Post-punk

Post-punk (originally called new musick)[2] is a broad type of rock music that emerged from the punk movement of the 1970s, in which artists departed from the simplicity and traditionalism of punk rock to adopt a variety of avant-garde sensibilities and diverse influences. Inspired by punk's energy and DIY ethic but determined to break from rock cliches, artists experimented with sources including electronic music and black styles like dub, funk, and disco; novel recording and production techniques; and ideas from art and politics, including critical theory, modernist art, cinema and literature.[3][4] Communities that produced independent record labels, visual art, multimedia performances and fanzines.

The early post-punk vanguard was represented by groups including Siouxsie and the Banshees, Wire, Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group, Cabaret Voltaire, Magazine, Pere Ubu, Joy Division, Talking Heads, Devo, the Slits, the Cure, and the Fall.[5] The movement was closely related to the development of ancillary genres such as gothic rock, neo-psychedelia, no wave, and industrial music. By the mid-1980s, post-punk had dissipated while providing the impetus for the New Pop movement as well much subsequent alternative and independent music.

Post-punk
EtymologyRefers to certain developments after punk, although some groups predate the movement.[1]
Other namesNew musick
Stylistic origins
Cultural originsLate 1970s; United Kingdom
Derivative forms
Subgenres
Fusion genres
Regional scenes
Other topics

Definition

Post-punk is a diverse genre[6] that emerged from the cultural milieu of punk rock in the late 1970s.[1][7][8][9][nb 1] Originally called "new musick", the terms were first used by various writers in the late 1970s to describe groups moving beyond punk's garage rock template and into disparate areas.[2] Sounds writer Jon Savage already used "post-punk" in early 1978.[11] NME writer Paul Morley also stated that he had "possibly" invented the term himself.[12] At the time, there was a feeling of renewed excitement regarding what the word would entail, with Sounds publishing numerous preemptive editorials on new musick.[13][nb 2] Towards the end of the decade, some journalists used "art punk" as a pejorative for garage rock-derived acts deemed too sophisticated and out of step with punk's dogma.[15][nb 3] Before the early 1980s, many groups now categorized as "post-punk" were subsumed under the broad umbrella of "new wave", with the terms being deployed interchangeably. "Post-punk" became differentiated from "new wave" after their styles perceptibly narrowed.[17]

Nicholas Lezard described the term "post-punk" as "so multifarious that only the broadest use ... is possible".[6] Subsequent discourse has failed to clarify whether contemporary music journals and fanzines conventionally understood "post-punk" the way that it was discussed in later years.[18] Music historian Clinton Heylin places the "true starting-point for English post-punk" somewhere between August 1977 and May 1978, with the arrival of guitarist John McKay in Siouxsie and the Banshees in July 1977, Magazine's first album, Wire's new musical direction in 1978 and the formation of Public Image Ltd.[19]

Simon Reynolds' 2005 book Rip It Up and Start Again is widely referenced as post-punk doctrine, although he has stated that the book only covers aspects of post-punk that he had a personal inclination toward.[1] Wilkinson characterized Reynolds' readings as "apparent revisionism and 'rebranding'".[18] Author/musician Alex Ogg criticized: "The problem is not with what Reynolds left out of Rip It Up ..., but, paradoxically, that too much was left in".[1][nb 4] Ogg suggested that post-punk pertains to a set of artistic sensibilities and approaches rather than any unifying style, and disputed the accuracy of the term's chronological prefix "post", as various groups commonly labeled "post-punk" predate the punk rock movement.[1] Reynolds defined the post-punk era as occurring roughly between 1978 and 1984.[21] He advocated that post-punk be conceived as "less a genre of music than a space of possibility",[1] suggesting that "what unites all this activity is a set of open-ended imperatives: innovation; willful oddness; the willful jettisoning of all things precedented or 'rock'n'roll'".[21] AllMusic employs "post-punk" to denote "a more adventurous and arty form of punk".[7]

Characteristics

Many post-punk artists were initially inspired by punk's DIY ethic and energy,[7] but ultimately became disillusioned with the style and movement, feeling that it had fallen into a commercial formula, rock convention, and self-parody.[22] They repudiated its populist claims to accessibility and raw simplicity, instead of seeing an opportunity to break with musical tradition, subvert commonplaces and challenge audiences.[23][7] Artists moved beyond punk's focus on the concerns of a largely white, male, working-class population[24] and abandoned its continued reliance on established rock and roll tropes, such as three-chord progressions and Chuck Berry-based guitar riffs.[25] These artists instead defined punk as "an imperative to constant change", believing that "radical content demands radical form".[26]

Though the music varied widely between regions and artists, the post-punk movement has been characterized by its "conceptual assault" on rock conventions[27][6] and rejection of aesthetics perceived of as traditionalist,[1] hegemonic[27] or rockist[28] in favor of experimentation with production techniques and non-rock musical styles such as dub,[8] funk,[29][30] electronic music,[8] disco,[8] noise, world music,[7] and the avant-garde.[7][24][31] Some previous musical styles also served as touchstones for the movement, including particular brands of krautrock,[32] glam, art rock,[33] art pop[34] and other music from the 1960s.[35][nb 5] Artists once again approached the studio as an instrument, using new recording methods and pursuing novel sonic territories.[37] Author Matthew Bannister wrote that post-punk artists rejected the high cultural references of 1960s rock artists like the Beatles and Bob Dylan as well as paradigms that defined "rock as progressive, as art, as 'sterile' studio perfectionism ... by adopting an avant-garde aesthetic".[38][nb 6] According to musicologist Pete Dale, while groups wanted to "rip up history and start again", the music was still "inevitably tied to traces they could never fully escape".[41][nb 7]

