Powerchair Football

Powerchair Football, also known as Power Soccer, is a variant of association football for people with physical disabilities. Players use power wheelchairs in order to maneuver and kick an oversized football. The game is played in a gymnasium on a regulation basketball court. Two teams of four players use powerchairs equipped with footguards to attack, defend, and spin-kick a 13-inch (330 mm) football in an attempt to score goals.

USA vs. France, FIPFA World Cup in Tokyo, October 2007.


According to researcher Dr. Michael S. Jeffress, powerchair football was first played in France in the 1970s. Various forms of the sport developed concurrently throughout Europe and North America. It gained recognition in 1983 at the British Columbia Games for the Disabled and in 2004 by the National Disability Sports Alliance. The San Francisco Bay area and Boston area were early centers of power soccer activity in the US through the Bay Area Outreach and Recreation Program and the Massachusetts Hospital School. In January 2005, 24 representatives from 7 nations (France, United States, Canada, Japan, England, Belgium, and Portugal) met in Le Chesnay, France to lay the foundation for forming the International Powerchair Football Association. Nine months later a second meeting was held in Coimbra, Portugal to finalize a standardized set of rules for international play. Finally, in July 2006, in the context of an international tournament in Atlanta, Georgia, delegates finalized a constitution and changed the name of the governing body to the Federation Internationale de Powerchair Football Associations (FIPFA). During this same timeframe the United States Power Soccer Association (USPSA) was formed with headquarters in the Indianapolis, Indiana area. Since then, numerous powerchair associations have formed and the number of teams competing within FIPFA worldwide is estimated at over 250. Although Powerchair Football lost its 2010 bid to enter the Paralympic Games, the organization is positioning itself to bid again in the future.[1]


The sport is played in on a standard-sized basketball court. Each team is allowed 4 players on the court at one time including the goalkeeper. A match consists of two 20-minute periods. Because of the two-dimensional aspect of this game (players are typically unable to kick the ball into the air), artificial space has to be created around the players. The two distinct differences in the laws from the able bodied game are: 1) the "two-on-one" rule, and 2) the 3-in-the-goal-area violation.[2]

  1. "2-on-1". Only a player and an opponent are allowed within 3 meters of the ball when it is in play. If a teammate of either one comes within the 3 meters the referee may call an infringement and award an indirect free kick. This forces the players to spread the field and prevents clogging up of play, allowing for a greater free flow of play. The only exception to this violation is if one of the 2 teammates is a goalkeeper inside his/her own goal area, then there is no infraction of the laws.
  2. "3-in-the-goal-area". The defending team is only allowed to have 2 players in their own goal area. If a third player enters the area, the referee may stop the game and award an indirect free kick to the opposing team.

In the case of either of these infractions (2-on-1 and 3-in-the-area), the referee may refrain from making the call if the player in question is not affecting the play (similar to the concept of the offside law in able-bodied football).

Additionally, because many of the players do not have the upper body strength to throw the ball with their arms, when the ball leaves the touchline of the field, the players kick the ball back into play. In other words, instead of a "throw-in" from the sideline, powerchair football has a "kick-in"...and because the ball is 'kicked' a goal can be scored directly.

Intentionally striking or ramming another player may result in a penalty.


Players are required to use a powerchair with 4 or more wheels. The maximum allowable speed during a match is 10 km/h (6.2 mph), and the referees will inspect the players' speed before the match begins. A lap belt and foot guard are also required equipment. The ball is an oversized soccer ball, 13 inches (33 cm) in diameter.[3]


FIPFA (Fédération Internationale de Powerchair Football Association) was established in 2006 to govern the sport and is headquartered in Paris, France.


World Cup

The first Powerchair Football World Cup was held in Tokyo, Japan in October 2007.[4] The final was played on 13 October, with the United States beating France in a penalty shootout. The second Powerchair Football World Cup was held in Paris, France in November 2011. The final was played on 6 November, with the United States beating England 3–0 in regulation. This was the first US team to win back-to-back World Cup Championship in football. The third World Cup was scheduled for 2017 in Kissimmee, Florida. The winner was France.

