Potsdam

Potsdam (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔt͡sdam] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg. It directly borders the German capital, Berlin, and is part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the River Havel 24 kilometres (15 miles) southwest of Berlin's city centre.

Potsdam was a residence of the Prussian kings and the German Kaiser until 1918. Its planning embodied ideas of the Age of Enlightenment: through a careful balance of architecture and landscape, Potsdam was intended as "a picturesque, pastoral dream" which would remind its residents of their relationship with nature and reason.[4]

Around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. The Potsdam Conference in 1945 was held at the palace Cecilienhof.

Babelsberg, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was a major film production studio before the 1930s and has enjoyed success as a major center of European film production since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world.

Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany in the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges, the University of Potsdam, and more than 30 research institutes in the city.

Potsdam
Potsdam-stadtschloss-landtag - Arbeitskopie 2
Schloss Sanssouci 2014
17 Neues Palais Sanssouci Potsdam Steffen Heilfort
Potsdam-HollaendischesViertel-2007
Filmstudio Babelsberg Eingang
Flag of Potsdam

Flag
Coat of arms of Potsdam

Coat of arms
Location of Potsdam
Potsdam is located in Germany
Potsdam
Potsdam
Potsdam is located in Brandenburg
Potsdam
Potsdam
Coordinates: 52°24′N 13°4′E / 52.400°N 13.067°ECoordinates: 52°24′N 13°4′E / 52.400°N 13.067°E
CountryGermany
StateBrandenburg
DistrictUrban district
Government
 • Lord MayorMike Schubert (SPD)
Area
 • Total188.26 km2 (72.69 sq mi)
Elevation
32 m (105 ft)
Population
(2017-12-31)[3]
 • Total175,710
 • Density930/km2 (2,400/sq mi)
Time zoneCET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
14467–14482
Dialling codes0331
Vehicle registrationP
Websitewww.potsdam.de

Geography

Templiner See, Vorderkappe und Hermannswerder 1.jpeg
Templiner See south of Potsdam

The area was formed from a series of large moraines left after the last glacial period. Today, the city is three-quarters green space, with just a quarter as urban area.

There are about 20 lakes and rivers in and around Potsdam, such as the Havel, the Griebnitzsee, Templiner See, Tiefer See, Jungfernsee, Teltowkanal, Heiliger See and the Sacrower See. The highest point is the 114-metre (374 ft) high Kleiner Ravensberg.

Subdivisions

Potsdam is divided into seven historic city Bezirke and nine new Stadtteile (villages), which joined the city in 2003. The appearance of the city quarters is quite different. Those in the north and in the centre consist mainly of historical buildings, the south of the city is dominated by larger areas of newer buildings.

The city of Potsdam is divided into 34 Stadtteile (or quarters)[5], which are divided further into 84 statistical Bezirke.

Today one distinguishes between the older parts of the city (areas of the historic city and places suburbanized at the latest in 1939) - these are the city center, the western and northern suburbs, Bornim, Bornstedt, Nedlitz, Potsdam South, Babelsberg, Drewitz, Stern and Kirchsteigfeld - and those communities incorporated after 1990 which have since 2003 become Stadtteile - these are Eiche, Fahrland, Golm, Groß Glienicke, Grube, Marquardt, Neu Fahrland, Satzkorn and Uetz-Paaren.[6] The new Stadtteile are located mainly in the north of the city. For the history of all incorporations, see the relevant section on incorporation and spin-offs.

Structure with statistical numbering:[7]

Potsdam subdivisions
Stadtteile (quarters) of Potsdam
  • 1 Potsdam Nord
  • 2 Nördliche Vorstädte
    • 21 Nauener Vorstadt
    • 22 Jägervorstadt
    • 23 Berliner Vorstadt
  • 3 Westliche Vorstädte
    • 31 Brandenburger Vorstadt
    • 32 Potsdam West
    • 33 Wildpark
  • 4 Innenstadt
    • 41 Nördliche Innenstadt
    • 42 Südliche Innenstadt
  • 5 Babelsberg
  • 6 Potsdam Süd
    • 61 Templiner Vorstadt
    • 62 Teltower Vorstadt
    • 63 Schlaatz
    • 64 Waldstadt I
    • 65 Waldstadt II
    • 66 Industriegelände
    • 67 Forst Potsdam Süd
  • 7 Potsdam Südost
    • 71 Stern
    • 72 Drewitz
    • 73 Kirchsteigfeld
  • 8 Nördliche Ortsteile

Climate

Officially the climate is oceanic - more degraded by being far from the coast and to the east (Köppen: Cfb)[8], but using the 1961-1990 normal and the 0 °C isotherm the city has a humid continental climate (Dfb), which also shows a slight influence of the continent different from the climates predominantly influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Low averages below freezing for almost all winter causing snows that are frequent and winters are cold, but not as stringent as inland locations or with greater influence from the same. Summer is also relatively warm with temperatures between 23 to 24 ° C, the heat waves being influenced by the UHI of Potsdam.[9]

The average winter high temperature is 3.5 °C (38.3 °F), with a low of −1.7 °C (28.9 °F). Snow is common in the winter. Spring and autumn are short. Summers are mild, with a high of 23.6 °C (74.5 °F) and a low of 12.7 °C (54.9 °F).