Nicholas Lezard described post-punk as "a fusion of art and music". The era saw the robust appropriation of ideas from literature, art, cinema, philosophy, politics and critical theory into musical and pop cultural contexts.[27][42] Artists sought to refuse the common distinction between high and low culture[43] and returned to the art school tradition found in the work of artists such as Roxy Music and David Bowie.[44][24][34] Reynolds noted a preoccupation among some post-punk artists with issues such as alienation, repression, and technocracy of Western modernity.[45] Among major influences on a variety of post-punk artists were writers such as William S. Burroughs and J.G. Ballard, avant-garde political scenes such as Situationism and Dada, and intellectual movements such as postmodernism.[4] Many artists viewed their work in explicitly political terms.[46] Additionally, in some locations, the creation of post-punk music was closely linked to the development of efficacious subcultures, which played important roles in the production of art, multimedia performances, fanzines and independent labels related to the music.[47] Many post-punk artists maintained an anti-corporatist approach to recording and instead seized on alternate means of producing and releasing music.[6] Journalists also became an important element of the culture, and popular music magazines and critics became immersed in the movement.[48]

1977–79: Early years

Background

Siouxsie and the banshees 1979 with robert smith
Siouxsie and the Banshees with the Cure. The two groups frequently collaborated.

During the punk era, a variety of entrepreneurs interested in local punk-influenced music scenes began founding independent record labels, including Rough Trade (founded by record shop owner Geoff Travis), Factory (founded by Manchester-based television personality Tony Wilson),[49] and Fast Product (co-founded by Bob Last and Hilary Morrison).[50][51] By 1977, groups began pointedly pursuing methods of releasing music independently, an idea disseminated in particular by Buzzcocks' release of their Spiral Scratch EP on their own label as well as the self-released 1977 singles of Desperate Bicycles.[52] These DIY imperatives would help form the production and distribution infrastructure of post-punk and the indie music scene that later blossomed in the mid-1980s.[53]

As the initial punk movement dwindled, vibrant new scenes began to coalesce out of a variety of bands pursuing experimental sounds and wider conceptual territory in their work.[54] By late 1977, British acts like Siouxsie and the Banshees and Wire were experimenting with sounds, lyrics, and aesthetics that differed significantly from their punk contemporaries. Savage described some of these early developments as exploring "harsh urban scrapings", "controlled white noise" and "massively accented drumming".[55] Mojo editor Pat Gilbert said, "The first truly post-punk bands were Siouxsie and the Banshees", noting the influence of the band's use of repetition on Joy Division.[56] John Robb similarly argued that the very first Banshees gig was "proto post-punk" due to the hypnotic rhythm section.[57] In January 1978, singer John Lydon (then known as Johnny Rotten) announced the break-up of his pioneering punk band the Sex Pistols, citing his disillusionment with punk's musical predictability and cooption by commercial interests, as well as his desire to explore more diverse territory.[58] In May, Lydon formed the group Public Image Ltd[59] with guitarist Keith Levene and bassist Jah Wobble, the latter who declared "rock is obsolete" after citing reggae as a "natural influence".[60] However, Lydon described his new sound as "total pop with deep meanings. But I don't want to be categorized in any other term but punk! That's where I come from and that's where I'm staying."[61]

United Kingdom

Joy Division promo photo
Mancunian band Joy Division in 1979

Around this time, acts such as Public Image Ltd, the Pop Group and the Slits had begun experimenting with dance music, dub production techniques and the avant-garde,[62] while punk-indebted Manchester acts such as Joy Division, The Fall, the Durutti Column and A Certain Ratio developed unique styles which drew on a similarly disparate range of influences across music and modernist art.[63] Bands such as Scritti Politti, Gang of Four, Essential Logic and This Heat incorporated Leftist political philosophy and their own art school studies in their work.[64] The unorthodox studio production techniques devised by producers such as Steve Lillywhite,[65] Martin Hannett, and Dennis Bovell became important element of the emerging music. Labels such as Rough Trade and Factory would become important hubs for these groups and help facilitate releases, artwork, performances, and promotion.[66]

Credit for the first post-punk record is disputed, but strong contenders include the debuts of Magazine ("Shot by Both Sides", January 1978), Siouxsie and the Banshees ("Hong Kong Garden", August 1978), Public Image Ltd ("Public Image", September 1978), Cabaret Voltaire (Extended Play, November 1978) and Gang of Four ("Damaged Goods", December 1978).[67][nb 8]

A variety of groups that predated punk, such as Cabaret Voltaire and Throbbing Gristle, experimented with tape machines and electronic instruments in tandem with performance art methods and influence from transgressive literature, ultimately helping to pioneer industrial music.[68] Throbbing Gristle's independent label Industrial Records would become a hub for this scene and provide it with its namesake. A pioneering punk scene in Australia during the mid-1970s also fostered influential post-punk acts like the Birthday Party, who eventually relocated to the UK to join its burgeoning music scene.[69]

As these scenes began to develop, British music publications such as NME and Sounds developed an influential part in the nascent post-punk culture, with writers like Savage, Paul Morley and Ian Penman developing a dense (and often playful) style of criticism that drew on philosophy, radical politics and an eclectic variety of other sources. In 1978, UK magazine Sounds celebrated albums such as Siouxsie and the Banshees' The Scream, Wire's Chairs Missing and American band Pere Ubu's Dub Housing.[70] In 1979, NME championed records such as PiL's Metal Box, Joy Division's Unknown Pleasures, Gang of Four's Entertainment!, Wire's 154, the Raincoats' self-titled debut and American group Talking Heads' album Fear of Music.[71]

Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Bauhaus and the Cure were the main post-punk bands who shifted to dark overtones in their music, which would later spawn the gothic rock scene in the early 80s.[72][73] Members of Siouxsie and the Banshees and the Cure worked on records and toured together regularly until 1984. Neo-psychedelia grew out of the British post-punk scene in the late 1970s.[74] The genre later flourished into a more widespread and international movement of artists who applied the spirit of psychedelic rock to new sounds and techniques.[75] Other styles such as avant-funk and industrial dub also emerged around 1979.[3][45]