APFC American Powerchair Football Confederation

The first Americas Champions Cup was held in Atlanta, Georgia in October 2009 between the top US and Canadian club teams. Atlanta Synergy won the Americas Champions Cup 2010 defeating by 4 goals to 0 the Tampa Thunder in a final where Atlanta confirmed its superiority seen during all the tournament in Burnaby, Canada.[5]

The Powerchair Football Confederation of the Americas (PFCA), held the first "Copa Americas" ("I Mundialito de Power Soccer") tournament – a national team competition – in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil between 2–4 May 2014. The national teams of Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Uruguay, the US, and Australia (a guest team) played for the championship of the Americas hemisphere. The US team won in the final, beating Australia 6–0. https://www.americanpowersoccer.com/

EPFA Nations Cup

In July 2014, six nations (Belgium, Denmark, England, France, Ireland and Switzerland) battled it out for the honour to be crowned EPFA Nations Cup Champions. The event was held at the University of Limerick (UL) in Ireland, with five of the six teams booking their places in the Powerchair World Cup Finals in 2015. The only team not to qualify was Switzerland as they finished bottom of the tournament group. France were crowned the eventual winners beating England 5–0 in the final

See also


  1. ^ Jeffress, Michael (2015). Communication, sport and disability : the case of power soccer. Farnham, Surrey, UK Burlington, VT: Ashgate. ISBN 978-1472448200.
  2. ^ FIPFA - Laws of the Game (Last Updated - December 2010) FIFPA
  3. ^ Laws of the Game FIFPA
  4. ^ 2007 FIPFA World Cup, Tokyo Japan Archived 2008-03-12 at the Wayback Machine
  5. ^ Americas Champions Cup 2010, Burnaby Canada Archived 2010-10-21 at the Wayback Machine

External links

2020 Summer Paralympics

The 2020 Summer Paralympics (Japanese: 東京2020パラリンピック競技大会, Hepburn: Tōkyō Nisennijū Pararinpikku Kyōgi Taikai) are an upcoming major international multi-sport event for athletes with disabilities governed by the International Paralympic Committee. Scheduled as the 16th Summer Paralympic Games, it is planned to be held in Tokyo, Japan from 25 August to 6 September 2020. This will mark the second time Tokyo has hosted the Paralympics, as they were first hosted there in 1964 alongside the 1964 Summer Olympics.

These Games will see the introduction of badminton and taekwondo to the Paralympic programme, replacing sailing and 7-a-side football.


APFA can refer to:

Association of Professional Financial Advisers

American Professional Football Association, now the National Football League

American Professional Football Association, a name adopted by a short lived American Football League (1938) in 1939

Association of Professional Flight Attendants, an independent union representing flight attendants at American Airlines

Australian Professional Footballers' Association

Association for the Protection of Fur-Bearing Animals

Australian Powerchair Football Association (Electric wheelchair football/soccer)

Assistive technology in sport

Assistive technology in sport is an area of technology design that is growing. Assistive technology is the array of new devices created to enable sports enthusiasts who have disabilities to play. Assistive technology may be used in disabled sports, where an existing sport is modified to enable players with a disability to participate; or, assistive technology may be used to invent completely new sports with athletes with disabilities exclusively in mind.

An increasing number of people with disabilities are participating in sports, leading to the development of new assistive technology. Assistive technology devices can be simple, "low-tech", or they may use highly advanced technology, with some even using computers. Assistive technology for sports may also be simple or advanced. Accordingly, assistive technology can be found in sports ranging from local community recreation to elite Paralympic games. More complex assistive technology devices have been developed over time, and as a result, sports for people with disabilities "have changed from being a clinical therapeutic tool to an increasingly competition-oriented activity".

Disabled sports

Disabled sports, also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by people with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many disabled sports are based on existing able bodied sports, modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in non-disabled sports. Disability exists in four categories: physical, mental, permanent and temporary.


The European Powerchair Football Association, commonly abbreviated to EPFA was established to govern the powerchair football in Europe. EPFA is a member organization of the Fédération Internationale de Powerchair Football Association (FIPFA).

The EPFA zone is the largest FIPFA Zone at present with seven member countries: Belgium, Denmark, Finland, England, France, Portugal, and Turkey.

EPFA is responsible for the following:

Identify each country and ensure their legitimacy.

Coordinate the specific Zone competitions.

Participate in the training and the development of the sport.

Follow the guidelines and the politics of Congress and of the FIPFA Executive Council.