Etymology

The name "Potsdam" originally seems to have been Poztupimi. A common theory is that it derives from an old West Slavonic term meaning "beneath the oaks",[10] i.e., the corrupted pod dubmi/dubimi (pod "beneath", dub "oak"). However some question this explanation.[11]

History

Pre- and early history

Schenkungsurkunde Potsdam 993
Document from the Holy Roman Empire in 993 mentioning Poztupimi
Potsdam Sanssouci 07-2017 img4
New Palace today
Stadtschloss Potsdam Gemälde
Stadtschloss Potsdam in 1773

The area around Potsdam shows signs of occupancy since the Bronze Age and was part of Magna Germania as described by Tacitus. After the great migrations of the Germanic peoples, Slavs moved in and Potsdam was probably founded after the 7th century as a settlement of the Hevelli tribe centred on a castle. It was first mentioned in a document in 993 as Poztupimi, when Emperor Otto III gifted the territory to the Quedlinburg Abbey, then led by his aunt Matilda.[11] By 1317, it was mentioned as a small town. It gained its town charter in 1345. In 1573, it was still a small market town of 2,000 inhabitants.

Early modern era

Potsdam lost nearly half of its population due to the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648).

A continuous Hohenzollern possession since 1415, Potsdam became prominent, when it was chosen in 1660 as the hunting residence of Frederick William I, Elector of Brandenburg, the core of the powerful state that later became the Kingdom of Prussia. It also housed Prussian barracks.

Voltaire-Baquoy
Voltaire at the residence of Frederick II in Potsdam. Partial view of an engraving by Pierre Charles Baquoy, after N. A. Monsiau.

After the Edict of Potsdam in 1685, Potsdam became a centre of European immigration. Its religious freedom attracted people from France (Huguenots), Russia, the Netherlands and Bohemia. The edict accelerated population growth and economic recovery.

Later, the city became a full residence of the Prussian royal family. The buildings of the royal residences were built mainly during the reign of Frederick the Great. One of these is the Sanssouci Palace (French: "without cares", by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff, 1744), famed for its formal gardens and Rococo interiors. Other royal residences include the New Palace and the Orangery.

In 1815, at the formation of the Province of Brandenburg, Potsdam became the provincial capital until 1918, except for a period between 1827 and 1843 when Berlin was the provincial capital (as it became once again after 1918). The province comprised two governorates named after their capitals Potsdam and Frankfurt (Oder).

Governorate of Potsdam

Stadt Potsdam 1852
Bond of Potsdam, issued 22 May 1852

Between 1815 and 1945 the city of Potsdam served as capital of the governorate of Potsdam (German: Regierungsbezirk Potsdam). The Regierungsbezirk encompassed the former districts of Uckermark, the Mark of Priegnitz, and the greater part of the Middle March. It was situated between Mecklenburg and the Province of Pomerania on the north, and the Province of Saxony on the south and west (Berlin, with a small surrounding district, was an urban governorate and enclave within the governorate of Potsdam between 1815 and 1822, then it merged as urban district into the governorate only to be disentangled again from Potsdam governorate in 1875, becoming a distinct province-like entity on 1 April 1881). Towards the north west the governorate was bounded by the rivers Elbe and the Havel, and on the north east by the Oder. The south eastern boundary was to the neighbouring governorate of Frankfurt (Oder). About 500,000 inhabitants lived in the Potsdam governorate, which covered an area of about 20,700 square kilometres (7,992 sq mi), divided into thirteen rural districts, partially named after their capitals:[12]

Angermünde Beeskow-Storkow (as of 1836) East Havelland East Prignitz
Jüterbog-Luckenwalde Lower Barnim Prenzlau Ruppin
Teltow (as of 1836) Teltow-Storkow (until 1835) Templin Upper Barnim
West Havelland West Prignitz Zauch-Belzig

The traditional towns in the governorate were small, however, in the course of the industrial labour migration some reached the rank of urban districts. The principal towns were Brandenburg upon Havel, Köpenick, Potsdam, Prenzlau, Spandau and Ruppin.[12] Until 1875 Berlin also was a town within the governorate. After its disentanglement a number of its suburbs outside Berlin's municipal borders grew to towns, many forming urban Bezirke within the governorate of Potsdam such as Charlottenburg, Lichtenberg, Rixdorf (after 1912 Neukölln), and Schöneberg (all of which, as well as Köpenick and Spandau, incorporated into Greater Berlin in 1920). The urban Bezirke were (years indicating the elevation to rank of urban Bezirkor affiliation with Potsdam governorate, respectively):

Berlin (1822–1875) Brandenburg/Havel (as of 1881) Charlottenburg (1877–1920) Eberswalde (as of 1911)
Lichtenberg (1908–1920) Schöneberg (1899–1920) Deutsch-Wilmersdorf (1907–1920) Rixdorf (Neukölln) (1899–1920)
Potsdam Rathenow (as of 1925) Spandau (1886–1920) Wittenberge (as of 1922)

20th century

Berlin was the capital of Prussia and later of the German Empire, but the court remained in Potsdam, where many government officials settled. In 1914, Emperor Wilhelm II signed the Declaration of War in the Neues Palais (New Palace). The city lost its status as a "second capital" in 1918, when Wilhelm II abdicated and Germany became a Republic at the end of World War I.

At the start of the Third Reich in 1933 there was a ceremonial handshake between President Paul von Hindenburg and the new Chancellor Adolf Hitler on 21 March 1933 in Potsdam's Garrison Church in what became known as the "Day of Potsdam". This symbolised a coalition of the military (Reichswehr) and Nazism. Potsdam was severely damaged by Allied bombing raids during World War II.

The Cecilienhof Palace was the scene of the Potsdam Conference from 17 July to 2 August 1945, at which the victorious Allied leaders (Harry S. Truman; Winston Churchill and his successor, Clement Attlee; and Joseph Stalin) met to decide the future of Germany and postwar Europe in general. The conference ended with the Potsdam Agreement and the Potsdam Declaration.

Glienicker Brücke2
The Glienicke Bridge, used for exchanging spies during the Cold War

The government of East Germany (formally known as the German Democratic Republic (German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR)) tried to remove symbols of "Prussian militarism". Many historic buildings, some of them badly damaged in the war, were demolished.