United States

Devo, Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 27, 1978 Agora Ballroom
Devo performing in 1978.
Talking Heads band1
Talking Heads were one of the only American post-punk bands to reach both a large cult audience and the mainstream.[76]

In the mid-1970s, various American groups (some with ties to Downtown Manhattan's punk scene, including Television and Suicide) had begun expanding on the vocabulary of punk music.[77] Midwestern groups such as Pere Ubu and Devo drew inspiration from the region's derelict industrial environments, employing conceptual art techniques, musique concrète and unconventional verbal styles that would presage the post-punk movement by several years.[78] A variety of subsequent groups, including the Boston-based Mission of Burma and the New York-based Talking Heads, combined elements of punk with art school sensibilities.[79] In 1978, the latter band began a series of collaborations with British ambient pioneer and ex-Roxy Music member Brian Eno, experimenting with Dadaist lyrical techniques, electronic sounds, and African polyrhythms.[79] San Francisco's vibrant post-punk scene was centered on such groups as Chrome, the Residents, Tuxedomoon and MX-80, whose influences extended to multimedia experimentation, cabaret and the dramatic theory of Antonin Artaud's Theater of Cruelty.[80]

Also emerging during this period was downtown New York's no wave movement, a short-lived art, and music scene that began in part as a reaction against punk's recycling of traditionalist rock tropes and often reflected an abrasive, confrontational and nihilistic worldview.[81][82] No wave musicians such as the Contortions, Teenage Jesus and the Jerks, Mars, DNA, Theoretical Girls, and Rhys Chatham instead experimented with noise, dissonance and atonality in addition to non-rock styles.[83] The former four groups were included on the Eno-produced No New York compilation (1978), often considered the quintessential testament to the scene.[84] The decadent parties and art installations of venues such as Club 57 and the Mudd Club would become cultural hubs for musicians and visual artists alike, with figures such as Jean-Michel Basquiat, Keith Haring and Michael Holman frequenting the scene.[85] According to Village Voice writer Steve Anderson, the scene pursued an abrasive reductionism which "undermined the power and mystique of a rock vanguard by depriving it of a tradition to react against".[86] Anderson claimed that the no wave scene represented "New York's last stylistically cohesive avant-rock movement".[86]

1980–84: Further developments

UK scene and commercial ambitions

British post-punk entered the 1980s with support from members of the critical community—American critic Greil Marcus characterised "Britain's postpunk pop avant-garde" in a 1980 Rolling Stone article as "sparked by a tension, humour and sense of paradox plainly unique in present-day pop music"[87]—as well as media figures such as BBC DJ John Peel, while several groups, such as PiL and Joy Division, achieved some success in the popular charts.[88] The network of supportive record labels that included Industrial, Fast, E.G., Mute, Axis/4AD, and Glass continued to facilitate a large output of music. By 1980, many British acts, including Magazine, Essential Logic, Killing Joke, the Sound, 23 Skidoo, Alternative TV, the Teardrop Explodes, the Psychedelic Furs, Echo & the Bunnymen and the Membranes also became part of these fledgling post-punk scenes, which centered on cities such as London and Manchester.[9]

However, during this period, major figures and artists in the scene began leaning away from underground aesthetics. In the music press, the increasingly esoteric writing of post-punk publications soon began to alienate their readerships; it is estimated that within several years, NME suffered the loss of half its circulation. Writers like Morley began advocating "overground brightness" instead of the experimental sensibilities promoted in the early years.[89] Morley's own musical collaboration with engineer Gary Langan and programmer J. J. Jeczalik, the Art of Noise, would attempt to bring sampled and electronic sounds to the pop mainstream.[90] Post-punk artists such as Scritti Politti's Green Gartside and Josef K's Paul Haig, previously engaged in avant-garde practices, turned away from these approaches and pursued mainstream styles and commercial success.[91] These new developments, in which post-punk artists attempted to bring subversive ideas into the pop mainstream, began to be categorized under the marketing term New Pop.[27]

New Romantic acts like Bow Wow Wow (left) dealt heavily in outlandish fashion, while synthpop artists such as Gary Numan (right) made use of electronics and visual stylization.

Bow Wow Wow 1982 Berlin
Gary Numan playing

Several more pop-oriented groups, including ABC, the Associates, Adam and the Ants and Bow Wow Wow (the latter two managed by former Sex Pistols manager Malcolm McLaren) emerged in tandem with the development of the New Romantic subcultural scene.[92] Emphasizing glamour, fashion and escapism in distinction to the experimental seriousness of earlier post-punk groups, the club-oriented scene drew some suspicion from denizens of the movement but also achieved commercial success. Artists such as Gary Numan, the Human League, Soft Cell, John Foxx and Visage helped pioneer a new synthpop style that drew more heavily from electronic and synthesizer music and benefited from the rise of MTV.[93]

Downtown Manhattan and elsewhere

Glenn Branca
Glenn Branca performing in New York in the 1980s.

