The PowerBook Duo is a line of small subnotebooks manufactured and sold by Apple Computer from 1992 until 1997 as a more compact companion to the PowerBook line. Improving upon the PowerBook 100's portability (its immediate predecessor and Apple's third-smallest laptop), the Duo came in seven different models. They were the Duo 210, 230, 250, 270c, 280, 280c, and 2300c, with the 210 and 230 being the earliest, and 2300c being the final incarnation before the entire line was dropped in early 1997.
Weighing in at a mere 4.1 pounds (1.9 kg) and slightly smaller than a sheet of paper at 10.9 in × 8.5 in (280 mm × 220 mm), and only 1.4 in (36 mm) thick, it was the lightest and smallest of all of Apple's PowerBooks at the time, and remains one of Apple's smallest notebooks ever produced. Only the MacBook Air, the 13-inch (330 mm) Retina MacBook Pro and the 12-inch (300 mm) Retina MacBook weigh less, though they are wider and deeper (but considerably thinner). The Duo had the most in common with the original MacBook Air which only included one USB 2.0 port, one video port (requiring an adapter) and one speaker port, but no ability for expansion.
The PowerBook Duo line was replaced by the PowerBook 2400, which was slightly larger in size than the Duos, but still only the fifth-smallest behind the 12-inch PowerBook G4 which succeeded it as fourth-smallest. Although both featured much more onboard functionality, they lacked docking ability.
Apple PowerBook Duo 2300c with standard CD jewel case, for size comparison
|Manufacturer||Apple Computer, Inc.|
|Release date||October 1992|
|Dimensions||10.9 in × 8.5 in × 1.4 in (277 mm × 216 mm × 36 mm)|
The Duo line offered an ultraportable design that was light and functional for travel and expandable via its unique docking connector. However certain compromises were made to achieve this level of portability. The Duo series used an 88% of standard desktop-sized keyboard which was criticized for being difficult to type on. Likewise, the trackball was reduced in size from even that used on the PowerBook 100. The only usable port which came standard on the Duo was a dual printer/modem EIA-422 serial port.
There was a slot for an expensive, optional, internal 14.4 Express Modem and no provision for built-in Ethernet. This somewhat limited configuration meant the only way to move data in or out of the laptop in a stock configuration, without purchasing additional accessories, was via a relatively slow AppleTalk connection, which was not practical in the event of hard drive problems. Compensating for these limitations, the initial Duo offering provided for a considerably higher RAM limit of 24 MB (as compared to the 100 series' 14 MB), and a standard 80 MB hard drive (versus the 100's 40 MB drive). The debut year for the Duo only offered a passive matrix display on both the mid-level and high-end models. In contrast to the high end of the 100-series line with which the Duos shared the same processors, the PowerBook 170 and 180, with their crisp active matrix displays, were both already in great demand over the lower-powered models with passive matrix displays. The following year, Apple replaced the earlier models with both an active matrix display and a color active matrix display, the latter becoming the de facto standard of the PowerBook line. The respective Duo models are easily differentiated by their display method and processor. All other features are identical.
The 2xx Duos were powered by either Motorola 68030 or 68LC040 processors, ranging from 25-33 MHz. When Apple debuted its next-generation PowerPC processors in 1994, it took nearly two years for the first PowerPC Duo (the 2300c) to debut. The original PowerPC 601, like the original 68040 before it, produced too much heat and consumed too much power for Apple to use in any laptop but, by the end of 1995, the more efficient PowerPC 603e had been developed, which was featured in the Duo 2300c and its full-size companion, the PowerBook 5300 series. The PowerPC 603e was designed for a 64-bit bus, but was engineered by Apple to run on an older 32-bit bus to maintain compatibility with the Duo Docks. This led to poor system and video performance.