When in 1946 the remainder of the Province of Brandenburg west of the Oder-Neiße line was constituted as the state of Brandenburg, Potsdam became its capital. In 1952 the GDR disestablished its federal states and replaced them by smaller new East German administrative districts known as Bezirke. Potsdam became the capital of the new Bezirk Potsdam until 1990.

Potsdam, south-west of Berlin, lay just outside West Berlin after the construction of the Berlin Wall. The walling off of West Berlin not only isolated Potsdam from West Berlin, but also doubled commuting times to East Berlin. The Glienicke Bridge across the Havel connected the city to West Berlin and was the scene of some Cold War exchanges of spies.

After German reunification, Potsdam became the capital of the newly re-established state of Brandenburg. Since then there have been many ideas and efforts to reconstruct the original appearance of the city, including the Potsdam City Palace and the Garrison Church.

Demography

Since 2000 Potsdam has been one of the fastest growing cities in Germany.[13]

Bevölkerungsentwicklung Potsdam.pdf

Development of Population since 1875 within the Current Boundaries (Blue Line: Population; Dotted Line: Comparison to Population Development of Brandenburg state; Grey Background: Time of Nazi rule; Red Background: Time of Communist rule)

Bevölkerungsprognosen Potsdam.pdf

Recent Population Development and Projections (Population Development before Census 2011 (blue line); Recent Population Development according to the Census in Germany in 2011 (blue bordered line); Projection by the Brandenburg state for 2005-2030 (yellow line); Projection by the Brandenburg state for 2014-2030 (red line); Projection by the Bertelsmann Foundation for 2012-2030 (green line)

Potsdam: Population development
within the current boundaries (2017)[14]
YearPop.±% p.a.
1875 61,719—    
1890 77,301+1.51%
1910 101,950+1.39%
1925 107,734+0.37%
1933 116,947+1.03%
1939 125,664+1.21%
1946 113,035−1.50%
1950 114,663+0.36%
1964 117,711+0.19%
1971 118,923+0.15%
1981 139,746+1.63%
1985 146,746+1.23%
1989 149,043+0.39%
1990 147,252−1.20%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1991 146,441−0.55%
1992 146,138−0.21%
1993 145,667−0.32%
1994 145,227−0.30%
1995 144,118−0.76%
1996 143,151−0.67%
1997 140,880−1.59%
1998 139,823−0.75%
1999 139,695−0.09%
2000 140,668+0.70%
2001 141,907+0.88%
2002 143,246+0.94%
2003 144,979+1.21%
2004 145,707+0.50%
YearPop.±% p.a.
2005 147,583+1.29%
2006 148,813+0.83%
2007 150,833+1.36%
2008 152,966+1.41%
2009 154,606+1.07%
2010 156,906+1.49%
2011 157,603+0.44%
2012 159,456+1.18%
2013 161,468+1.26%
2014 164,042+1.59%
2015 167,745+2.26%
2016 171,810+2.42%
2017 175,710+2.27%

International residents

SG Fanfarenzug Potsdam
People at the Fanfarenzug

Largest groups of foreign residents:

Rank Nationality Population (31.12.2017)
1  Syria 1,970
2  Russia 1,340
3  Poland 1,055
4  Ukraine 790
5  Romania 660

Governance

Potsdam Rathaus 07-2017
Potsdamer Stadthaus, Townhall.

City government

Potsdam has had a mayor (Bürgermeister) and city council since the 15th century. From 1809 the city council was elected, with a mayor (Oberbürgermeister) at its head. During the Third Reich the mayor was selected by the NSDAP and the city council was dissolved; it was reconstituted in token form after 1945, but free elections did not take place until after reunification.

Today, the city council is the city's central administrative authority. Local elections took place on 26 October 2003 and again in 2008. Between 1990 and 1999, the Chairman of the City Council was known as the "Town President" but today the post is the "Chairman of the City Council". The mayor is elected directly by the population.

Brandenburg state government

The Landtag Brandenburg, the parliament of the federal state of Brandenburg is in Potsdam. It has been housed in the Potsdam City Palace since 2014.[15]

Town twinning

Potsdam is twinned with the following cities:[16][17][18][19]

Poland Opole Poland 1973 Italy Perugia Italy 1990
France Bobigny France 1974 United States Sioux Falls South Dakota, USA 1990
Finland Jyväskylä Finland 1985 Germany Bonn North Rhine-Westphalia 1988
Switzerland Lucerne Switzerland 2002
France Versailles France 2016
Tanzania Zanzibar Tanzania 2017

Infrastructure

Transport

Potsdam Kaiserbahnhof Gebaeude 2
The Kaiserbahnof building

Rail transport

Potsdam, included in the fare zone "C" (Tarifbereich C)[20] of Berlin's public transport area and fare zones A and B of its own public transport area, is served by the S7 S-Bahn line. The stations served are Griebnitzsee, Babelsberg and the Central Station (Hauptbahnhof), the main and long-distance station of the city. Other DB stations in Potsdam are Charlottenhof, Park Sanssouci (including the monumental Kaiserbahnhof), Medienstadt Babelsberg, Rehbrücke, Pirschheide and Marquardt. The city also possesses a 27 km-long tramway network.

Road transport

Potsdam is served by several motorways: the A 10, a beltway better known as Berliner Ring, the A 115 (using part of the AVUS) and is closely linked to the A 2 and A 9. The B 1 and B 2 federal roads cross the city. Potsdam features a network of urban and suburban buses.

Education and research

Potsdam is a university town. The University of Potsdam was founded in 1991 as a university of the State of Brandenburg. Its predecessor was the Akademie für Staats- und Rechtswissenschaften der DDR "Walter Ulbricht", a college of education founded in 1948 which was one of the GDR's most important colleges. There are about 20,000 students enrolled at the university.