In the early 1980s, Downtown Manhattan's no wave scene transitioned from its abrasive origins into a more dance-oriented sound, with compilations such as ZE Records' Mutant Disco (1981) highlighting a newly playful sensibility borne out of the city's clash of hip hop, disco and punk styles, as well as dub reggae and world music influences.[94] Artists such as ESG, Liquid Liquid, the B-52s, Cristina, Arthur Russell, James White and the Blacks and Lizzy Mercier Descloux pursued a formula described by Luc Sante as "anything at all + disco bottom".[95] Other no wave-indebted artists such as Swans, Glenn Branca, the Lounge Lizards, Bush Tetras, and Sonic Youth instead continued exploring the early scene's forays into noise and more abrasive territory.[96]

In Germany, groups such as Einstürzende Neubauten developed a unique style of industrial music, utilizing avant-garde noise, homemade instruments and found objects.[97] Members of that group would later go on to collaborate with members of the Birthday Party.[97]

Mid-1980s: Decline

The original post-punk movement ended as the bands associated with the movement turned away from its aesthetics, often in favor of more commercial sounds (such as new wave). Many of these groups would continue recording as part of the new pop movement, with entryism becoming a popular concept.[98] In the United States, driven by MTV and modern rock radio stations, a number of post-punk acts had an influence on or became part of the Second British Invasion of "New Music" there.[99][98] Some shifted to a more commercial new wave sound (such as Gang of Four),[100][101] while others were fixtures on American college radio and became early examples of alternative rock. One band to emerge from post-punk was U2,[102] which infused elements of religious imagery and political commentary into its often anthemic music.

1990s–2000s: Revival

At the turn of the 21st century, a post-punk revival developed in British and American alternative and indie rock, which soon started appearing in other countries, as well. The earliest sign of a revival was the emergence of various underground bands in the mid-1990s. However, the first commercially successful bands – Franz Ferdinand, Interpol, and Editors – surfaced in the late 1990s to early 2000s, as did several dance-oriented bands such as the Rapture, Radio 4 and LCD Soundsystem.[103]

The revival was commercial breakthrough, scenes began initially in the UK,[20] and was led by a small group of bands. In the early 2000s, existing acts like Yeah Yeah Yeahs were able to sign to major record labels.[104] A second wave of bands that managed to gain international recognition as a result of the movement included Interpol, the Killers, Kings of Leon, Modest Mouse, the Shins, Spoon, and the National in the US,[105] and Franz Ferdinand, Bloc Party, the Futureheads, Kaiser Chiefs and the Kooks in the UK.[106] Arctic Monkeys were the most prominent act to owe their initial commercial success to the use of Internet social networking,[107] with two No. 1 singles and Whatever People Say I Am, That's What I'm Not (2006), which became the fastest-selling debut album in British chart history.[108]

Critical recognition

In the early 2000s, Reynolds asserted that the post-punk period produced significant innovations and music on its own.[27] Reynolds described the period as "a fair match for the sixties in terms of the sheer amount of great music created, the spirit of adventure and idealism that infused it, and the way that the music seemed inextricably connected to the political and social turbulence of its era".[109] Nicholas Lezard wrote that the music of the period "was avant-garde, open to any musical possibilities that suggested themselves, united only in the sense that it was very often cerebral, concocted by brainy young men and women interested as much in disturbing the audience, or making them think, as in making a pop song".[6]

Notes

  1. ^ Punk rock, whose criteria and categorization fluctuated throughout the early 1970s, was a crystallized genre by 1976 or 1977.[10]
  2. ^ According to critic Simon Reynolds, Savage introduced "new musick", which may refer to the more science-fiction and industrial sides of post-punk.[14]
  3. ^ In rock music of the era, "art" carried connotations that meant "aggressively avant-garde" or "pretentiously progressive".[16] Additionally, there were concerns over the authenticity of such bands.[15]
  4. ^ Ogg expressed concern regarding the attribution of "post-punk" to groups who came before the Sex Pistols,[1] themselves credited as the principal catalysts of punk.[20] He also noted several underheralded post-punk influences, including Discharge, XTC, UB40, the cow-punk scene, tape trading circles and the "unfashionable" portions of goth.[1]
  5. ^ Biographer Julián Palacios specifically pointed to the era's "dark undercurrent", citing examples such as Pink Floyd's Syd Barrett, the Velvet Underground, Nico, the Doors, the Monks, the Godz, the 13th Floor Elevators and Love.[35] Music critic Carl Wilson added the Beach Boys' leader Brian Wilson (no relation), writing that elements of his music and legends "became a touchstone ... for the artier branches of post-punk".[36]
  6. ^ Guardian Music journalist Sean O'Hagan described post-punk as a "rebuttal" to the optimism of the 1960s personified by the Beatles,[39] while author Doyle Green viewed it as an emergence of a kind of "progressive punk" music.[40]
  7. ^ An example he gave was Orange Juice's "Rip It Up" (1983), "a fairly basic pastiche of light-funk and r'n'b crooning; with a slightly different production style, it could certainly have fitted comfortably into the charts a decade before it was actually written and recorded".[41]
  8. ^ Gang of Four producer Bob Last said that "Damaged Goods" was post-punk's turning point, saying, "Not to take anything way from PiL – that was a very powerful gesture for John Lydon to go in that direction – but the die had already been cast. The postmodern idea of toying with convention in rock music: we claim that."[67]