|Discontinued||Original OS||Maximum OS|
|1992||October||PowerBook Duo 210 (passive display)||68030 25 MHz||4-24 MB||1993 October||System 7.1||Mac OS 7.6.1|
|October||PowerBook Duo 230 (passive display)||68030 33 MHz||4-24 MB||1994 July||System 7.1||Mac OS 7.6.1|
|1993||October||PowerBook Duo 250 (active display)||68030 33 MHz||4-24 MB||1994 May||System 7.1.1||Mac OS 7.6.1|
|October||PowerBook Duo 270c (active color display)||68030 33 MHz, 68882 FPU||4-32 MB||1994 May||System 7.1.1||Mac OS 7.6.1|
|1994||April||PowerBook Duo 280 (active display)||68LC040 33 MHz||4-40 MB||1994 November||System 7.1.1||Mac OS 8.1|
|April||PowerBook Duo 280c (active color display)||68LC040 33 MHz||4-40 MB||1996 January||System 7.1.1||Mac OS 8.1|
|1995||August||PowerBook Duo 2300c (active color display) (Apple never offered a monochrome 2300, but a 2300 PowerPC motherboard could be installed in the PowerBook Duo 250 as an upgrade.||PowerPC 603e 100 MHz||8-56 MB||1997 February||System 7.5.2||Mac OS 9.1|
PowerBook Duos lacked most common ports (featuring only one internal printer/modem serial port and an optional fax/modem card port). In their place was docking ability, accomplished via a unique 156-pin Processor Direct Slot (PDS) giving the docks full access to the Duo's central processing unit (CPU) and data buses. Several dock options were offered by Apple and third parties.
This was the largest and most expensive dock for the PowerBook Duo and the only form factor offered exclusively by Apple. Unlike the other docks, or "port replicators" that plugged into the back of other laptops, the Duo Dock pulled the laptop inside the dock's metal and plastic case via an internal sliding mechanism (similar to that of a VHS player). The dock turned the PowerBook Duo into a full-size, AC-powered, fully functional desktop computer with all the standard ports.
Like a desktop computer, the dock could physically support a heavy, high-resolution CRT display on top. The Duo Dock included a floppy drive on the side, two NuBus expansion slots, an optional floating-point unit (FPU), level 2 cache, a slot for more VRAM to enable more colors at higher resolutions, and space for a second hard drive. The original Duo Dock was replaced by the Duo Dock II, which added AAUI networking and compatibility with the newer color-screen PowerBook Duos. A replacement lid was offered to allow use of the thicker color Duos with the original Duo Dock. The Dock II was followed by the Duo Dock Plus, which was identical to the Duo Dock II, but lacked the FPU and level 2 cache—which were not compatible with the 68LC040-processor Duo 280 and PowerPC-processor Duo 2300c. While the laptop's LCD display obviously could not be opened when inside the dock, additional NuBus video cards could be installed to drive up to three monitors.
The Mini Dock was a port expander for the PowerBook Duo and was popularly offered by many third-party manufacturers and Apple. When attached, the PowerBook Duo could be plugged into various standard desktop devices including SCSI, Apple Desktop Bus (ADB), serial, floppy disk, external speakers, and an external display. This type of dock also allowed the Duo's internal LCD and battery to be used. Third-party contributions to the Mini Dock added a variety of specialized custom options including Ethernet connectivity, NTSC and PAL video ports. The only significant difference between these docks and a full desktop configuration was the lack of custom PDS or NuBus expansion slots, which were included on all standard desktop Macs, a shortfall made up in task-specific third-party dock offerings.
This type of dock was manufactured by both Apple and many third parties, and gave the PowerBook Duo up to three extra ports in a minimal configuration. Examples include floppy, SCSI, video and Ethernet docks, each typically included one ADB port as well. This was the least expensive, and most basic of the docks. This type of dock allowed the Duo's internal LCD to be used as well, and could run on the Duo's internal battery for a reduced amount of time. Popular due to the minimal impact in accessories that must be carried with the Duo, they offered a practical alternative to emergency hard disk and software situations and task-specific needs.