Einsteinturm 7443
The Einstein Tower was built in 1921 to house research on the theory of relativity

In 1991 the Fachhochschule was founded as the second college; it now has 2,400 students.

In addition there is a College of Film and Television (Hochschule für Film und Fernsehen "Konrad Wolf" HFF), founded in 1954 in Babelsberg, the foremost centre of the German film industry since its birth, with currently 600 students.

There are also several research foundations, including Fraunhofer Institutes for Applied Polymer Research and Biomedical Engineering, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute), Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, and Max Planck Institute for Molecular Plant Physiology, the GFZ - German Research Centre for Geosciences, the Potsdam Astrophysical Institute, the Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies and the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, which employs 340 people in researching climate change.[21]

As well as universities, Potsdam is home to reputable secondary schools. Montessori Gesamtschule Potsdam, in western Potsdam, attracts 400 students from the Brandenburg and Berlin region.

Culture

Potsdam was historically a centre of European immigration. Its religious tolerance attracted people from France, Russia, the Netherlands and Bohemia. This is still visible in the culture and architecture of the city.

The most popular attraction in Potsdam is Sanssouci Park, 2 km (1 mi) west of the city centre. In 1744 King Frederick the Great ordered the construction of a residence here, where he could live sans souci ("without worries", in the French spoken at the court). The park hosts a botanical garden (Botanical Garden, Potsdam) and many buildings:

  • The Sanssouci Palace (Schloss Sanssouci), a relatively modest palace of the Prussian royal (and later German imperial) family
  • The Orangery Palace (Orangerieschloss), former palace for foreign royal guests
  • The New Palace (Neues Palais), built between 1763 and 1769 to celebrate the end of the Seven Years' War, in which Prussia held off the combined attacks of Austria and Russia. It is a much larger and grander palace than Sanssouci, having over 200 rooms and 400 statues as decoration. It served as a guest house for numerous royal visitors. Today, it houses parts of University of Potsdam.
  • The Charlottenhof Palace (Schloss Charlottenhof), a Neoclassical palace by Karl Friedrich Schinkel built in 1826
  • The Roman Baths (Römische Bäder), built by Karl Friedrich Schinkel and Friedrich Ludwig Persius in 1829–1840. It is a complex of buildings including a tea pavilion, a Renaissance-style villa, and a Roman bathhouse (from which the whole complex takes its name).
  • The Chinese Tea House (Chinesisches Teehaus), an 18th-century pavilion built in a Chinese style, the fashion of the time.

Three gates from the original city wall remain today. The oldest is the Hunters' Gate (Jägertor), built in 1733. The Nauener Tor was built in 1755 and close to the historic Dutch Quarter. The ornate Brandenburg Gate (built in 1770, not to be confused with the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin) is situated on the Luisenplatz at the western entrance to the old town.

Nikolaikirche Potsdam Südansicht, Foto Gottfried Grafe
St. Nicholas' Church on the Alter Markt

The Old Market Square (Alter Markt) is Potsdam's historical city centre. For three centuries this was the site of the City Palace (Stadtschloß), a royal palace built in 1662. Under Frederick the Great, the palace became the winter residence of the Prussian kings. The palace was severely damaged by Allied bombing in 1945 and demolished in 1961 by the Communist authorities. In 2002 the Fortuna Gate (Fortunaportal) was rebuilt in its original historic position which was followed by a complete reconstruction of the palace as the Brandenburg Landtag building inaugurated in 2014. Nearby the square in the Humboldtstraße block, which also was demolished after getting damaged in 1945, reconstructions of several representative residential palaces including Palazzo Pompei and Palazzo Barberini housing an arts museum were completed in 2016-2017 alongside with buildings with modernized facades to restore the historical proportions of the block.

Potsdam Brandenburger Str
The old town (main shopping street, Brandenburger Straße)

The Old Market Square is dominated today by the dome of St. Nicholas' Church (Nikolaikirche), built in 1837 in the Neoclassical style. It was the last work of Karl Friedrich Schinkel, who designed the building but did not live to see its completion. It was finished by his disciples Friedrich August Stüler and Ludwig Persius. The eastern side of the Market Square is dominated by the Old City Hall (Altes Rathaus), built in 1755 by the Dutch architect Jan Bouman (1706–1776). It has a characteristic circular tower, crowned with a gilded Atlas bearing the world on his shoulders.

Dutcharchitecture9
Dutch Quarter

North of the Old Market Square is the oval French Church (Französische Kirche), erected in the 1750s by Boumann for the Huguenot community. To the south lies the Museum Barberini, a copy of the previous building, the Barberini Palace. The museum was funded by the German billionaire Hasso Plattner. The former Baroque building was built by Carl von Gontard in 1771–1772, inspired by the Renaissance palace Palazzo Barberini in Rome. The newly built museum was scheduled to open in spring 2017.

Another landmark of Potsdam is the two-street Dutch Quarter (Holländisches Viertel), an ensemble of buildings that is unique in Europe, with about 150 houses built of red bricks in the Dutch style. It was built between 1734 and 1742 under the direction of Jan Bouman to be used by Dutch artisans and craftsmen who had been invited to settle here by King Frederick Wilhelm I. Today, this area is one of Potsdam's most visited quarters.

North of the city centre is the Russian colony of Alexandrowka, a small enclave of Russian architecture (including an Orthodox chapel) built in 1825 for a group of Russian immigrants. Since 1999, the colony has been part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin.

East of the Alexandrowka colony is a large park, the New Garden (Neuer Garten), which was laid out from 1786 in the English style. The site contains two palaces; one of them, the Cecilienhof, was where the Potsdam Conference was held in July and August 1945. The Marmorpalais (Marble Palace) was built in 1789 in Neoclassical style. Nearby is the Biosphäre Potsdam, a tropical botanical garden.