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Ogg, Alex. "Beyond Rip It Up: Towards A New Definition Of Post Punk?". The Quietus. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  2. ^ a b Cateforis 2011, pp. 26–27.
  3. ^ a b Reynolds, Simon. "It Came From London: A Virtual Tour of Post-Punk's Roots". Time Out London. Retrieved 29 March 2017.
  4. ^ a b Reynolds 2005, p. xxxi.
  5. ^ For verification of these groups as part of the original post-punk vanguard see Heylin 2007, Siouxsie & the Banshees, Magazine and PiL, Wire; Reynolds 2013, p. 210, "... the 'post-punk vanguard'—overtly political groups like Gang of Four, Au Pairs, Pop Group ..."; Kootnikoff 2010, p. 30, "[Post-punk] bands like Joy Division, Gang of Four, and the Fall were hugely influential"; Cavanagh 2015, pp. 192–193, Gang of Four, Cabaret Voltaire, the Cure, PiL, Throbbing Gristle, Joy Division; Bogdanov, Woodstra & Erlewine 2002, p. 1337, Pere Ubu, Talking Heads; Cateforis 2011, p. 26, Devo, Throbbing Gristle, Siouxsie and the Banshees, the Slits, Wire
  6. ^ a b c d e Lezard, Nicholas. "Fans for the memory [Simon Reynolds Rip it Up and Start Again – book review]". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2016.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "Post-Punk". AllMusic. Retrieved 5 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d Rasmus, Agnieszka. Against and Beyond: Subversion and Transgression in Mass Media, Popular Culture and Performance. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, March 2012.
  9. ^ a b Reynolds 2005, pp. ??.
  10. ^ Taylor 2003, pp. 14, 16.
  11. ^ Savage, Jon (18 February 1978). "Power Pop part 2: The C&A Generation In The Land Of The Bland". Sounds. Rock's Backpages. Retrieved 1 December 2017.(subscription required)
  12. ^ "Big Gold Dream - Music Outside of London". Vimeo. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  13. ^ Wilkinson 2016, p. 1.
  14. ^ Reynolds 2005.
  15. ^ a b Gittins 2004, p. 5.
  16. ^ Murray, Noel (28 May 2015). "60 minutes of music that sum up art-punk pioneers Wire". The A.V. Club.
  17. ^ Jackson, Josh (8 September 2016). "The 50 Best New Wave Albums". Paste.
  18. ^ a b Wilkinson 2016, p. 8.
  19. ^ Heylin, Clinton (2006). Babylon's Burning: From Punk to Grunge. Penguin Books. p. 460. ISBN 0-14-102431-3..
  20. ^ Armstrong, Billie Joe (15 April 2004). "The Sex Pistols". Rolling Stone. Archived from the original on 19 June 2008. Retrieved 17 March 2009.
  21. ^ a b Totally Wired: Post-Punk Interviews and Overviews. Faber and Faber Ltd, February 2009. ISBN 978-0571235490
  22. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 1.
  23. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. , "On one side were the populist "real punks ... who believed that the music needed to stay accessible and unpretentious, to continue to fill its role as the angry voice of the streets. On the other side was the vanguard that came to be known as postpunk, who saw 1977 not as a return to raw rock 'n' roll but as a chance to make a break with tradition..
  24. ^ a b c Rojek, Chris. Pop Music, Pop Culture. Polity, June 2013. Print. p. 28
  25. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. .
  26. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 1, 3.
  27. ^ a b c d e Kitty Empire (17 April 2005). "Never mind the Sex Pistols" - [Rip It Up And Start Again: Post-Punk 1978–1984 – book review]". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 February 2016.
  28. ^ Stanley, Bob. Yeah! Yeah! Yeah!: The Story of Pop Music from Bill Haley to Beyoncé. W.W. Norton & Co. July 14, 2014. Print.
  29. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 3, 261.
  30. ^ Fisher, Mark. Ghosts of My Life: Writings on Depression, Hauntology and Lost Futures. Zero Books, May 30, 2014. 978-1-78099-226-6. p. 63.
  31. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. , "They dedicated themselves to fulfilling punk's uncompleted musical revolution, exploring new possibilities by embracing electronics, noise, and the classical avant-garde.".
  32. ^ Reynolds, Simon (July 1996). "Krautrock". Melody Maker.
  33. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. xi-xii.
  34. ^ a b Fisher, Mark. "You Remind Me of Gold: Dialogue with Simon Reynolds." Kaleidoscope: Issue 9, 2010.
  35. ^ a b Palacios 2010, p. 418.
  36. ^ Wilson, Carl (9 June 2015). "The Beach Boys' Brian Wilson: America's Mozart?". BBC.
  37. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 7.
  38. ^ Bannister 2007, pp. 36–37.
  39. ^ O'Hagan, Sean; Vulliamy, Ed; Ellen, Barbara (31 January 2016). "Was 1966 pop music's greatest year?". The Guardian.
  40. ^ Greene 2014, p. 173.
  41. ^ a b Dale 2016, p. 153.
  42. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. , "Those postpunk years from 1978 to 1984 saw the systematic ransacking of twentieth century modernist art and literature...".
  43. ^ Anindya Bhattacharyya. "Simon Reynolds interview: Pop, politics, hip-hop and postpunk" Socialist Worker. Issue 2053, May 2007.
  44. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 3≠.
  45. ^ a b Reynolds, Simon (13 February 1987). "End of the Track". New Statesman. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
  46. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. xi.
  47. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. , "Beyond the musicians, there was a whole cadre of catalysts and culture warriors, enablers and ideologues who started labels, managed bands, became innovative producers, published fanzines, ran hipster record stores, promoted gigs and organized festivals.".
  48. ^ Reynolds 2005, p. 19.
  49. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 27, 30.
  50. ^ Simpson, Dave (9 February 2016). "Cult heroes: Bob Last – subversive Scottish post-punk label creator". the Guardian. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  51. ^ Dingwall, John (12 June 2015). "How tiny Scots label Fast blazed a trail for celebrated Indies such as Postcard". dailyrecord. Retrieved 3 June 2018.
  52. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 26, 31.
  53. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 27-28, 34.
  54. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 3.
  55. ^ Cateforis 2011, p. 26.
  56. ^ "Joy Division - Under Review tv documentary". Chrome Dreams. 2006. Retrieved 1 September 2016.
  57. ^ Robb, John (10 January 2017). "Siouxsie and the Banshees first gig in 1976 playing Lords Prayer – was this where post punk starts?". louderthanwar.com. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
  58. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 11.
  59. ^ "Classified Advertisements / Work/ Musicians Wanted". Melody Maker: 30. Drummer Wanted to play on/off beat for modern band with fashionable outlook and rather well known singer. - Virgin Records, 727 8070
  60. ^ Spencer, Neil (27 May 1978). "Introducing Johnny Rotten's Lonely Hearts Club Band". NME. We talk about the differences between the rock culture and the reggae culture, which I suggest has a good deal more dignity than most rock bands or acts can muster. Both Levene and Wobble agree. "Rock is obsolete," says Wobble. "But it's our music, our basic culture. People thought we were gonna play reggae, but we ain't gonna be no GT Moore and The Reggae Guitars or nothing. It's just a natural influence – like I play heavy on the bass.
  61. ^ Coon, Caroline (22 July 1978). "Public Image – John Rotten and the Windsor Uplift". Sounds.
  62. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 41–54.
  63. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 103-109.
  64. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 54, 180-182.
  65. ^ Chester, Tim (14 March 2010). "50 Of The Greatest Producers Ever". NME. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  66. ^ Rob Young. Rough Trade. Black Dog Publishing, ISBN 1-904772-47-1
  67. ^ a b c Lester 2009, pp. 83–85.
  68. ^ Reynolds 2005, pp. 86, 124-130.
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Bibliography