The 2300 was the last Apple product to carry any vestige of the Snow White design language, which Apple had been phasing out since 1990. Drawing heavily upon improvements made to the original PowerBook 140 design, the Duo series continues many of the styling traits of the PowerBook 100, which is approximately equivalent in size and weight. In addition to the Snow White features, the Duo takes the 100's radius curves a step further along the display top, front, and sides, and which is also heavily mirrored in the various docks.
The PenLite was an early tablet computer prototyped by Apple Computer in 1993 around the same time as the Apple Newton. It was not a PDA but rather a complete computer. The project was canceled in 1994 due to its similarity to the Newton.
The PenLite was based on the PowerBook Duo and was meant to be a tablet-style addition, with a stylus as the input device. It was designed to be compatible with PowerBook Duo docks and accessories and ran the standard classic Mac OS.
One of the most stylish and iconic of the laptops available at the time, the Duo was widely used in advertising, film and television.
The Control Strip is a user interface component introduced in the "classic" System 7 Macintosh operating system. It currently exists as part of the Touch Bar interface in macOS.List of Apple codenames
The list of Apple codenames covers the codenames given to products by Apple Inc. during development. The codenames are often used internally only, normally to maintain secrecy of the project. Occasionally a codename may become the released product's name. Most of Apple's codenames from the 1980s and 1990s are provided by the book Apple Confidential 2.0.List of Macintosh models by case type
This list of Macintosh models by case type contains all case designs used by Apple Inc. for its Macintosh computers. The list is sectioned by general case layout, but inside the sections the order is chronological. Models that used multiple names (like most Performas) are listed only once. Where available, the "form factor" from Apple's datasheets has been used to determine the case designation and the computers that used it. For all-in-one models and notebooks that have the same basic case design, but differ in size, just one type is listed. Also, some models that differ only slightly or internally are listed together, like the two iMac G3s and the Power Mac G4s.List of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type
This list of Macintosh models grouped by CPU type contains all CPUs used by Apple Inc. for their Macintosh computers. It is grouped by processor family, processor model, and then chronologically by Macintosh model.List of computer technology code names
Following is a list of code names that have been used to identify computer hardware and software products while in development. In some cases, the code name became the completed product's name, but most of these code names are no longer used once the associated products are released.
See also List of Microsoft software codenames, List of Intel codenames, and List of Apple codenames.PowerBook
The PowerBook (known as Macintosh PowerBook before 1997) is a family of Macintosh laptop computers designed, manufactured and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1991 to 2006. During its lifetime, the PowerBook went through several major revisions and redesigns, often being the first to incorporate features that would later become standard in competing laptops. The PowerBook line was targeted at the professional market, and received numerous awards, especially in the second half of its life, such as the 2001 Industrial Design Excellence Awards "Gold" status, and Engadget's 2005 "Laptop of the Year". In 1999, the line was supplemented by the home and education-focused iBook family.
The PowerBook was replaced by the MacBook Pro in 2006 as part of Apple's transition to Intel processors.PowerBook 100
The PowerBook 100 is a portable subnotebook personal computer that was designed and manufactured by Sony for Apple Computer and introduced on October 21, 1991, at the COMDEX computer expo in Las Vegas, Nevada. Priced at US$2,300, the PowerBook 100 was the low-end model of the first three simultaneously released PowerBooks. Its CPU and overall speed closely resembled those of its predecessor, the Macintosh Portable. It had a Motorola 68000 16-megahertz (MHz) processor, 2-8 megabytes (MB) of memory, a 9-inch (23 cm) monochrome backlit liquid crystal display (LCD) with 640 × 400 pixel resolution, and the System 7.0.1 operating system. It did not have a built-in floppy disk drive and was noted for its unique compact design that placed a trackball pointing device in front of the keyboard for ease of use.