Babelsberg, a quarter south-east of the centre, houses the UFA film studios (Babelsberg Studios), and an extensive park with some historical buildings, including the Babelsberg Palace (Schloß Babelsberg, a Gothic revival palace designed by Schinkel).

The Einstein Tower is located within the Albert Einstein Science Park, which is on the top of the Telegraphenberg within an astronomy compound.

Potsdam also features a memorial centre in the former KGB prison in Leistikowstraße. In the Volkspark to the north, there is one of the last monuments dedicated to Lenin in Germany.

Parks

There are many parks in Potsdam, most of them included in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Some of them are:

Hunting Lodge Glienicke 2

View from Babelsberg Park to Berlin.

Marmorpalais Neuer Garten Potsdam

Marmorpalais in New Garden, Potsdam

Orangerie Schloss Spielstätte

Orangerie Schloss

Sports

Notable people

People from Potsdam who are the subjects of Wikipedia articles can be found here.
18th century
Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck LM FWzeK
Graf Henckel von Donnersmarck
W.v.Humboldt
Wilhelm von Humboldt
19th century
Ludwig Persius
Ludwig Persius, 1840
Kaiser Friedrich III Porträt
Frederick III
20th century
Louis ferdinand c1930
Louis Ferdinand, 1927

Honorary citizens

References

  1. ^ https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Aktuell/05Staedte.html.
  2. ^ "Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2018 (4. Quartal)". DESTATIS. Archived from the original on 10 March 2019. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
  3. ^ "Bevölkerung im Land Brandenburg nach amtsfreien Gemeinden, Ämtern und Gemeinden 31. Dezember 2017 (Fortgeschriebene amtliche Einwohnerzahlen auf Grundlage des Zensus 2011)". Amt für Statistik Berlin-Brandenburg (in German). 2018.
  4. ^ The Potsdam project, 1996, HRH The Prince of Wales, Charles; Hanson, Brian; Steil, Lucien; Prince of Wales's Urban Design Task Force; Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture, Prince of Wales's Institute of Architecture, 1998, Introduction.
  5. ^ "Stadtteilkatalog der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam" (in German). Retrieved 2016-12-28.
  6. ^ "Stadtteile" (in German). Landeshauptstadt Potsdam. Retrieved 2016-12-31.
  7. ^ "Landeshauptstadt Potsdam. Stadtteile im Blick 2010" (PDF; 5,4 MB) (in German). 2011-06-30. p. 5. Retrieved 2016-12-28. Anmerkung: Berichte aus späteren Jahren verzichten auf die Nennung der Stadtteilbezeichnungen mit einstelliger Nummer.
  8. ^ "Potsdam climate: Average Temperature, weather by month, Potsdam weather averages - Climate-Data.org". en.climate-data.org. Retrieved 2019-01-30.
  9. ^ a b "Potsdam Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved December 8, 2015.
  10. ^ "993 – From Poztupimi to the Royal Seat". potsdam.de. 1 December 2004.
  11. ^ a b August Kopish, "Die Königlichen Schlösser u. Gärten zu Potsdam", Berlin, 1854, p. 18 (Google Books)
  12. ^ a b Thomas Curtis (1839). The London encyclopaedia, or, Universal dictionary of science, art, literature, and practical mechanics, by the orig. ed. of the Encyclopaedia metropolitana Volume XVIII, p. 11
  13. ^ Zuwachs in Potsdam und kein Ende in Sicht
  14. ^ Detailed data sources are to be found in the Wikimedia Commons.Population Projection Brandenburg at Wikimedia Commons
  15. ^ Jennerjahn, Yvonne (13 November 2013). "Landtag: Umzug ins neue Domizil" – via Potsdamer Neueste Nachrichten.
  16. ^ "Die Partnerstädte der Landeshauptstadt Potsdam". www.potsdam.de (in German). Archived from the original on 25 June 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  17. ^ "Miasta Partnerskie Opola". Urzad Miasta Opola (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2013-08-01. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  18. ^ "City Twinnings". Stadt Bonn. Archived from the original on 2013-04-10. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  19. ^ "Partnerstädte der Stadt Luzern". Stadt Luzern (in German). Archived from the original on 2013-06-21. Retrieved 2013-08-01.
  20. ^ (in German) BVG: Berliner public transport pdf maps showing fare zones
  21. ^ http://www.pioneers-in-polymers.com/index.html, http://www.ibmt.fhg.de/fhg/ibmt_en/profile/locations/_index_potsdam_golm.jsp, http://www.mpikg.mpg.de/en/, http://www.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/, https://web.archive.org/web/20090913060315/http://www.gfz-potsdam.de/portal/, http://www.aip.de/, http://www.iass-potsdam.de/, http://www.pik-potsdam.de/

Sources

  • Paul Sigel, Silke Dähmlow, Frank Seehausen und Lucas Elmenhorst, Architekturführer Potsdam Architectural Guide, Dietrich Reimer Verlag, Berlin 2006, ISBN 3-496-01325-7.

External links

1. FFC Turbine Potsdam

1. Frauenfußballclub Turbine Potsdam 71 e. V., commonly known as 1. FFC Turbine Potsdam, is a women's football club located in Potsdam, Brandenburg, Germany. They are one of the most successful teams in Germany. The team plays in the Karl-Liebknecht-Stadion in the Babelsberg district of Potsdam.

Before the reunification of Germany, the team was one of the predominant teams in East German women's football. The team currently plays in the German women's Bundesliga and it is the only team from the former East to win the unified title. The team also won the UEFA Women's Champions League competition in the 2004–05 season, beating the Swedish team of Djurgården/Älvsjö 5–1 overall in the final, and in the 2009–10 season, winning against Olympique Lyonnais on penalties. Their biggest rivals are FFC Frankfurt.

