Post-romanticism or Postromanticism refers to a range of cultural endeavors and attitudes emerging in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, after the period of Romanticism.

Herman Melville and Thomas Carlyle are post-Romantic writers.[1] Flaubert's Madame Bovary is a post-Romantic novel.[2] The period of post-romanticism in poetry is defined as the late nineteenth century, but includes the poetry of Letitia Elizabeth Landon[3] and Tennyson.[4]

Post-Romanticism in music

Post-romanticism in music referred to Romantic composers who would use forms that were found typically in the Classical and Baroque while still retaining aspects of the Romantic era. Among the most well known post-Romantic composers are Giacomo Puccini and Sergei Rachmaninov. Arthur Berger describes the mysticism of La Jeune France as post-Romanticism rather than neo-Romanticism.[5] Hans Pfitzner also wrote post-Romantic works such as his opera Palestrina.

Quite unlike late Romantic composers such as Richard Strauss and Alexander Scriabin, the composers of the Post-Romantic created music that would use either or both traditional form and harmony. Béla Bartók, for example, "in such Strauss-influenced works as Duke Bluebeard's Castle," may be described as having still used "dissonance ['such intervals as fourths and sevenths'] for purposes of post-Romantic expression, not simply [always] as an appeal to the primal art of sound"—unlike Arnold Schoenberg and Strauss himself, who both believed in "a mythology of historical progress in Western music".[6]


  1. ^ Robert Milder, Exiled Royalties: Melville and the Life We Imagine, New York: Oxford University Press US, 2006, p. 41. ISBN 0-19-514232-2
  2. ^ Stephen Heath, Gustave Flaubert, Madame Bovary, Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 13. ISBN 0-521-31483-6.
  3. ^ Sybille Baumback and others, "A History of British Poetry", Trier: WVT. ISBN 978-3-86821-578-6. Section 19: Poetic Genres in the Victorian Age I: Letitia Elizabeth Landon’s and Alfred Lord Tennyson’s Post-Romantic Verse Narratives by Anne-Julia Zwierlein.
  4. ^ Richard Bradford, A Linguistic History of English Poetry, New York: Routledge, 1993, p. 134. ISBN 0-415-07057-0.
  5. ^ Virgil Thomson,. Virgil Thomson: A Reader: Selected Writings, 1924-1984, edited by Richard Kostelanetz, New York: Routledge, 2002p. 268. ISBN 0-415-93795-7.
  6. ^ Daniel Albright,. Modernism and Music: An Anthology of Sources, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004pp. 243-44. ISBN 0-226-01267-0.

Further reading

  • Burkholder, J. Peter, Donald Jay Grout, and Claude V. Palisca. A History of Western Music: Seventh Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
  • Pappas, Sara. Review of Claudia Moscovici, Romanticism and Postromanticism (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010). Nineteenth Century French Studies, Volume 36, Number 3 & 4, Spring-Summer 2008, pp. 335–37. University of Nebraska Press, 2008.
  • Tilby, Michael. Review of Claudia Moscovici, Romanticism and Postromanticism (Lanham, MD: Lexington Books, 2010). French Studies: A Quarterly Review, Volume 62, Number 4, October 2008, pp. 486–87.

External links

20th-century classical music

20th-century classical music describes art music that was written nominally from 1901 to 2000. This century was without a dominant style and composers created highly diverse kinds of music. Modernism, impressionism, and post-romanticism can all be traced to the decades before the turn of the century, but can be included because they evolved beyond the musical boundaries of the 19th-century styles that were part of the earlier common practice period. Neoclassicism, and expressionism, came mostly after 1900. Minimalism started much later in the century and can be seen as a change from the modern to post-modern era, although some date post-modernism from as early as ca. 1930. Atonality, serialism, musique concrète and electronic music were all developed during this century. Jazz and folk music were important influences on many composers at this time.

24 Preludes, Op. 34 (Shostakovich)

The 24 Preludes, Op.34, is a set of short piano pieces written and premiered by Dmitri Shostakovich in 1933. They are arranged following the circle of fifths, with one prelude in each major and minor key.

Along the Roadside

Along the Roadside is a 2015 American comedy-drama film written and directed by Zoran Lisinac. The film stars Iman Crosson, Angelina Häntsch, Michael Madsen, Lazar Ristovski and Daniel Grozdich.The film tells a story about two people from different parts of the world (Varnie is from Oakland and Nena from Germany) who after a chance encounter set out on a road trip across California, both for the reasons of their own – Varnie escaping his pregnant girlfriend and Nena searching for the concert of her favorite band (the elusive Blonde Priest). The film explores themes of racism, social responsibility, "post-romanticism" and culture clash against the backdrop of vast California – from San Francisco to LA and inland across the desert.

