Power hockey

Power Hockey is a competitive, fast-paced hockey game based on the use of a power wheelchair. The foundation of the sport derives from ice hockey and floor hockey, but with adapted rules to enable people with disabilities, who use a power wheelchair, to play and be active in a competitive team setting. The sport is also referred to as Electric Wheelchair Hockey or Electric Wheelchair Floorball in various parts of the world.

History of power hockey

In the 1970s, some public schools began providing sports lessons for pupils with disabilities. The majority of the children had physical disabilities that greatly hindered their movement (muscular dystrophy, cerebral palsy) and were not capable of participating in mainstream sports. This type of sport was great for adaptation because it could be played by solely utilizing the maneuverability of the wheelchair, and not focus on gross motor movement and muscle power. [1]

There are similarities with floorball. Power Hockey is also referred to as “Electric Wheelchair Hockey”, and the name has some history behind it. With its great similarity to ice hockey, it was initially just called “Wheelchair Hockey”, but later in order indicate the use of an electric wheelchair, the word “electric” was added.

Power Hockey (Electric Wheelchair Hockey) began to receive public interest in the late 1980s, when tournaments were established in Germany and Netherlands. However, it wasn’t until the 1990s that power hockey began to receive international attention. In 1998, the first ever World Games for Power Hockey were held in Utrecht, Netherlands. In 2001, a big international Power Hockey tournament took place in Minneapolis. In the following years, World Championships, European Championships, and more tournaments were formed in other European countries such as Belgium, Finland, and Italy (“History”).

Positions

The number of players on a specific team can change, but at any given time there are five players on the floor. There is usually one head coach and one assistant coach to direct the movements of the team members.

Rule changes

  • A basketball court is used instead of ice.
  • A plastic ball is used instead of a hockey puck.
  • The hockey stick that is used is made entirely from plastic.
  • Players with excessive limited range and movement can play with a T-stick.
  • Due to the goalies' limited ability to move, they do not freeze the ball. Instead, the official blows the whistle to stop play when the ball is underneath the goaltender's wheelchair, and play restarts with a keeperball.
  • “Each playoff game will consist of three fifteen minute non-stop time periods. The last two minutes of the third period will be played on a stop-time basis” (“CEWHA Official Tournament Rules and Regulations”). If the score is tied at the end of the game, teams will play for additional five minutes, and whichever team that scores first will win (“CEWHA Official Tournament Rules and Regulations”).

Equipment

  • “All players must use a power wheelchair. Manual wheelchairs and electric scooters are not permitted” (“CEWHA Official Tournament Rules and Regulations”).
  • All players are required to wear their team sweaters that are distinct from the other teams’ at all times (“CEWHA Official Tournament Rules and Regulations”).
  • All players need to be fully equipped with a protective eyewear and a seat belt (“CEWHA Official Tournament Rules and Regulations”).

Events

  • Main Article :World Power hockey Championships

World Rankings

Below is the world rankings for power hockey provided by International Wheelchair & Amputee Sports Federation. It has been updated after the EC2016 that was held in De Rijp, Netherlands, and published on the IPCH website on 31 August 2016.

1 Netherlands

2 Italy

3 Germany

4 Belgium

5 Denmark

6 Switzerland

7 Finland

8 Australia

9 Slovenia

10 Spain

11 Czech Republic

Variations of Hockey

There are lots of variations of hockey besides power hockey. These variations of hockey differ in rules, settings, and materials (Mittal 19-20).

  • Ball hockey
  • Box hockey
  • Broomball
  • Deck hockey
  • Floor hockey
  • Floorball
  • Foot hockey
  • Gym hockey
  • Indoor field hockey
  • Mini hockey
  • Nok hockey
  • Pond hockey
  • Rossall hockey
  • Shinny
  • Skater hockey
  • Spongee
  • Table hockey
  • Underwater hockey
  • Unicycle hockey

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ "Motorized Scooters And Chairs". Retrieved 13 February 2016.
André Lacroix (ice hockey)

André Joseph Lacroix (born June 5, 1945 in Lauzon, Quebec) is a retired professional ice hockey player in the National Hockey League and the World Hockey Association, and is the WHA's all-time leading career scorer.