FIPFA, the Fédération Internationale de Powerchair Football Association, is the international governing body of powerchair football. It is headquartered in Paris in France.

In 2006, representatives of 9 nations met in Coimbra in Portugal and then in Atlanta in the United States to develop a standardized set of laws for the game and to form and international governing body.

Glasgow (disambiguation)

Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland.

Glasgow may also refer to:

Greater Glasgow Metropolitan Area

Glasgow (Scottish Parliament electoral region), an electoral region in the Scottish Parliament

University of Glasgow

Glasgow Airport

Glasgow Gladiators Powerchair FC

Glasgow Gladiators Powerchair Football Club is a Scottish powerchair football club based in Glasgow, Scotland. It was formed on 24 May 2016, and currently competes in the MDUK Scottish Powerchair League. The club consists of two teams: Glasgow Gladiators PFC and Glasgow Gladiator Bravehearts.

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

List of types of football

This is a list of various types of football, most variations found as gridiron, rugby, association football.

Middlesbrough and Teesside Philanthropic Foundation

The Middlesbrough and Teesside Philanthropic Foundation is a philanthropic and charitable organization that was established in March 2011 in Middlesbrough, England as a patriotic and activist group which aims to raise money from businesses and affluent individuals to make Teesside a better place in which to live, work and do business. Andy Preston set up the foundation with the help of Tanya Garland and since launch Preston has recruited the financial backing of more than 40 businesses and individuals. Businesses involved as patrons of the Foundation include Middlesbrough Football Club, Steve Gibson's Bulkhaul, Cleveland Cable Company, Barclays Middlesbrough and AV Dawson.

As of December 2016, the charity had raised more than £2 million. Having celebrated reaching the £1 million fundraising milestone in September 2015, weeks later the charity received a further £700,000 from an anonymous benefactor.The Foundation holds an Annual Dinner which raises around £40,000 each year, usually with a local theme. Those who have hosted or performed at the dinner include presenters Ali Brownlee and Mark Page, and Patrick Monahan (comedian), while artist Mackenzie Thorpe has also been hugely supportive of the charity and its dinners.

National Disability League

The National Disability League (NDL) is a multi-display sports tournament. The league is held over a period of a few months yearly, to promote sports and nurture healthy lifestyle amongst the disabled as well as providing local competitiveness opportunities. It serves as a platform for people with disabilities to participate in the event on both a recreational and competitive level, as well as to create better awareness of disability sports amongst the able-bodied community.

Introduced by the Singapore Disability Sports Council (SDSC) in 2006, the National Disability League (NDL) replaced the National Disability Games which started from 2002. This new league format allowed participants to compete across three months, increasing their opportunities for exposure and social interaction.

Between the years of 2002 and 2005, the spirit of the games has grown tremendously as the National Disability Games functioned as a series of disability sports events spread over seven challenging and competitive days. This strongly signifies the increasing number of disabled people who are keen to participate in sports-related activities and it confirms the proven popularity of this league structure.

In 2006, SDSC has transformed the National Disability Games into the very first National Disability League (NDL), spreading across two to three months of highly anticipated competitive sports experience and exposure. NDL had provided a sustainable platform to enhance the performance growth and 'feel' of competition during the three months. By inducting a sustainable platform, it allowed athletes to review areas of improvement in their performances and strive to improve during their next round of competition.

NDL 2009 saw the highest participation rate ever with 875 participants. These were a diverse mix of various disability groups from 12 voluntary welfare organisations, 6 special schools and 39 individuals. This was a remarkable achievement as compared to the previous years:

2008 - 687 participants (with 7 sports)

2007 - 518 participants (with 11 sports)

2006 - 357 participants (with 13 sports)The 15 sports offered in 2009 were archery, badminton, basketball, boccia, bowling, chess, equestrianism, futsal, handcycling, lawn bowls, powerchair football, sailing, shooting, table tennis and wheelchair basketball.

Besides its emphasis on sustainable sports development, NDL focuses on spotting sports talents as well and serves as an avenue to select athletes to represent Singapore at International and regional competitions such as the 1st Asian Youth Paralympic Games 2009 in Tokyo, Japan and the 5th ASEAN ParaGames 2009 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Today, NDL has a unique position for sports development as it allows all athletes to have a continuous and sustainable competition platform. It gives each athlete the feel of competition, placing them to play with athletes of different performance level, leading them to re-strategize their paradigm of winning games.

