In academic publishing, a postprint is a digital draft of a research journal article after it has been peer reviewed. A digital draft before peer review is called a preprint. Jointly, postprints and preprints are called eprints.[1]

Expressed in the CrossRef terminology,[2] any draft starting from the author's original version but prior to the accepted version is a preprint, whereas any draft from the accepted version onward, including the version of record or definitive work, is a postprint.

Since the advent of the Open Archives Initiative, preprints and postprints have been deposited in institutional repositories, which are interoperable because they are compliant with the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting.

Eprints are at the heart of the open access initiative to make research freely accessible online. Eprints were first deposited or self-archived in arbitrary websites and then harvested by virtual archives such as CiteSeer (and, more recently, Google Scholar), or they were deposited in central disciplinary archives such as Arxiv or PubMed Central.


  1. ^ Harnad, Stevan (2003). "Electronic preprints and postprints"
  2. ^ CrossRef glossary Archived 2011-08-30 at the Wayback Machine

Browsing is a kind of orienting strategy. It is supposed to identify something of relevance for the browsing organism. When used about human beings it is a metaphor taken from the animal kingdom. It is used, for example, about people browsing open shelves in libraries, window shopping, or browsing databases or the Internet. In library and information science it is an important subject, both purely theoretically and as applied science aiming at designing interfaces which support browsing activities for the user.


Eprints in Library and Information Science (E-LIS) is an international open access repository for academic papers in Library and Information Science (LIS). Over 12,000 papers have been archived to date. It is freely accessible, aligned with the Open Access (OA) movement and is a voluntary enterprise.


GEO-LEO (GEO Library Experts Online) is a virtual library for the specialty fields of mining, geography, maps, Earth sciences, and astronomy. This is a free Internet portal to search for, find and obtain books, periodicals, articles, websites and maps in the context of geosciences. Free or licensed full texts, e.g. from e-journals, are directly accessible. Furthermore, papers can be published in GEO-LEOe-docs.

GEO-LEO is a service provided by the university library “Georgius Agricola” of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and the Göttingen State and University Library (Niedersächsische Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek Göttingen, SUB) of the University of Göttingen. This cooperation is based on the DFG's (Germany's Research Foundation) “national distributed library plan”, which shares the scientific literature provision between selected university libraries, each with special scientific priorities. Both libraries have a similar focus on the geosciences aspects of this library plan and therefore they cooperate closely. This is the background of their partnership and of the project GEO-LEO, funded by the DFG since 2002.

Gram stain

Gram stain or Gram staining, also called Gram's method, is a method of staining used to distinguish and classify bacterial species into two large groups (gram-positive and gram-negative). The name comes from the Danish bacteriologist Hans Christian Gram, who developed the technique.Gram staining differentiates bacteria by the chemical and physical properties of their cell walls by detecting peptidoglycan, which is present in the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. Gram-negative cells also contain peptidoglycan, but a very small layer of it that is dissolved when the alcohol is added. This is why the cell loses its initial color from the primary stain. Gram-positive bacteria retain the crystal violet dye, and thus are stained violet, while the gram-negative bacteria do not; after washing, a counterstain is added (commonly safranin or fuchsine) that will stain these gram-negative bacteria a pink color. Both gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria pick up the counterstain. The counterstain, however, is unseen on gram-positive bacteria because of the darker crystal violet stain.

The Gram stain is almost always the first step in the preliminary identification of a bacterial organism. While Gram staining is a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research settings, not all bacteria can be definitively classified by this technique. This gives rise to gram-variable and gram-indeterminate groups.

History of open access

The idea and practise of providing free online access to journal articles began at least a decade before the term "open access" was formally coined. Computer scientists had been self-archiving in anonymous ftp archives since the 1970s and physicists had been self-archiving in arxiv since the 1990s. The Subversive Proposal to generalize the practice was posted in 1994.The term "open access" itself was first formulated in three public statements in the 2000s: the Budapest Open Access Initiative in February 2002, the Bethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing in June 2003, and the Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities in October 2003, and the initial concept of open access refers to an unrestricted online access to scholarly research primarily intended for scholarly journal articles.

John Howard Hickcox Sr.

John Howard Hickcox Sr. (August 10, 1832 in Albany – January 31, 1897 in Washington D.C.), a nineteenth-century librarian and bookseller, is best known for his efforts to organize and index federal government publications. He published United States Government Publications; a Monthly Catalogue, also known as Hickcox's Monthly Catalogue, from 1885 to 1894 in order to alert people to the availability of recent government publications—a function which the government was not performing. His catalog was the predecessor of the Monthly Catalog, of which he was the first compiler.

From 1858 to 1864, he was the Assistant Librarian at the New York State Library. He was employed at the congressional library in Washington, D.C. from 1874 to 1882, when he was arrested on charges of stealing letters addressed to the Librarian of Congress. The charges were eventually dismissed, but he never returned to the library.Hickcox was also a famous numismatist, and wrote books such as A History of the Bills of Credit or Paper Money Issued by New York, From 1709 to 1789 with a Description of the Bills, and Catalogue of the Various Issues and Historical Account of American Coinage.

Manuscript (publishing)

"Manuscript" is a broad concept in publishing, that can refer to one or both of the following:

the formatting of a short story manuscript,

an accepted manuscript (by its merit, not its format), not yet in a final format (but reviewed), published with non-final-format in advance, as preprint.A manuscript is the work that an author submits to a publisher, editor, or producer for publication. Even with the advent of desktop publishing, making it possible for anyone to prepare text that appears professionally typeset, many publishers still require authors to submit manuscripts within their respective guidelines.