Further reading

  • McNeil, Legs; McCain, Gillian (1997). Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk. London: Little, Brown Book Group. ISBN 978-0-349-10880-3.

External links

Art punk

Art punk is a subset of punk in which artists go beyond the genre's rudimentary garage rock and are considered more sophisticated than their peers. These groups generated punk's aesthetic of being simple, offensive, and free-spirited, in contrast to the angry, working-class audience generated by pub rock. In the late 1970s, the term was used as a pejorative for punk bands who were out of step with the genre's ideologies (i.e. post-punk).

Dance-punk

Dance-punk (also known as disco-punk or funk-punk) is a music genre that emerged in the late 1970s, and is closely associated with the post-punk and new wave movements.

Dance-rock

Dance-rock is a post-disco genre connected with pop rock and post-punk with fewer rhythm and blues influences, originated in the early 1980s, following the mainstream death of punk and disco.Examples of early dance-rock include Gina X's "No G.D.M.", Russ Ballard's "On The Rebound", artists such as Dinosaur L, Liquid Liquid and Polyrock, and the compilation album Disco Not Disco.

Gothic rock

Gothic rock (alternately called goth-rock or goth) is a style of rock music that emerged from post-punk in the late 1970s. The first post-punk bands which shifted towards dark music with gothic overtones include Siouxsie and the Banshees, Joy Division, Bauhaus, and the Cure.The genre itself was defined as a separate movement from post-punk due to its darker music accompanied by introspective and romantic lyrics. Gothic rock then gave rise to a broader subculture that included clubs, fashion and publications in the 1980s.

Indie rock

Indie rock is a genre of rock music that originated in the United States and United Kingdom in the 1970s. Originally used to describe independent record labels, the term became associated with the music they produced and was initially used interchangeably with alternative rock. As grunge and punk revival bands in the US and Britpop bands in the UK broke into the mainstream in the 1990s, it came to be used to identify those acts that retained an outsider and underground perspective. In the 2000s, as a result of changes in the music industry and the growing importance of the Internet, some indie rock acts began to enjoy commercial success, leading to questions about its meaningfulness as a term.

Sometimes used interchangeably with "guitar pop rock", in the mid-1980s, the term "indie" (or "indie pop") began to be used to describe the music produced on punk and post-punk labels. Some prominent indie rock record labels were founded during the 1980s. During the 1990s, grunge bands broke into the mainstream, and the term "alternative" lost its original counter-cultural meaning. The term "indie rock" became associated with the bands and genres that remained dedicated to their independent status. By the end of the 1990s, indie rock developed several subgenres and related styles, including lo-fi, noise pop, emo, slowcore, post-rock, and math rock. In the 2000s, changes in the music industry and in music technology enabled a new wave of indie rock bands to achieve mainstream success.In the early 2000s, a new group of bands that played a stripped-down, back-to-basics version of guitar rock emerged into the mainstream. The commercial breakthrough from these scenes was led by four bands: The Strokes, The White Stripes, The Hives and The Vines. Emo also broke into mainstream culture in the early 2000s. By the end of the decade, the proliferation of indie bands was being referred to as "indie landfill".

Interpol (band)

Interpol is an American rock band from Manhattan, New York, formed in 1997. Their original line-up consisted of Paul Banks (vocals, rhythm guitar), Daniel Kessler (lead guitar, vocals), Carlos Dengler (bass guitar, keyboards) and Greg Drudy (drums, percussion). Drudy left the band in 2000 and was replaced by Sam Fogarino. In 2010, shortly after recording finished for the band's fourth album, Dengler left to pursue personal projects, resulting in Banks becoming the band's bass player.

Having first performed at Luna Lounge along with bands such as the Strokes, Longwave, the National and Stellastarr, Interpol is one of the bands associated with the New York City indie music scene and one of several groups that emerged from the post-punk revival of the 2000s. The band's sound is generally a mix of staccato bass and rhythmic, harmonized guitar, with a snare-heavy mix, drawing comparisons to post-punk bands such as Joy Division, Television, and the Chameleons. Aside from the lyrics, each band member contributes to songwriting, rather than relying on a lead songwriter.Interpol's debut album Turn on the Bright Lights (2002) was critically acclaimed, making it to tenth position on the NME's list of top albums in 2002 and number one on Pitchfork Media's Top 50 Albums of 2002. Subsequent records Antics (2004) and Our Love to Admire (2007) brought greater critical and commercial success. The band released its fourth, self-titled album on September 7, 2010. They went on hiatus from 2011 through 2012 while they focused on other projects. Their fifth studio album El Pintor was released on September 9, 2014. In 2017, the band embarked on an anniversary tour for Turn On the Bright Lights, performing the album live in its entirety. The band's sixth studio album, Marauder, was released on August 24, 2018.