Assistive technology in sport

Assistive technology in sport is an area of technology design that is growing. Assistive technology is the array of new devices created to enable sports enthusiasts who have disabilities to play. Assistive technology may be used in disabled sports, where an existing sport is modified to enable players with a disability to participate; or, assistive technology may be used to invent completely new sports with athletes with disabilities exclusively in mind.

An increasing number of people with disabilities are participating in sports, leading to the development of new assistive technology. Assistive technology devices can be simple, "low-tech", or they may use highly advanced technology, with some even using computers. Assistive technology for sports may also be simple or advanced. Accordingly, assistive technology can be found in sports ranging from local community recreation to elite Paralympic games. More complex assistive technology devices have been developed over time, and as a result, sports for people with disabilities "have changed from being a clinical therapeutic tool to an increasingly competition-oriented activity".

Floor hockey

Floor hockey is a family of indoor hockey games. 5 variations exist: three variations in the style of ice hockey, and the other two in the style of bandy, one of which is called floorball in English speaking regions.

Two of these variations involve the use of wheeled skates and are categorized as roller sports under the title of roller hockey. Quad hockey uses quad skates and looks similar to bandy, while inline hockey uses inline skates and is of the ice hockey variation.

All styles and codes are played on dry, flat floor surfaces such as a gymnasium or basketball court. As in other hockey codes, players on each team attempt to shoot a ball or puck into a goal using sticks, usually with a

curved end.

Floor hockey games differ from street hockey in that the games are more structured, and two use wheeled skates. The variations which do not involve wheeled skates are sometimes used for training children to play ice hockey and bandy in a training format known as dryland training.

Hockey

Hockey is a sport in which two teams play against each other by trying to manoeuvre a ball or a puck into the opponent's goal using a hockey stick. There are many types of hockey such as bandy, field hockey, and ice hockey.

In most of the world, hockey refers to field hockey, while in Canada, the United States, Finland, Sweden, Latvia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia, hockey usually refers to ice hockey.

Inclusive recreation

Inclusive recreation, also known as adaptive or accessible recreation, is a concept whereby people with disabilities are given the opportunity to participate in recreational activities. Through the use of activity modifications and assistive technology, athletes or participants in sports or other recreational pursuits are able to play alongside their non-disabled peers. The Boy Scouts of America, for example, has about 100,000 physically or mentally disabled members throughout the United States.

List of sports

The following is a list of sports/games, divided by category.

According to the World Sports Encyclopedia (2003), there are 8,000 indigenous sports and sporting games.

Macron (sportswear)

Macron S.p.A. is an Italian sporting apparel company, based in Crespellano, Bologna. It is considered a European leader in the production of active sportswear.Macron operates in three main business areas:

Teamwear: for football, basketball, rugby, volleyball, baseball, handball, five-a-side football and running.

Merchandising: official kits, free-time apparel and accessories for the supporters of Macron's sponsored clubs.

Leisurewear: sports-inspired apparel for those wishing to wear Macron off the field.

Major achievements in roller hockey by nation

This is a list of countries according to the best position achieved by athletes of these nations at major world tournaments in roller hockey. The variations of hockey included here are quad (also known as rink hockey) and inline hockey. Aside from the best results achieved at the world championships for each variation, also included are results from the World Games and the World Roller Games. Medals earned by athletes from defunct NOCs or historical teams have been merged with the results achieved by their immediate successor states, as follows: Czech Republic inherits medals from Czechoslovakia and Germany inherits medals from West Germany. Medals earned by teams from England are merged with results from Great Britain. Results achieved in youth, junior or U20 events were not considered for the making of this table, neither were para adaptations of hockey (power hockey).

Sledge hockey

Sledge hockey (also known as ice sled hockey, and sled hockey in American English) is an adaptation of ice hockey designed for players who have a physical disability. Invented in the early 1960's at a rehabilitation centre in Stockholm, Sweden, and played under similar rules to standard ice hockey, players are seated on sleds and use special hockey sticks with metal "teeth" on the tips of their handles to navigate the ice.

Via its division World Para Ice Hockey, the International Paralympic Committee acts as the international sanctioning body for the sport, under the name Para ice hockey. Sled hockey has been played in the Winter Paralympics since 1994, and has been one of the most popular events.

Basket sports
Football codes
Bat-and-ball games
Stick and ball sports
Net sports
Other sports

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