Varnie, a self-proclaimed "sailor who has left one shore but hasn't yet reached the other one" could most aptly be fitted into, what the academic Marco Abel refers to as "postromance cinema" in which the characters reject he idealized notion of lifelong monogamy.

Varnie finds his antipode in Nena, a colorblind tourist from Germany who sees the world in all its shades of gray or as critic Aaron Shore, in his A-grade review of the movie, noted, "an interesting contrast to Varnie's racial features as an African American."Along the Roadside has been named "the most unique film of the year" after its Mill Valley Film Festival premiere in October 2013.The use of the original music serves as a Greek chorus – addressing both the characters and the audience alike. The original songs were supplied by Cole Bonner to be passed off as the songs of the elusive band Blonde Priest - nobody in the story has heard of - which poses a question, "what is Nena really after?".Along the Roadside has been on the festival circuit since 2013 and had its commercial release on March 17, 2015.

Anton Aškerc

Anton Aškerc (pronounced [anˈtoːn ˈaːʃkɛrts] (listen); 9 January 1856 – 10 June 1912) was an Slovenian poet and Roman Catholic priest who worked in Austria, best known for his epic poems.

Aškerc was born into a peasant family near the town of Rimske Toplice in the Duchy of Styria, then part of the Austrian Empire (now in Slovenia). His exact birthplace is unknown because his family was on the move at the time of his birth. After graduating from high school in Celje he entered the Roman Catholic theological seminary in Maribor. He was ordained a priest in 1880. The same year he published his first poem entitled Trije popotniki ("The Three Travelers") in the progressive literary magazine Ljubljanski zvon.

He started his literary career by writing lyric poetry, but after 1882 moved to more epic themes. His post-romantic poems express his patriotism, love and religious doubt. The themes of his ballades and romances come from Slovene and Slavic history, the Bible, folk traditions as well as contemporary life. He became strongly influenced by literary realism, writing some of his best known poems in this style, but never fully rejected post-romanticism.

Aškerc published his poems in the journal Ljubljanski zvon under the pseudonym Gorázd from 1881, but used his real name in his first poetry collection, Balade in romance ("Ballades and Romances") published in 1890. The collection was warmly accepted by the reading public and critics, but was criticized from the emerging Catholic political activists, such as the bishop Anton Mahnič, who disapproved of Aškerc's national, freethinking and progressive social ideals. Aškerc took an early retirement from his priesthood service. Soon afterwards, he was appointed by Ivan Hribar, the liberal mayor of Ljubljana, as a chief archivist of the Ljubljana City Archives, which he remained until his death.

During the last twenty years of his life, his relationship with the conservative Catholic clergy worsened, as did the quality of his literary work. He continued to enjoy full support from the liberal political establishment in Carniola, led by Ivan Tavčar and Ivan Hribar. His friendship with the Swedish slavist and historian Alfred Anton Jensen opened him the doors to international recognition: his poems were published in Sweden, Russia, Galicia, Croatia, Serbia, and in the Czech Lands. However, he started losing his influence over younger Slovenian authors. He rejected the poetry of Dragotin Kette and Josip Murn and entered in a dispute with the poet Oton Župančič, from which he came as a clear loser. The young writer Ivan Cankar, whom Aškerc admired, also published several critically sarcastic essays on Aškerc's late poetry, in which he targeted Aškerc as being the symptom of the decay of old the Slovenian provincial national-liberal élite.

Despite the bitter last years of his life – in addition to everything mentioned, he lived in a constant fear of losing his job if the conservative Slovenian People's Party had won the municipal elections, which didn't happen -, his funeral in Ljubljana was attended by a huge mass of people, among whom were many of his former adversaries.

One of the main thoroughfares in south-central Ljubljana, Aškerc Street (Slovene: Aškerčeva cesta), is named after him, as are several other public places and institutions.

Ernest van der Eyken

Ernest Jozef Leo van der Eyken (23 July 1913 in Antwerp – 6 February 2010 in Brussels) was a Belgian composer, conductor and violist.