National Sports Festival of Japan

The National Sports Festival of Japan (国民体育大会, Kokumin Taiiku Taikai) is the national premier sports event of Japan. It consists of three stages. The skating and ice hockey stage takes place in January, the skiing stage takes place in February, and the main Autumn tournament takes place in September and October. Its name is often abbreviated to Kokutai (国体).

Spanish Federation of Sportspeople with Cerebral Palsy

Spanish Federation of Sportspeople with the Cerebral Palsy (Spanish: Federación Española de Deportes de Paralíticos Cerebrales (FEDPC)) is the national sports federation for people with cerebral palsy. It is composed of regional federations. It supports a number of sports.

Sporting Fingal F.C.

Sporting Fingal Football Club (Irish: Cumann Peile Fine Gall Spórtúil) was an Irish association football club based in Fingal. Between 2008 and 2010, the club played three seasons in the League of Ireland. During their first two seasons they played in the First Division before winning promotion to the Premier Division. During the 2009 and 2010 seasons, the club also entered a team in the A Championship. During their short stay in the League of Ireland, Sporting Fingal were relatively successful. As well as gaining promotion to the Premier Division, they also won both the 2009 FAI Cup and the 2010 A Championship Cup and qualified for the UEFA Europa League on two occasions. In addition to fielding teams in the League of Ireland, Sporting Fingal also organised Powerchair Football, Special Olympics football and futsal teams. Their futsal team won the 2010 FAI Futsal Cup and qualified for the 2010–11 UEFA Futsal Cup.

United States Power Soccer Association

The United States Power Soccer Association (USPSA) is the governing body of power soccer in the United States.

It was formally established in July 2006 as the US affiliate member of FIPFA. It was accepted as an affiliate member of the United States Soccer Federation on February 19, 2008.

Western Sydney Wanderers FC

Western Sydney Wanderers Football Club (colloquially known as Western Sydney, or simply as Wanderers) is an Australian professional soccer club based in the Western Sydney region of Sydney, New South Wales. It competes in the country's premier soccer competition, the A-League, under licence from Football Federation Australia (FFA). The club has established itself as a major force in both Australia and Asia, having won one A-League Premiership and an AFC Champions League title in its short history.

Formed in April 2011 by FFA, Wanderers was established with a strong community focus. A series of community forums across Western Sydney helped choose the club's name and colours, as well as its culture and playing style. The club's record-breaking inaugural season won them an A-League premiership and saw the club reach the 2013 A-League Grand Final. The club followed that up by contesting the 2014 A-League Grand Final and securing second place in their second season of the league. The club was also crowned Asian Champions in their debut Champions League season, becoming the first Australian side to win the tournament.

The club is run from a facility based in Blacktown, and currently plays matches at Bankwest Stadium. Their foundation home ground of Parramatta Stadium was closed & demolished in 2017 as part of process for building the new stadium. An academy youth team competes in the National Youth League and the National Premier Leagues NSW. A women's team competes in the W-League. The youth and women's matches are played at various locations across Western Sydney, including Marconi Stadium, Campbelltown Stadium and Cook Park. The club also has a Powerchair Football team which competes in the NSW Western Division Powerchair Football League, with matches played at Kevin Betts Stadium in Mt Druitt.


A wheelchair is a chair with wheels, used when walking is difficult or impossible due to illness, injury, or disability. Wheelchairs come in a wide variety of formats to meet the specific needs of their users. They may include specialized seating adaptions, individualized controls, and may be specific to particular activities, as seen with sports wheelchairs and beach wheelchairs. The most widely recognised distinction is between powered wheelchairs ("powerchairs"), where propulsion is provided by batteries and electric motors, and manually propelled wheelchairs, where the propulsive force is provided either by the wheelchair user/occupant pushing the wheelchair by hand ("self-propelled"), or by an attendant pushing from the rear ("attendant propelled").

Wheelchair Football (American)

Wheelchair Football

is a fast-paced sport that is best played when

athletes are in maximum physical condition, and at the top of their game

in teamwork, strategy and wheelchair-handling skills for both manual wheelchair and power wheelchair users.

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