Apple's then-chief executive officer (CEO) John Sculley started the PowerBook project in 1990, allocating $1 million for marketing. Despite the small marketing budget, the new PowerBook line was a success, generating over $1 billion in revenue for Apple in its first year. Sony designed and manufactured the PowerBook 100 in collaboration with the Apple Industrial Design Group, Apple's internal design team. It was discontinued on September 3, 1992, and superseded by the PowerBook 145 and PowerBook Duo series. Since then, it has been praised several times for its design; PC World named the PowerBook 100 the tenth-greatest PC of all time in 2006, and US magazine Mobile PC chose the PowerBook 100 as the greatest gadget of all time in 2005.PowerBook 100 series
The PowerBook 100 series is a line of laptop PCs produced by Apple Computer.
In October 1991, Apple released the first three PowerBooks: the low-end PowerBook 100, the more powerful PowerBook 140, and the high end PowerBook 170, the only one with an active matrix display.
These machines caused a stir in the industry with their compact dark grey cases, use of a trackball, and the clever positioning of the keyboard which left room for palmrests on either side of the pointing device. Portable PC computers at the time tended to have the keyboard forward towards the user, with empty space behind it, so this was a surprising innovation and set the standard layout all future notebook computers would follow.
The PowerBook 140 and 170 were the original PowerBook designs, while the PowerBook 100 was the result of Apple having sent the schematics of the Mac Portable to Sony, who miniaturized the components. Hence the PowerBook 100's design does not match those of the rest of the series, as it was actually designed after the 140 & 170 and further benefited from improvements learned during their development. The PowerBook 100, however, did not sell well until Apple dropped the price substantially.
Both the 100 and 200 series PowerBooks were intended to tie into the rest of the Apple desktop products utilizing the corporate Snow White design language incorporated into all product designs since 1986. However, unlike the Macintosh Portable which was essentially a battery-powered desktop in weight and size, the light colors and decorative recessed lines did not seem appropriate for the scaled down designs. In addition to adopting the darker grey colour scheme which co-ordinated with the official corporate look, they also adopted a raised series of ridges mimicking the indented lines on the desktops. The innovative look not only unified their entire product line, but set Apple apart in the marketplace and had the added benefit of masking fingerprints while the ridges provided added traction with which to grip the PowerBook. These early series would be the last to utilize the aging Snow White look, with the 190 adopting a new look along with the introduction of the 500 series.
The first series of PowerBooks were hugely successful, capturing 40% of all laptop sales. Despite this, the original team left to work at Compaq, setting back updated versions for some time. When increasing processing power, Apple was hampered by the overheating problems of the 68040; this resulted in the 100-series PowerBook being stuck with the aging 68030 which could not compete with newer-generation Intel 80486-based PC laptops introduced in 1994. For several years, new PowerBook and PowerBook Duo computers were introduced which featured incremental improvements, including color screens, but by mid-decade, most other companies had copied the majority of the PowerBook's features, and Apple was unable to regain their lead.
The original PowerBook 100, 140, and 170 were replaced by the 145 (updated to the 145B in 1993), 160, and 180 in 1992, with the 160 and 180 having video output allowing them to drive an external monitor. The PowerBook 180 had a superb-for-the-time active-matrix grayscale display, making it popular. In 1993, the PowerBook 165c was the first PowerBook with a color screen, later followed by the 180c. In 1994, the last true member of the 100-series form factor introduced was the PowerBook 150, targeted at value-minded consumers and students.
The PowerBook 190, released in 1995, bears no resemblance to the rest of the PowerBook 100 series, and is in fact simply a Motorola 68LC040-based version of the PowerBook 5300, and the last PowerBook model to be manufactured using a Motorola 68k-family processor). However, like the 190, the 150 also used the 5300 IDE-based logic-board architecture. From the 100's 68000 processor, to the 190's 68LC040 processor, the 100 series PowerBooks span the entire Apple 68K line, with the 190 even upgradable to a PowerPC processor. The PowerBook Duo spanned the 68030 line of processors and sold through the PowerPC transition to the PowerPC 603e processor with the 2300, also based on the 5300's internal architecture.