Van der Eyken received his first musical training at the age of five at the Music Academy in Sint-Truiden. At the age of seven he joined the music theory class of Karel Candael at the Royal Music Conservatory in Antwerp. In 1930 he obtained his first degree under Jan Broeckx, and in 1931, a further deree in viola studying with Napoleon Distelmans. Further studies at the Antwerp Conservatory were chamber music with Albert van de Vijver, conducting with Lodewijk De Vocht, harmony with Emile-Constant Verres and Edward Verheyden. Van der Eyken also studied counterpoint and fugue with August de Boeck, instrumentation with Paul Gilson, and during World War II went to Salzburg, Austria to study conducting with Clemens Krauss and Joseph Marx at the International Conducting School.In 1930 Van der Eyken made his debut as a violist with the Groot Symfonie-Orkest van de Wereldtentoonstelling 1930 (Grand Symphony Orchestra of the 1930 World Exposition) in Antwerp. Thereafter, he played in orchestras and chamber music ensembles of Antwerp: Orkest van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Opera (Orchestra of the Royal Flemish Opera), Nieuwe Concerten and Orkest van de Dierentuinconcerten. Between 1942 and 1944, he was assistant conductor of the Koninklijke Vlaamse Opera (Royal Flemish Opera). From 1952 and 1970, he taught violin and chamber music at the Music Academy in Ekeren.

He founded the Philharmonisch Kamerorkest (Philharmonic Chamber Orchestra) in Antwerp was also the conductor. In the 1960s he was music editor responsible for music programs of the Flemish Radio and Television Network. Furthermore, he conducted the Jeugd en muziek-orkest (Youth and Music Orchestra) of Antwerp from 1963 to 1976 and served as guest conductor of the Philharmonic of Antwerp and the Orchestra of the Flemish Radio and Television Network. In 1977 he joined the Royal Academies for Science and the Arts of Belgium.

Van der Eyken's œuvre consists of approximately 120 works, his style largely influenced by Flemish post-romanticism and the first wave of modernism of the 20th century.

Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer

Gustavo Adolfo Claudio Domínguez Bastida, better known as Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (February 17, 1836, Seville – December 22, 1870, Madrid) was a Spanish Romanticist poet and writer (mostly short stories), also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented in drawing. Today he is considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature, and is considered by some as the most read writer after Cervantes. He adopted the alias of Bécquer as his brother Valeriano Bécquer, a painter, had done earlier. He was associated with the romanticism and post-romanticism movements and wrote while realism was enjoying success in Spain. He was moderately well known during his life, but it was after his death that most of his works were published. His best known works are the Rhymes and the Legends, usually published together as Rimas y leyendas. These poems and tales are essential to the study of Spanish literature and common reading for high-school students in Spanish-speaking countries.

His work approached the traditional poetry and themes in a modern way, and he is considered the founder of modern Spanish lyricism. Bécquer's influence on 20th-century poets of the Spanish language can be felt in the works of Luis Cernuda, Octavio Paz, and Giannina Braschi.

Bécquer influenced numerous later Spanish-language writers, including Luis Cernuda, Giannina Braschi, Octavio Paz, Antonio Machado, Juan Ramón Jiménez. Bécquer himself was influenced by — both directly and indirectly — Cervantes, Shakespeare, Goethe, Heinrich Heine

King Lear (1971 USSR film)

King Lear (Russian: Король Лир, romanized: Korol Lir) is a 1971 Soviet drama film directed by Grigori Kozintsev, based on William Shakespeare's play King Lear. The Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich composed the score.

Pietro Mascagni

Pietro Mascagni (7 December 1863 – 2 August 1945) was an Italian composer primarily known for his operas. His 1890 masterpiece Cavalleria Rusticana caused one of the greatest sensations in opera history and single-handedly ushered in the Verismo movement in Italian dramatic music. While it was often held that Mascagni, like Ruggiero Leoncavallo, was a "one-opera man" who could never repeat his first success, L'amico Fritz and Iris have remained in the repertoire in Europe (especially Italy) since their premieres.Mascagni wrote fifteen operas, an operetta, several orchestral and vocal works, and also songs and piano music. He enjoyed immense success during his lifetime, both as a composer and conductor of his own and other people's music. He created a variety of styles in his operas: a Sicilian passion and warmth of Cavalleria, the exotic flavor of Iris, the idylls of L'amico Fritz and Lodoletta, the Gallic chiaroscuro of Isabeau, the steely, Veristic power of Il piccolo Marat and the over-ripe post-romanticism of the lush Parisina.

String Quartet No. 10 (Shostakovich)

Dmitri Shostakovich's String Quartet No. 10 in A-flat major, Op. 118, was composed in 1964. It was premiered by the Beethoven Quartet and is dedicated to his close friend Mieczysław (Moisei) Weinberg.

The work has four movements:

Playing time is approximately 22 minutes.