Joy Division

Joy Division were an English rock band formed in Salford in 1976. The group consisted of vocalist Ian Curtis, guitarist/keyboardist Bernard Sumner, bassist Peter Hook and drummer Stephen Morris.

Sumner and Hook formed the band after attending a Sex Pistols concert. While Joy Division's first recordings were heavily influenced by early punk, they soon developed a sound and style that made them one of the pioneers of the post-punk movement. Their self-released 1978 debut EP An Ideal for Living drew the attention of the Manchester television personality Tony Wilson, who signed them to his independent label Factory Records. Their debut album Unknown Pleasures, recorded with producer Martin Hannett, was released in 1979.

Curtis suffered from personal problems including a failing marriage, depression, and epilepsy. As the band's popularity grew, Curtis's condition made it increasingly difficult for him to perform; he occasionally experienced seizures on stage. He committed suicide on the eve of the band's first American tour in May 1980, aged 23. Joy Division's second and final album, Closer, was released two months later; it and single "Love Will Tear Us Apart" became their highest charting releases.

The remaining members regrouped under the name New Order. They were successful throughout the next decade, blending post-punk with electronic and dance music influences.

List of gothic festivals

The following is an incomplete list of gothic festivals, which encapsulates music festivals focused on gothic music. Goth festivals may feature genres such as gothic rock and gothic metal, as well as industrial music. The festivals also tend to feature aspects of the Goth subculture, such as fans and bands in goth fashion. Goth is a musical subgenre of post-punk and alternative rock that formed during the late-1970s. Gothic rock bands grew from the strong ties they had to the English punk rock and emerging post-punk scenes. The genre itself was defined as a separate movement from post-punk due to its darker music accompanied by introspective and romantic lyrics. Gothic rock then gave rise to a broader subculture that included clubs, fashion and publications in the 1980s.

Neo-psychedelia

Neo-psychedelia is a diverse genre of psychedelic music that originated in the 1970s as an outgrowth of the British post-punk scene, also called acid punk. Its practitioners drew from the unusual sounds of 1960s psychedelia, either updating or copying the approaches from that era. After post-punk, neo-psychedelia flourished into a more widespread and international movement of artists who applied the spirit of psychedelic rock to new sounds and techniques. Neo-psychedelia may also include forays into psychedelic pop, jangly guitar rock, heavily distorted free-form jams, or recording experiments. A wave of British alternative rock in the early 1990s spawned the subgenres dream pop and shoegazing.

New wave music

New wave is a genre of pop-oriented rock music popular in the late 1970s and the 1980s with ties to mid-1970s punk rock. New wave moved away from blues and rock and roll sounds to create rock music (early new wave) or pop music (later) that incorporated disco, mod, and electronic music. Initially new wave was similar to punk rock, before becoming a distinct genre. It subsequently engendered subgenres and fusions, including synth-pop.New wave differs from other movements with ties to first-wave punk as it displays characteristics common to pop music, rather than the more "artsy" post-punk. Although it incorporates much of the original punk rock sound and ethos, new wave exhibits greater complexity in both music and lyrics. Common characteristics of new wave music include the use of synthesizers and electronic productions, and a distinctive visual style featured in music videos and fashion.New wave has been called one of the definitive genres of the 1980s, after it was promoted heavily by MTV (the Buggles' "Video Killed the Radio Star" music video was broadcast as the first music video to promote the channel's launch). The popularity of several new wave artists is often attributed to their exposure on the channel. In the mid-1980s, differences between new wave and other music genres began to blur. New wave has enjoyed resurgences since the 1990s, after a rising "nostalgia" for several new wave-influenced artists. Subsequently, the genre influenced other genres. During the 2000s, a number of acts, such as the Strokes, Interpol, Franz Ferdinand and The Killers explored new wave and post-punk influences. These acts were sometimes labeled "new wave of new wave".

Post-hardcore

Post-hardcore is a punk rock music genre that maintains the aggression and intensity of hardcore punk but emphasizes a greater degree of creative expression initially inspired by post-punk and noise rock. Like post-punk, the term has been applied to a broad constellation of groups. Post-hardcore began in the 1980s with bands like Hüsker Dü, Black Flag, and Minutemen. The genre expanded in the 1980s and 1990s with releases by bands from cities that had established hardcore scenes, such as Fugazi from Washington, D.C. as well as groups such as Big Black and Jawbox that stuck closer to post-hardcore's noise rock roots. In the 2000s, post-hardcore achieved mainstream success with the popularity of bands like My Chemical Romance, AFI, Hawthorne Heights, The Used, At the Drive-In and Senses Fail. In the 2010s, post-hardcore bands like Sleeping With Sirens and Pierce the Veil achieved success and bands like Title Fight and La Dispute experienced underground popularity.

Post-punk revival

Post-punk revival (also known as "new wave revival", "garage rock revival" or "new rock revolution") is a genre of indie rock that developed in the late 1990s and early 2000s, inspired by the original sounds and aesthetics of garage rock of the 1960s and new wave and post-punk of the 1980s. Bands that broke through to the mainstream from local scenes across the world in the early 2000s included the Strokes, the Killers, Franz Ferdinand, The White Stripes, The Kooks, Interpol, Bloc Party, Arctic Monkeys and Kaiser Chiefs who were followed to commercial success by many established and new acts. By the end of the decade, most of the bands had broken up, moved on to other projects or were on hiatus, although some bands returned to recording and touring in the 2010s.

Punk blues

Punk blues (or blues punk) is a rock music genre that mixes elements of punk rock and blues. Punk blues musicians and bands usually incorporate elements of related styles, such as protopunk and blues rock. Its origins lie strongly within the garage rock sound of the 1960s and 1970s.

Punk blues can be said to favor the common rawness, simplicity and emotion shared between the punk and blues genres. Chet Weise, singer/guitarist of the Immortal Lee County Killers stated, "Punk and blues are both honest reactions to life. It's blues, it's our blues. It's just a bit turned up and a bit faster."