In February 2005, Mobile PC magazine named the PowerBook 100 its choice as the "#1 gadget of all time."PowerBook 150
The PowerBook 150 is a laptop personal computer created by Apple Computer, Inc. which was introduced on July 13, 1994, and released on July 18, 1994. It was the last member of the PowerBook 100 series to use the original case design, the most affordable of the series when introduced, priced between $1,450 and $1,600, and also the last consumer model.
It was 8 MHz faster than its predecessor, the PowerBook 145B. It lacked an ADB port and used a lower-quality passive matrix display than other contemporary offerings, both to reduce the price. It also lacked external monitor support. Like the Duos and the PowerBook 100 before it, the 150 only had a single serial printer port, however, a third party adapter was available for use in the optional modem slot.Though it used the 140 case design, its internals were based on the PowerBook Duo 230 and actually more similar to the features of the PowerBook 190 (which used the PowerBook 5300's case design). Notably, this new logicboard design allowed this 100 series PowerBook to use more than 14 MB RAM for the first time, as well as the first Macintosh ever to use less expensive and larger IDE drives (formatting required a unique software application limiting the selection of compatible drives). It was also the first of the 100 series to include a lithium-ion backup battery to preserve RAM contents when the battery is replaced. This was the last PowerBook model to include a trackball. However, like the 145B it replaced, the 150 could not be used in SCSI Disk Mode, unlike the Duo, 190 and 5300 which had HD Target Mode implemented.PowerBook 160
The PowerBook 160 is a portable computer that was released by Apple Computer along with the PowerBook 145 and PowerBook 180 in October 1992. At the time, it constituted the mid-range model replacing the previous PowerBook 140 in processing power. The PowerBook 160 was sold until May 1994.PowerBook 170
The PowerBook 170 was released by Apple Inc. in 1991 along with the PowerBook 100 and the PowerBook 140. Identical in form factor to the 140, it was the high end of the original
PowerBook line featuring a faster 25 MHz Motorola 68030 processor with Floating point unit (FPU) and a more expensive and significantly better quality 10 in (250 mm) active matrix display. It was replaced by the PowerBook 180 in 1992.PowerBook 180
The PowerBook 180 is a portable computer released by Apple Computer, Inc. along with the PowerBook 160 in October 1992. At the time, it constituted the new top-of-the-range model, replacing the previous PowerBook 170. Its case design and features are the same as that of the 170, but it shipped with the more powerful 33 MHz Motorola 68030 CPU and Motorola 68882 FPU. Along with the 160, it introduced a new power saving feature which allowed the processor to run at a slower 16 MHz rate, the same speed as the original 140.
The PowerBook 180 came with a 9.5 in (240 mm) (diagonal) active matrix LCD screen, capable of displaying 4-bit grayscale, and a trackball was mounted beneath the keyboard. A 1.44 MB floppy disk drive and 80 MB 2.5-inch hard drive were also standard.
The Apple Powerbook also gave an option of possible expansion to a 120 MB hard drive. They are equipped with keyboard stands to slant the keyboard.
