar aka Shrii Shrii Anandamurti into the order of avadhuta, a monk or nun of an order close to the tradition of Shaeva Tantra.

Drishadvati river

The Drishadvati river (IAST:dṛṣad-vatī, "She with many stones") is a river hypothesized by Indologists to identify the route of the Vedic river Saraswati and the state of Brahmavarta. According to Manusmriti, the Brahmavarta, where the Rishis composed the Vedas and other Sanskrit texts of the Vedic religion, was at the confluence of the Saraswati and Drishadwati rivers during the Vedic period.

Ernesto Barba

Ernesto Barba was an Italian hotelier whose career was split between corporate positions in the international hospitality industry, and the entrepreneurial years he spent as a self-employed marketing guru and hotel general-manager-for-hire.He was born in 1935. He died in Livorno, Italy on April 27, 1994.Barba was a maverick hospitality executive whose career was sometimes overshadowed by the fame of his younger brother, Eugenio Barba, the well-known Italian theater producer. But Ernesto was a colorful figure in his own right, and had a long career in and out of the traditional halls of the corporate hotel industry. He was a long time Hilton executive, but in the mid 1970s was more or less exiled by them in part because of his sometimes outrageous ideas for promoting their hotels. He is reported to have suggested opening vegetarian restaurants in some Hilton hotels before the idea became less sensationalistic. His last position within Hilton was as general manager of the Taipei Hilton.

Thereafter, he became a sort of freelance hotel promoter and general manager, very active in Spain and Asia. Among his clients were the twin Soto Grande hotels on the Mediterranean Sea, along the Costa del Sol. Barba was recruited to reopen the two properties for commercial business after they lay empty following the death of Francisco Franco, the Spanish leader, who had used the hotels as his personal retreat for many years. Barba then supervised the launch of the Ritz Taipei, and was later retained as the general manager of the Shangrila Hotel which soon became the Sheraton Taipei.

He had some distractions, however, left over from the defeat of Italian fascism at the end of World War II, and in the 1970s he became a senior follower of the Indian spiritual group called the Ananda Marga, whose leader Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar was unjustly imprisoned with a false accusation (and then later cleared of charges). Barba trained a large group of young members in the art of vegetarian cooking. Barba thus first opened a cooking school and vegetarian restaurant, called Alfalfa, at the Soto Grande Hotels in 1978.

Barba's promotion skills were superb and, had he spoken fluent English, they would no doubt have been even more impressive. However he didn’t, and as a result, he hired western, native English speaking marketing partners to help bring his client properties to the attention of western, English speaking, travelers. Among these was Michael Adams, an American graphic designer and writer. Barba recruited other international talent as well, and some of those individuals went on to larger hospitality careers, including Dorian Landers, Barba's food-and-beverage-manager-of-choice, who is the founder and CEO of the Malaysia-based hospitality development and consulting firm Hostasia Co.. Dorian Landers, true to Barba's stylishness for flamboyance also worked with Bill Bensley to develop some of the best luxury hotels in Asia. Also in Barba's employ at one time was Louis Ercout, an executive chef who eventually founded Prospections Group, a leading hotel executive recruitment agency in Santa Monica, CA.

Barba rightfully understood that creating a buzz of fashion and pop culture could generate meaningful free publicity for a hotel property, and he was therefore always organizing fashion shows and other events to get attention in the local press. When the budget permitted, he went higher on the pop ladder to attract news-worthy personalities to his hotels. In this spirit, he retained Japanese pop artist Tadanori Yokoo to design the interiors of one important restaurant in the Ritz Taipei.

As a testament to his persuasive promotion skills, Barba managed to coax Jeanne Moreau, the French actress/icon to come, free of charge, to the opening ceremony of the Soto Grande Hotels in 1978. Later, in Taipei, he spoke on the phone with Gina Lolabrigida, attempting to lore her to the opening of the Ritz Taipei Hotel, one of the top properties in his string of successful launches. For whatever reason, that fell through, but he had a back-up plan. He easily got Anne Parillaud, the young “Brooke Shields” of Paris (who later won the French Oscar for her lead role in Nikita) to come instead. At the time, she was 19 and was considered the new Brigitte Bardot.

Although he successfully launched perhaps half a dozen privately owned hotel properties, he had a very strong management style, and sometimes introduced his personal beliefs into the public arena of a hotel. A case in point. He had a private booth reserved for his meals in one restaurant of the Shangrila Hotel (soon to be the Sheraton Taipei). It was in the Pizza Pub there, and he took his vegetarian meals in that booth. But on the wall of the booth he displayed a portrait of Benito Mussolini, and this was in 1981. When he was not using it, the booth was open for regular diners in the restaurant, and the portrait was a source of some concern among some of the hotel’s guests.

In 1990, Barba, true to his spirit of adventure went to manage the infamous Holiday Inn In Lhasa (Tibet); one of his last ventures. His flamboyant and controversial management of the hotel is a source of humor in the top-selling book on Tibet; The Hotel on the Roof of the World.

Barba was a brilliant hotel promoter who brought far more excitement to the properties he managed than his clients could normally hope for. He was seemingly a type A personality and he died, apparently of a heart attack, in 1994. His brother, Eugenio Barba, is still alive.