String Quartet No. 14 (Shostakovich)

Dmitri Shostakovich's String Quartet No. 14 in F-sharp major, Op. 142, was composed in 1972-73. It is dedicated to Sergei Shirinsky, the cellist of the Beethoven Quartet, the ensemble that premiered most of Shostakovich's quartets. The first performance was held in Leningrad on November 12, 1973.

It has three movements:

Playing time is approximately 25 minutes.

Shostakovich began working on the piece while he was visiting the home of Benjamin Britten and finished it in Copenhagen.

String Quartet No. 5 (Shostakovich)

Dmitri Shostakovich's String Quartet No. 5 in B-flat major, Op. 92, was composed in autumn 1952. It was premiered in Leningrad in November 1953 by the Beethoven Quartet, to whom it is dedicated.

String Quartet No. 7 (Shostakovich)

Dmitri Shostakovich's String Quartet No. 7 in F-sharp minor, Op. 108, was composed in February and March 1960 in memory of his first wife Nina Vassilyevna Varzar, who died in December 1954. It was premiered in Leningrad by the Beethoven Quartet on 15 May 1960. It consists of three movements, performed without a break:

At around 13 minutes it is Shostakovich's shortest quartet.

Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 1 (Shostakovich)

The Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 1 (commonly known as Jazz Suite No. 1) by Dmitri Shostakovich was composed in 1934. It has three movements:

The suite is scored for 3 saxophones (soprano, alto and tenor), 2 trumpets, trombone, wood block, snare drum, cymbals, glockenspiel, xylophone, banjo, Hawaiian guitar, piano, violin and double bass. The premiere was on March 24, 1934.

Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 2 (Shostakovich)

The Suite for Jazz Orchestra No. 2 (Russian: Сюита для джазового оркестра №2) is a suite by Dmitri Shostakovich. It was written in 1938 for the newly founded State Jazz Orchestra of Victor Knushevitsky, and was premiered on 28 November 1938 in Moscow (Moscow Radio) by the State Jazz Orchestra. The score was lost during World War II, but a piano score of the work was rediscovered in 1999 by Manashir Yakubov. Three movements of the suite were reconstructed and orchestrated by Gerard McBurney, and were premiered at a London Promenade Concert in 2000.

The Suite, in its reconstructed form, consists of the following movements:

Until recently, another eight-movement Suite by Shostakovich had been misidentified and recorded as the second Jazz Suite. This work is now correctly known as the Suite for Variety Orchestra (post-1956), from which the "Waltz No. 2" was made famous by the soundtrack to Stanley Kubrick's Eyes Wide Shut, and which has become associated with the Jazz Suite No. 2.

The Execution of Stepan Razin

The Execution of Stepan Razin (Russian «Казнь Степана Разина») (Op. 119) is a cantata composed by Dimitri Shostakovich to a libretto by Yevgeny Yevtushenko in 1964. The subject is the execution of Stepan Razin, a Cossack leader who headed a major uprising (1670–71) against the nobility and tsarist bureaucracy in southern Russia.

The Limpid Stream

The Limpid Stream (Russian: Светлый ручей, also translated as "The Bright Stream") is a ballet score, Op. 39, in 3 acts, 4 scenes, composed by Dmitri Shostakovich on the libretto by Adrian Piotrovsky and Fedor Lopukhov and choreography by Fedor Lopukhov, premiered in Leningrad (Mikhaylovsky Theatre) in 1935.

The Return of Maxim

The Return of Maxim (Russian: Возвращение Максима) is a 1937 Soviet drama film directed by Grigori Kozintsev and Leonid Trauberg, the second part of trilogy about the life of a young factory worker, Maxim.In July 1914, the Bolsheviks and Mensehviks compete for representation of the working-class in the Duma. Maksim, who just returned from exile, calls the workers to strike as a protest against the firing of six of their colleagues. The traitor Platon Dymba assaults Maksim, wounding him severely. When the strike unfolds the workers demonstrate by the thousands, the news of the outbreak of World War I suddenly arrives. Maksim gets drafted.

The Young Guard (film)

The Young Guard (Russian: Молодая гвардия, translit. Molodaya Gvardiya) is a two-part 1948 Soviet film directed by Sergei Gerasimov and based on the novel of the same title by Alexander Fadeyev. In 1949 a Stalin Prize for this film was awarded to Gerasimov, cinematographer Vladimir Rapoport, and the group of leading actors.

The film was also the highest grossing Soviet film of 1948, with approximately 48,600,000 tickets sold.

Three Fantastic Dances

Three Fantastic Dances, Op. 5, is the earliest piano composition by Dmitri Shostakovich, written in 1922 when he was 16 years old.

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