Babelsberg

Babelsberg is the largest district of Potsdam, the capital city of the German state of Brandenburg. The affluent neighbourhood named after a small hill on the Havel river is famous for Babelsberg Palace and Park, part of the Palaces and Parks of Potsdam and Berlin UNESCO World Heritage Site, as well as for Babelsberg Studio, a historical centre of the German film industry and the first large-scale movie studio of the world.

Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was one of the last major offensives of the European theatre of World War II.Following the Vistula–Oder Offensive of January–February 1945, the Red Army had temporarily halted on a line 60 km (37 mi) east of Berlin. On 9 March, Germany established its defence plan for the city with Operation Clausewitz. The first defensive preparations at the outskirts of Berlin were made on 20 March, under the newly appointed commander of Army Group Vistula, General Gotthard Heinrici.

When the Soviet offensive resumed on 16 April, two Soviet fronts (army groups) attacked Berlin from the east and south, while a third overran German forces positioned north of Berlin. Before the main battle in Berlin commenced, the Red Army encircled the city after successful battles of the Seelow Heights and Halbe. On 20 April 1945, Hitler's birthday, the 1st Belorussian Front led by Marshal Georgy Zhukov, advancing from the east and north, started shelling Berlin's city centre, while Marshal Ivan Konev's 1st Ukrainian Front broke through Army Group Centre and advanced towards the southern suburbs of Berlin. On 23 April General Helmuth Weidling assumed command of the forces within Berlin. The garrison consisted of several depleted and disorganised Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS divisions, along with poorly trained Volkssturm and Hitler Youth members. Over the course of the next week, the Red Army gradually took the entire city.

Before the battle was over, Hitler and several of his followers killed themselves. The city's garrison surrendered on 2 May but fighting continued to the north-west, west, and south-west of the city until the end of the war in Europe on 8 May (9 May in the Soviet Union) as some German units fought westward so that they could surrender to the Western Allies rather than to the Soviets.

Brandenburg

Brandenburg (German pronunciation: [ˈbʁandn̩bʊɐ̯k] (listen); Low German: Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Upper Sorbian: Braniborsko) is a state of Germany.

Brandenburg is located in the northeast of Germany covering an area of 29,478 square kilometres (11,382 sq mi) and has a population of 2.5 million residents, the fifth-largest German state by area and tenth-most populous. Potsdam is the state capital and largest city, while other major cities include Brandenburg an der Havel, Cottbus, and Frankfurt (Oder). Brandenburg surrounds the national capital and city-state of Berlin, which together form the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, the third-largest metropolitan area in Germany. Brandenburg borders the states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, and Saxony, and the country of Poland.

Brandenburg originated in the Northern March in the 900s AD from areas conquered from the Wends, and later became the Margraviate of Brandenburg, a major principality of the Holy Roman Empire, with Albert the Bear as prince-elector. In the 17th century Brandenburg came under the rule of the House of Hohenzollern, the rulers of Prussia, who established Brandenburg-Prussia to become the core of the Kingdom of Prussia. Brandenburg became the Province of Brandenburg in 1815, a province within the kingdom and later within the Free State of Prussia. Brandenburg was established as a state in 1945 after World War II by the Soviet army administration in Allied-occupied Germany, and became part of the German Democratic Republic in 1947. Brandenburg was dissolved in 1952 during administrative reforms and its territory divided into the districts of Potsdam, Cottbus, Frankfurt, Neubrandenburg, and Schwerin, but was re-established in 1990 following German reunification, and became one of the Federal Republic of Germany's new states.

Frauen-Bundesliga

The Frauen-Bundesliga (English: Women's Federal League), currently known as the Allianz Frauen-Bundesliga due to sponsorship by Allianz, is the top level of league competition for women's association football in Germany. In 1990 the German Football Association (DFB) created the German Women's Bundesliga, based on the model of the men's Bundesliga. It was first played with north and south divisions, but in 1997 the groups were merged to form a uniform league. The league currently consists of twelve teams and the seasons usually last from late summer to the end of spring with a break in the winter.

In the UEFA Women's Champions League, the Frauen-Bundesliga is the most successful league with a total of nine titles from four clubs, with 1. FFC Frankfurt winning the most titles of any club.

List of Allied World War II conferences

This is a list of World War II conferences of the Allies of World War II. Conference names in boldface indicate the conferences at which the leaders of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union were all present. For the historical context see Diplomatic history of World War II.

In total Churchill attended 16 meetings, Roosevelt 12, Stalin 7.

For some of the major wartime conference meetings involving Roosevelt and later Truman, the code names were words which included a numeric prefix corresponding to the ordinal number of the conference in the series of such conferences. The third conference was TRIDENT, the fourth conference was QUADRANT, the sixth conference was SEXTANT, and the eighth conference was OCTAGON. The last wartime conference was code-named TERMINAL.

National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Lawrence County, New York

List of the National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Lawrence County, New York

This is intended to be a complete list of historic properties and districts listed on the National Register of Historic Places in St. Lawrence County, New York. The locations of National Register properties and districts (at least for all showing latitude and longitude coordinates below) may be seen in a map by clicking on "Map of all coordinates". Three of the sites are further designated U.S. National Historic Landmarks.

This National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 12, 2019.

Potsdam, New York

Potsdam is a town in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States. The town population was 17,029 at the 2010 census. The ZIP Code is 13676. Potsdam is a cultural and educational hub of Northern New York. When SUNY Potsdam and Clarkson University are in session, the population increases by approximately 8,000 students. The town is named after the city of Potsdam in Germany.

The Town of Potsdam also contains a village named Potsdam. Potsdam is centrally located within the county and northeast of Canton, the county seat.