Like the Macintosh Portable before it, with the addition of an external color video port missing on the 170, the 180 became a full-featured, no-compromises desktop replacement, equivalent in performance to the Macintosh LC III+. It was sold until May 1994.PowerBook 2400c
The PowerBook 2400c (codenames: "Comet", "Nautilus") is a subnotebook in Apple Computer's PowerBook range of Macintosh computers, weighing 4.4 pounds (2.0 kg). Manufacturing was contracted to IBM. In a return to the PowerBook 100 form factor, It was introduced in May 1997 as a late replacement for the PowerBook Duo 2300c, which had been the last of the subnotebook PowerBook Duo series. The 2400c was discontinued in March 1998, with no immediate replacement — the model that followed it was the much larger PowerBook G3 Series (known as "Wallstreet"/"Mainstreet"). However, in Japan a 2400c with a 240 MHz CPU (codenamed "Mighty Cat") was offered shortly after the original model's discontinuation, until the end of the year.PowerBook Duo 210
The PowerBook Duo 210 is a portable Notebook Personal Computer, manufactured by Apple Computer Inc., and introduced in October 1992. Priced at US$2250, the PowerBook Duo 210 was the low-end model of the two simultaneously released PowerBook Duos. (The PowerBook Duo 230 was priced at US$2610). PowerBook 160's specs are almost same for PowerBook Duo 210, except PowerBook Duo 210 has a smaller display (9.1 inch). Its case design is identical to PowerBook Duo 230, but it shipped with 25 MHz 68030, differing from 33 MHz 68030 (PowerBook Duo 230). The PowerBook Duo 210 had a 80MB SCSI Hard Disk Drive. It was discontinued on October 21, 1993.
== Timeline of PowerBook and iBook models ==PowerBook Duo 230
The PowerBook Duo 230 is a subnotebook personal computer introduced on October 19, 1992 by Apple Computer, Inc. Priced at US $2,610, the PowerBook Duo 230 was the high end model of the two simultaneously released PowerBook Duos, the lower end being the US $2,250 PowerBook Duo 210. With a 33 MHz Motorola 68030 microprocessor, 4 MB of RAM and an 80 or 120 MB SCSI hard disk drive, the PowerBook Duo 230 was nearly identical to the simultaneously released PowerBook 180 except for the smaller 9.1 inch greyscale "supertwist" passive-matrix LCD and the lack of a 68882 floating-point unit.
With the October 1993 introduction of the PowerBook Duo 250 and 270c, the 230 replaced the 210 in the entry level, eventually being discontinued entirely on July 27, 1994 shortly after the introduction of the 68040-based PowerBook Duo 280 and 280c.Subnotebook
A subnotebook (also called an ultraportable, superportable or mini notebook) is a class of laptop (or 'notebook') computers that are smaller and lighter than a typical notebook.
These computers are sometimes confused with the ultra-mobile PC category, which is the name of a platform of small form-factor tablet PCs. UMPCs are smaller than subnotebooks, however both generally run full desktop operating systems such as Windows or Linux, rather than specialized software such as Windows CE, Palm OS, or Internet Tablet OS. Subnotebooks are also sometimes confused with netbooks which are a different category of devices that branched off from mini notebooks in general. Netbooks are most often much less expensive than subnotebooks, as they are optimized for use as portable Internet capable devices and generally lack the processing power of a workstation. Netbooks typically have 9W TDP CPUs, sacrificing performance for power efficiency, whereas subnotebooks often use 18W TDP processors.
Subnotebooks are smaller than full sized laptops but larger than handheld computers. They often have smaller-sized screens, less than 14 inches, and weigh less than typical laptops, usually being less than 2 kg (4.4 lbs). The savings in size and weight are usually achieved partly by omitting ports and optical disc drives. Many can be paired with docking stations to compensate.Timeline of Apple Inc. products
This timeline of Apple Inc. products is a list of all stand-alone Apple II, Macintosh, and other computers, as well as computer peripherals, expansion cards, ancillary products, and consumer electronics sold by Apple Inc. This list is ordered by the release date of the products.Timeline of Macintosh models
This timeline of Macintosh models lists all major types of Macintosh computers produced by Apple Inc. in order of introduction date. Macintosh Performa models were often physically identical to other models, in which case they are omitted in favor of the identical twin. Also not listed are model numbers that identify software bundles. For example, the Performa 6115CD and 6116CD differed only in software and were identical to the Power Macintosh 6100, so only the 6100 is listed below. The Apple Network Server and Apple Lisa are included, as they filled high-end niches of the Macintosh line despite not directly running Mac OS.
Apple hardware before 1998
Apple hardware since 1998