Marjorie Luesebrink

Marjorie Coverley Luesebrink is an American writer, scholar, and teacher. Writing hypermedia fiction under the pen name M.D. Coverley, she is best known for her epic hypertext novels Califia and Egypt: The Book of Going Forth by Day. Her works incorporate text, image, animation, sound, and structure to create spatial, visual story worlds. A pioneer born-digital writer, she is part of the first generation of electronic literature authors that arose in the 1987–1997 period. Her career includes novels and short stories, scholarship, curating, editing, teaching, and publishing. She is a founding board member and past president of the Electronic Literature Organization and the first winner of the Electronic Literature Organization Career Achievement Award, which was named in her honor.

Open access

Open access (OA) is a mechanism by which research outputs are distributed online, free of cost or other barriers, and, in its most precise meaning, with the addition of an open license applied to promote reuse.Academic articles (as historically seen in print-based academic journals) have been the main focus of the movement. Conventional (non-open access) journals cover publishing costs through access tolls such as subscriptions, site licenses or pay-per-view charges. Open access can be applied to all forms of published research output, including peer-reviewed and non peer-reviewed academic journal articles, conference papers, theses, book chapters, and monographs.

Open energy system databases

Open energy system database projects employ open data methods to collect, clean, and republish energy-related datasets for open use. The resulting information is then available, given a suitable open license, for statistical analysis and for building numerical energy system models, including open energy system models. Permissive licenses like Creative Commons CC0 and CC BY are preferred, but some projects will house data made public under market transparency regulations and carrying unqualified copyright.

The databases themselves may furnish information on national power plant fleets, renewable generation assets, transmission networks, time series for electricity loads, dispatch, spot prices, and cross-border trades, weather information, and similar. They may also offer other energy statistics including fossil fuel imports and exports, gas, oil, and coal prices, emissions certificate prices, and information on energy efficiency costs and benefits.

Much of the data is sourced from official or semi-official agencies, including national statistics offices, transmission system operators, and electricity market operators. Data is also crowdsourced using public wikis and public upload facilities. Projects usually also maintain a strict record of the provenance and version histories of the datasets they hold. Some projects, as part of their mandate, also try to persuade primary data providers to release their data under more liberal licensing conditions.Two drivers favor the establishment of such databases. The first is a wish to reduce the duplication of effort that accompanies each new analytical project as it assembles and processes the data that it needs from primary sources. And the second is an increasing desire to make public policy energy models more transparent to improve their acceptance by policymakers and the public. Better transparency dictates the use of open information, able to be accessed and scrutinized by third-parties, in addition to releasing the source code for the models in question.

Open energy system models

Open energy system models are energy system models that are open source. Similarly open energy system data employs open data methods to produce and distribute datasets primarily for use by open energy system models.

Energy system models are used to explore future energy systems and are often applied to questions involving energy and climate policy. The models themselves vary widely in terms of their type, design, programming, application, scope, level of detail, sophistication, and shortcomings. The open energy modeling projects listed here fall exclusively within the bottom-up paradigm, in which a model is a relatively literal representation of the underlying system. For many models, some form of mathematical optimization is used to inform the solution process.

Several drivers favor the development of open models and open data. There is an increasing interest in making public policy energy models more transparent to improve their acceptance by policymakers and the public. There is also a desire to leverage the benefits that open data and open software development can bring, including reduced duplication of effort, better sharing of ideas and information, improved quality, and wider engagement and adoption. Model development is therefore usually a team effort and constituted as either an academic project, a commercial venture, or a genuinely inclusive community initiative.

This article does not cover projects which simply make their source code or spreadsheets available for public download, but which omit a recognized free and open-source software license. The absence of a license agreement creates a state of legal uncertainty whereby potential users cannot know which limitations the owner may want to enforce in the future. The projects listed here are deemed suitable for inclusion through having pending or published academic literature or by being reported in secondary sources.


In academic publishing, a preprint is a version of a scholarly or scientific paper that precedes formal peer review and publication in a peer-reviewed scholarly or scientific journal. The preprint may be available, often as a non-typeset version available free, before and/or after a paper is published in a journal.


SHERPA/RoMEO is a service run by SHERPA to show the copyright and open access self-archiving policies of academic journals.

The database uses a colour-coding scheme to classify publishers according to their self-archiving policy. This shows authors whether the journal allows preprint or postprint archiving in their copyright transfer agreements. It currently hold records for over 22,000 journals.

Scientific Research Publishing

Scientific Research Publishing (SCIRP) is an academic publisher of presumably peer-reviewed open-access electronic journals, conference proceedings, and scientific anthologies of questionable quality. Although it has an address in southern California, in reality it is a "Chinese operation".As of December 2014, it offered 244 English-language open-access journals in the areas of science, technology, business, economy, and medicine.The company has been accused of being a predatory open access publisher and of using email spam to solicit papers for submission. In 2014 there was a mass resignation of the editorial board of one of the company's journals, Advances in Anthropology, with the outgoing Editor-in-Chief saying of the publisher "For them it was only about making money. We were simply their 'front'."


Scriptorium ( (listen)), literally "a place for writing", is commonly used to refer to a room in medieval European monasteries devoted to the writing, copying and illuminating of manuscripts by monastic scribes.


Self-archiving is the act of (the author's) depositing a free copy of an electronic document online in order to provide open access to it. The term usually refers to the self-archiving of peer-reviewed research journal and conference articles, as well as theses and book chapters, deposited in the author's own institutional repository or open archive for the purpose of maximizing its accessibility, usage and citation impact. The term green open access has become common in recent years, distinguishing this approach from gold open access, where the journal itself makes the articles publicly available without charge to the reader.

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