Potsdam (village), New York

Potsdam is a village located in the Town of Potsdam in St. Lawrence County, New York, United States. The population was 9,428 at the 2010 census. The Village of Potsdam is in the eastern part of the town and is northeast of Canton, the county seat. The village is the locale of the State University of New York at Potsdam and Clarkson University.

Potsdam Agreement

The Potsdam Agreement (German: Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union. It concerned the military occupation and reconstruction of Germany, its borders, and the entire European Theatre of War territory. It also addressed Germany's demilitarisation, reparations and the prosecution of war criminals.

Executed as a communiqué, the agreement was not a peace treaty according to international law, although it created accomplished facts. It was superseded by the Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany signed on 12 September 1990.

As De Gaulle had not been invited to the Conference, the French resisted implementing the Potsdam Agreements within their occupation zone. In particular, the French refused to resettle any expelled Germans from the east. Moreover, the French did not accept any obligation to abide by the Potsdam Agreement in the proceedings of the Allied Control Council; in particular resisting all proposals to establish common policies and institutions across Germany as a whole, and anything that they feared might lead to the emergence of an eventual unified German government.

Potsdam Conference

The Potsdam Conference (German: Potsdamer Konferenz) was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm in Potsdam, occupied Germany, from 17 July to 2 August 1945. (In some older documents, it is also referred to as the Berlin Conference of the Three Heads of Government of the USSR, USA, and UK.) The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, represented respectively by Communist Party General Secretary Joseph Stalin, Prime Ministers Winston Churchill and Clement Attlee, and President Harry S. Truman.

Stalin, Churchill, and Truman gathered to decide how to administer Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on 8 May (Victory in Europe Day). The goals of the conference also included the establishment of postwar order, peace treaty issues, and countering the effects of the war.

Potsdam Declaration

The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II. On July 26, 1945, United States President Harry S. Truman, United Kingdom Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chairman of the Nationalist Government of China Chiang Kai-shek issued the document, which outlined the terms of surrender for the Empire of Japan as agreed upon at the Potsdam Conference. This ultimatum stated that, if Japan did not surrender, it would face "prompt and utter destruction".

Potsdamer Platz

Potsdamer Platz (German: [ˈpɔtsdamɐ plats] (listen), literally Potsdam Square) is an important public square and traffic intersection in the centre of Berlin, Germany, lying about 1 km (1,100 yd) south of the Brandenburg Gate and the Reichstag (German Parliament Building), and close to the southeast corner of the Tiergarten park. It is named after the city of Potsdam, some 25 km (16 mi) to the south west, and marks the point where the old road from Potsdam passed through the city wall of Berlin at the Potsdam Gate. After developing within the space of little over a century from an intersection of rural thoroughfares into the most bustling traffic intersection in Europe, it was totally destroyed during World War II and then left desolate during the Cold War era when the Berlin Wall bisected its former location. Since German reunification, Potsdamer Platz has been the site of major redevelopment projects.

Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg

Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg (rbb) (Berlin-Brandenburg Broadcasting) is an institution under public law (national broadcaster) for the German states of Berlin and Brandenburg, situated in Berlin and Potsdam. rbb was established on 1 May 2003 through the merger of Sender Freies Berlin (SFB) and

Ostdeutscher Rundfunk Brandenburg (ORB), based in Potsdam, and is a member of the Association of PSBs in the Federal Republic of Germany (ARD).

rbb has not only the two main studios in Berlin and Potsdam, but also regional studios in Cottbus and Frankfurt (Oder) and regional offices in Perleberg and Prenzlau. In addition, rbb operates the ARD International Studio in Warsaw, whose responsibility interchanges every five years between rbb and WDR (WDR was last in charge from May 2009 to September 2014). The institution also operates the ARD Play-Out Center in Potsdam, a broadcast center for the programs within the ARD digital bouquet. rbb, together with WDR, is responsible for the ARD television studio in Berlin.

SV Babelsberg 03

SV Babelsberg 03 is a German association football club based in Potsdam-Babelsberg, on the outskirts of Berlin. The team was founded as Sport-Club Jugendkraft 1903 and again as SG Karl-Marx Babelsberg in 1948 as successor to the pre-war side SpVgg Potsdam 03.

Sanssouci

Sanssouci was the summer palace of Frederick the Great, King of Prussia, in Potsdam, near Berlin. It is often counted among the German rivals of Versailles. While Sanssouci is in the more intimate Rococo style and is far smaller than its French Baroque counterpart, it too is notable for the numerous temples and follies in the park. The palace was designed/built by Georg Wenzeslaus von Knobelsdorff between 1745 and 1747 to fulfill King Frederick's need for a private residence where he could relax away from the pomp and ceremony of the Berlin court. The palace's name emphasises this; it is a French phrase (sans souci), which translates as "without concerns", meaning "without worries" or "carefree", symbolising that the palace was a place for relaxation rather than a seat of power. The name in past times reflected a play on words, with the insertion of a comma visible between the words Sans and Souci, viz. Sans, Souci. Kittsteiner theorizes that this could be a philosophical play on words, meaning "without a worry/concern" or it could be some secret personal message which nobody has interpreted, left to posterity by Frederick II.

Sanssouci is little more than a large, single-story villa—more like the Château de Marly than Versailles. Containing just ten principal rooms, it was built on the brow of a terraced hill at the centre of the park. The influence of King Frederick's personal taste in the design and decoration of the palace was so great that its style is characterised as "Frederician Rococo", and his feelings for the palace were so strong that he conceived it as "a place that would die with him". Because of a disagreement about the site of the palace in the park, Knobelsdorff was fired in 1746. Jan Bouman, a Dutch architect, finished the project.