Hindu reform movements

Several contemporary groups, collectively termed Hindu reform movements or Hindu revivalism, strive to introduce regeneration and reform to Hinduism, both in a religious or spiritual and in a societal sense. The movements started appearing during the Bengali renaissance.

The religious aspect mostly emphasizes Vedanta tradition and mystical interpretations of Hinduism ("Neo-Vedanta"), and the societal aspect was an important element in the Indian independence movement, aiming at a "Hindu" character of the society of the eventual Republic of India.

Humanism (disambiguation)

Humanism may refer to ethical philosophies such as

Religious humanism, an integration of humanist ethical philosophy with religious rituals and beliefs

Christian humanism, a philosophy that combines Christian ethics and humanist principles

Humanistic Judaism, a movement in Judaism that offers a nontheistic alternative in contemporary Jewish life

Secular humanism, embraces humanism while rejecting religious aspectsHumanism may also refer to:

Renaissance humanism, an intellectual movement based on reviving Greek and Roman knowledge

Classical humanism, the cultivation of Greco-Roman legacies (not limited to Renaissance times)

Civic Humanism, a form of republicanism inspired by the writings of classical antiquity

Humanism (philosophy of education), a theory based on generation of knowledge, meaning and expertise

Humanities, a group of academic disciplines and the educational philosophy associated with them

Pragmatism in the terminology of F.S.C. Schiller

Marxist Humanism, a more liberal form of Marxism

Neohumanism, a holistic philosophical theory elaborated by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar

New Humanism, a literary criticism term associated with Irving Babbitt and Paul Elmer More

Kaosikii dance

The Kaosikii or Kaos'ikii dance is a dance invented on September 6, 1978 by the Indian philosopher and social reformer Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar aka Shrii Shrii Anandamurti (1921–1990).

Sarkar claims the kaos'ikii dance is a psycho-physical exercise which would benefit the mind by developing mental stamina and strength. Some hints to this dance are also contained in the speech "The Cosmic Father Has a Special Responsibility" given in Madras (India) on December 4, 1978 and later published in "Ánanda Vacanámrtam Part 6, Chapter 5" and "Discourses on Tantra Volume Two, Chapter 23".

Law of social cycle

The law of social cycle is a social cycle theory developed by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar. It is based on the theory of human historical motivity based on "the ancient spiritual ideas of the Vedas". The theory was developed in the 1950s and expanded by Ravi Batra since the 1970s, Johan Galtung and Sohail Inayatullah since the 1990s and others.

Neohumanism

Neohumanism is a holistic philosophical theory proposed by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar to promote individual and collective progress. In this philosophy universalism plays a central role. It claims to elevate humanism to level of universalism. It claims not to have any grouping intention.

Panchamakara

Panchamakara, also known as the Five Ms, is a Tantric term referring to the five substances used in a Tantric practice.

madya (wine)

māṃsa (meat)

matsya (fish)

mudrā (parched grain)

maithuna (sexual intercourse)Taboo-breaking elements are only practiced literally by "left-hand path" tantrics (vāmācārins), whereas "right-hand path" tantrics (dakṣiṇācārins) oppose these.(Rawson, 1978).

Prabhat Samgiita

Prabháta Saḿgiita (Bengali: প্রভাত সঙ্গীত Probhat Shongit, Bengali pronunciation: [pɾɔbhat ʃɔŋɡit]), also known as Songs of a New Dawn or Prabhat's Songs, are the collection of songs composed by Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar. Sarkar composed a total of 5,018 songs, including the lyrics and the melody, over a period of eight years from 1982 until his death in 1990. While most songs are in the Bengali language, some are in Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Urdu, Magahi, Maithili and Angika. Prabháta Saḿgiita is also sometimes considered to be a post-Tagore gharana (school of music). The poetry of lyrics expresses elements of love, mysticism, devotion, neohumanism and revolution and the songs present a wide spectrum of both Eastern and Western melodic styles.

Progressive Utilization Theory

Progressive Utilization Theory (PROUT) is a socioeconomic and political theory developed by philosopher and spiritual leader Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar. The theory is based on his holistic outlook of life. It is a system of governance that is inspired by capitalist and socialist thought, as well as Sarkar's own ideas. It aims to be economically progressive and improve social development.:1 The theory is in line with Sarkar's Neohumanist values which aim to provide "proper care" to every being on the planet, including humans, animals and plants.

Sri Sri

Sri Sri may refer to:

Sri Sri, an honorific title used for spiritual persons, see Sri

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar (1921–1990), founder of the social and spiritual movement Ananda Marga (the Path of Bliss)

Ravi Shankar (spiritual leader) (born 1956), founder of the Art of Living Foundation

Sri Sri (writer) (1910–1983), Telugu poet, and film lyricist

Sri Sri (film), a 2016 Telugu drama film

Prabhat Ranjan Sarkar
Works and philosophy
Foundations
Disciples and followers
Ancient
philosophers
Medieval
philosophers
Modern
philosophers
20th–21st-century
philosophers
Social theories
Concepts
Related articles

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.