Rough Trade Records

Rough Trade Records is an independent record label based in London, England. It was formed in 1978 by Geoff Travis who had opened a record store off Ladbroke Grove. Having successfully promoted and sold records by punk rock and early post-punk and indie pop bands such as the Smiths and Desperate Bicycles, Travis began to manage acts and distribute bands such as Scritti Politti and began the label, which was informed by left-wing politics and structured as a co-operative. Soon after, Rough Trade also set up a distribution arm that serviced independent retail outlets across Britain, a network that became known as the Cartel.

Interest and investment of major labels in the UK indie scene in the late 1980s, as well as overtrading on behalf of Rough Trade's distribution wing, led to cash flow problems, and eventually to bankruptcy, forcing the label into receivership. However, Travis resurrected the label in the late 1990s, finding success with the Libertines, the Strokes and Antony and the Johnsons. The roster has been diverse, ranging stylistically through alternative rock, post-punk and new wave, garage rock, and psychedelic rock, but also art pop, folk, electronica, and soul.

Siouxsie and the Banshees

Siouxsie and the Banshees were an English rock band, formed in London in 1976 by vocalist Siouxsie Sioux and bass guitarist Steven Severin. They have been widely influential, both over their contemporaries and with later acts. Mojo rated guitarist John McGeoch in their list of "100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time" for his work on "Spellbound". The Times cited the group as "one of the most audacious and uncompromising musical adventurers of the post-punk era".Initially associated with the punk scene, the band rapidly evolved to create "a form of post-punk discord full of daring rhythmic and sonic experimentation". Their debut album The Scream was released in 1978 to critical acclaim. In 1980, they changed their musical direction and became "almost a different band" with Kaleidoscope, which peaked at number 5 in the UK Albums Chart. With Juju (1981) which also reached the top 10, they became an influence on the emerging gothic scene. In 1988, the band made a breakthrough in North America with the multifaceted album Peepshow, which received critical praise. With substantial support from alternative rock radio stations, they achieved a mainstream hit in the US in 1991 with the single "Kiss Them for Me".

During their career, Siouxsie and the Banshees released 11 studio albums and 30 singles. The band experienced several line-up changes, with Siouxsie and Severin being the only constant members. They disbanded in 1996, with Siouxsie and drummer Budgie continuing to record music as the Creatures, a second band they had formed in the early 1980s. In 2004, Siouxsie began a solo career.

Talking Heads

Talking Heads were an American rock band formed in 1975 in New York City and active until 1991. The band comprised David Byrne (lead vocals, guitar), Chris Frantz (drums), Tina Weymouth (bass), and Jerry Harrison (keyboards, guitar). Described by the critic Stephen Thomas Erlewine as "one of the most critically acclaimed bands of the '80s," the group helped to pioneer new wave music by integrating elements of punk, art rock, funk, and world music with avant-garde sensibilities and an anxious, clean-cut image.Former art school students who became involved in the 1970s New York punk scene, Talking Heads released their debut album, Talking Heads: 77, to positive reviews in 1977. They collaborated with producer Brian Eno on a trio of experimental and critically acclaimed releases: More Songs About Buildings and Food (1978), Fear of Music (1979), and Remain in Light (1980). After a hiatus, Talking Heads hit their commercial peak in 1983 with the U.S. Top 10 hit "Burning Down the House" and released the concert film Stop Making Sense, directed by Jonathan Demme. They released several more albums, including their best-selling LP Little Creatures (1985), before disbanding in 1991.In 2002, Talking Heads were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Four of their albums appear in Rolling Stone's list of the 500 Greatest Albums of All Time, and three of their songs ("Psycho Killer", "Life During Wartime", and "Once in a Lifetime") were included among the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's 500 Songs That Shaped Rock and Roll. Talking Heads were also number 64 on VH1's list of the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time". In the 2011 update of Rolling Stone's "100 Greatest Artists of All Time", they were ranked number 100.

The Psychedelic Furs

The Psychedelic Furs are an English rock band founded in London in February 1977. Led by singer Richard Butler and his brother Tim Butler on bass guitar, the Psychedelic Furs were one of the many acts spawned from the British post-punk scene. Their music went through several phases, from an initially austere art rock sound, to later touching on new wave and hard rock.The band scored several hits in their early career. In 1986, filmmaker John Hughes used their song "Pretty in Pink" for his movie of the same name. The band went on hiatus after they finished touring in 1992, but later regrouped in 2000 and continue to perform around the world; despite this, they have not released a full-length studio album since 1991's World Outside.

The Slits

The Slits were a British post-punk band formed in London in 1976 by members of the groups The Flowers of Romance and The Castrators. The group's early line-up consisted of Ari Up (Ariane Forster) and Palmolive (a.k.a. Paloma Romero, who played briefly with Spizzenergi and later left to join The Raincoats), with Viv Albertine and Tessa Pollitt replacing founding members Kate Korus and Suzy Gutsy. Their 1979 debut album, Cut, has been called one of the defining releases of the post-punk era.

Wire (band)

Wire are an English rock band, formed in London in October 1976 by Colin Newman (vocals, guitar), Graham Lewis (bass, vocals), Bruce Gilbert (guitar) and Robert Gotobed (drums). They were originally associated with the punk rock scene, appearing on The Roxy London WC2 album, and were later central to the development of post-punk, with their debut album Pink Flag was influential for hardcore punk.

Wire are a definitive art punk and post-punk band, due to their richly detailed and atmospheric sound and obscure lyrical themes. They exhibited a steady development from an early noise rock style to a more complex, structured sound involving increased use of guitar effects and synthesizers (1978's Chairs Missing and 1979's 154). The band gained a reputation for experimenting with song arrangements throughout its career.

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