During the 19th century, the palace became a residence of Frederick William IV. He employed the architect Ludwig Persius to restore and enlarge the palace, while Ferdinand von Arnim was charged with improving the grounds and thus the view from the palace. The town of Potsdam, with its palaces, was a favourite place of residence for the German imperial family until the fall of the Hohenzollern dynasty in 1918.

After World War II, the palace became a tourist attraction in East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Frederick's body was returned to the palace and buried in a new tomb overlooking the gardens he had created. Sanssouci and its extensive gardens became a World Heritage Site in 1990 under the protection of UNESCO; in 1995, the Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg was established to care for Sanssouci and the other former imperial palaces in and around Berlin. These palaces are now visited by more than two million people a year from all over the world.

State University of New York at Potsdam

Not to be confused with the German University of Potsdam in Berlin-Brandenburg

The State University of New York at Potsdam, also known as SUNY Potsdam, or, colloquially, Potsdam, is a public college in the village of Potsdam in St. Lawrence County, in the U.S. state of New York. Founded in 1816, it is among the oldest colleges in the United States. It is composed of the College of Arts & Sciences,the School of Business, the School of Education and Professional Studies, and the Crane School of Music.

University of Potsdam

Not to be confused with the American State University of New York at Potsdam

The University of Potsdam is a public university in the Berlin-Brandenburg region of Germany. It is situated across four campuses in Potsdam and Brandenburg. Some faculty buildings are part of the New Palace of Sanssouci which is known for its UNESCO World Heritage status.The University of Potsdam is Brandenburg's largest university and the fourth largest in the Berlin-Brandenburg metropolitan area which is well known as one of the reputable education and research locations in Germany and Europe. More than 8,000 people are working in scholarship and science.

In 2009 the University of Potsdam became a winner in the "Excellence in Teaching" initiative of the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft (Business innovation agency for the German science system).

Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code-named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization. The three states were represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively. The conference convened near Yalta in Crimea, Soviet Union, within the Livadia, Yusupov, and Vorontsov Palaces.

The aim of the conference was to shape a post-war peace that represented not just a collective security order but a plan to give self-determination to the liberated peoples of post-Nazi Europe.

The meeting was intended mainly to discuss the re-establishment of the nations of war-torn Europe. However, within a few short years, with the Cold War dividing the continent, Yalta became a subject of intense controversy.

Yalta was the second of three major wartime conferences among the Big Three. It was preceded by the Tehran Conference in November 1943, and was followed by the Potsdam Conference in July 1945. It was also preceded by a conference in Moscow in October 1944, not attended by President Roosevelt, in which Churchill and Stalin had carved up Europe into Western and Soviet spheres of influence. The Potsdam Conference was to be attended by Stalin, Churchill (who was replaced halfway through by the newly elected British prime minister Clement Attlee) and Harry S. Truman, Roosevelt's successor after his death.

General Charles de Gaulle was not present at either the Yalta or Potsdam conferences; a diplomatic slight that was the occasion for deep and lasting resentment. De Gaulle attributed his exclusion from Yalta to the longstanding personal antagonism towards him by Roosevelt, although the Soviet Union had also objected to his inclusion as a full participant. But the absence of French representation at Yalta also meant that extending an invitation for De Gaulle to attend the Potsdam Conference would have been highly problematic; as he would then have felt honor-bound to insist that all issues agreed at Yalta in his absence would have had to be re-opened.

Climate data for Potsdam (Teltower Vorstadt), elevation: 100 m, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
18.6
(65.5)
25.7
(78.3)
31.8
(89.2)
32.5
(90.5)
34.2
(93.6)
36.3
(97.3)
36.5
(97.7)
32.9
(91.2)
27.8
(82.0)
21.2
(70.2)
15.5
(59.9)
36.5
(97.7)
Average high °C (°F) 1.7
(35.1)
3.5
(38.3)
8.1
(46.6)
13.5
(56.3)
19.1
(66.4)
22.4
(72.3)
23.6
(74.5)
23.4
(74.1)
19.2
(66.6)
13.7
(56.7)
7.1
(44.8)
3.0
(37.4)
13.2
(55.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.9
(30.4)
0.2
(32.4)
3.7
(38.7)
8.0
(46.4)
13.2
(55.8)
16.6
(61.9)
17.9
(64.2)
17.5
(63.5)
13.9
(57.0)
9.4
(48.9)
4.2
(39.6)
0.7
(33.3)
8.7
(47.7)
Average low °C (°F) −3.4
(25.9)
−2.7
(27.1)
0.0
(32.0)
3.4
(38.1)
8.0
(46.4)
11.5
(52.7)
13.0
(55.4)
12.7
(54.9)
9.8
(49.6)
6.0
(42.8)
1.7
(35.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −20.9
(−5.6)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−14.0
(6.8)
−5.8
(21.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
2.2
(36.0)
6.2
(43.2)
5.4
(41.7)
0.1
(32.2)
−3.5
(25.7)
−16.6
(2.1)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−24.5
(−12.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 44
(1.7)
38
(1.5)
38
(1.5)
44
(1.7)
56
(2.2)
69
(2.7)
52
(2.0)
60
(2.4)
46
(1.8)
36
(1.4)
47
(1.9)
55
(2.2)
585
(23.0)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11 8 9 9 10 10 9 9 8 7 10 12 112
Mean monthly sunshine hours 47.1 73.7 124.2 168.3 226.9 231.1 231.9 220.1 161.3 114.4 54.0 39.3 1,692.2
Source: NOAA[9]
Flag of Brandenburg Urban and rural districts in the state of Brandenburg in Germany Flag of Germany
Urban districts
Rural districts
Capitals of area states
City-states1
Capitals of former states
Cities in Germany by population
1,000,000+
500,000+
200,000+
100,000+
Capitals of the East German Bezirke

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