Post-production

Post-production is part of the process of filmmaking, video production, radio production and photography. Post-production includes all stages of production occurring after shooting or recording individual program segments.[1]

Traditional (analogue) post-production has mostly been replaced by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE).

Linear suite
A video editing suite

Processes

Tainted blue studios control room
A sound control room at Tainted Blue Studios, 2010

Post-production is many different processes grouped under one name. These typically include:

The post-production phase of creating a film usually takes longer than the actual shooting of the film and can take several months to complete because it includes the complete editing, color correction, and the addition of music and sound. The process of editing a movie is also seen as the second directing because through post-production it is possible to change the intention of the movie. Furthermore, through the use of color grading tools and the addition of music and sound, the atmosphere of the movie can be heavily influenced. For instance, a blue-tinted movie is associated with a cold atmosphere and the choice of music and sound increases the effect of the shown scenes to the audience.

Post-production was named a "dying industry" by Phil Izzo.[2] The once exclusive service offered by high-end post-production facilities have been eroded away by video editing software that operates on a non-linear editing system (NLE). As such, traditional (analogue) post-production services are being surpassed by digital, leading to sales of over $6 billion annually.

Television

In television, the phases of post-production include: editing, video editing, sound editing, animation and visual effects insertions, viewing and the start of the airing process. It is imperative that post-production executes and oversees the

Photography

Professional post-producers usually apply a certain range of image editing operations to the raw image format provided by a photographer or an image-bank. There is a range of proprietary and free and open-source software, running on a range of operating systems available to do this work.

The first stage of post-production usually requires loading the raw images into the post-production software. If there is more than one image, and they belong to a set, ideally post-producers try to equalize the images before loading them. After that, if necessary, the next step would be to cut the objects in the images with the Pen Tool for a perfect and clean cut. The next stage would be cleaning the image using tools such as the healing tool, clone tool, and patch tool.

The next stages depend on what the client ordered. If it's a photo-montage, the post-producers would usually start assembling the different images into the final document, and start to integrate the images with the background.

In advertising, it usually requires assembling several images together in a photo-composition.

Types of work usually done:

  • Advertising that requires one background (as one or more images to assemble) and one or more models. (Usually, the most time consuming as a lot of times these are image bank images which don't have much quality, and they all have different light and color as they were not controlled by only one photographer in one set location)
  • Product-photography that usually requires several images of the same object with different lights, and assembled together, to control light and unwanted reflections, or to assemble parts that would be difficult to get in one shot, such as a beer glass for a beer advertising. (Sometimes to composite one image of a beer glass it requires 4 or 5 images: one for the base, one for the beer, one for the label, one for the foam, and one or more for splashing beer if that is desired)
  • Fashion photography that usually requires a really heavy post-production for editorial or advertising.

Music

Techniques used in music post-production include comping (compiling the best portions of multiple takes into one superior take), timing and pitch correction (perhaps through beat quantization), and adding effects. This process is typically referred to as mixing and can also involve equalization and adjusting the levels of each individual track to provide an optimal sound experience.[3] Contrary to the name, post-production may occur at any point during recording and production process and is non-linear and nonveridic.[3]

See also

References

  1. ^ Lynne S. Gross; James C. Foust; Thomas D. Burrows (2005). Video Production Discipline and Techniques (9th ed.). McGraw Hill. p. G11. ISBN 0-07-293548-0.
  2. ^ [1] Top 10 Dying Industries, The Wall Street Journal/economics By Phil Izzo
  3. ^ a b Hodgson, Jay Understanding Records, p.231. ISBN 978-1-4411-5607-5.
BBC Studioworks

BBC Studioworks Limited, formerly BBC Studios and Post Production Ltd is a commercial subsidiary of the BBC, providing television studios, post production and related services to the market.It works with broadcasters and production companies, making award-winning content for the likes of the BBC, ITV, Channel 4, Channel 5, Sky, Endemol Shine and FremantleMedia. Titles range from The Graham Norton Show and A League of Their Own, to EastEnders and Strictly Come Dancing.When BBC Television Centre in West London was temporarily closed for redevelopment in 2013, Studioworks consolidated its London studios business onto two sites in Borehamwood, BBC Elstree Centre and Elstree Studios. On the BBC Elstree Site, it operates the Studio D facility – a large TV studio and home to Children in Need and BBC News' election broadcasting. It is also home to the company's post-production village and the site where it provides studio and post-production services to EastEnders. Across the road at Elstree Studios, it hires a mix of stages which have been converted into TV studios and range in size from 7,550 sq ft to 15,770 sq ft. This conversion was financed on a co-investment basis between Elstree Studios and Studioworks. BBC Studioworks expanded its footprint in 2017 when it reopened Television Centre, where it operates Studios 1, 2 and 3 plus post-production facilities.The company was rebranded from BBC Studios and Post Production Ltd to BBC Studioworks Ltd in May 2016.

Dean Cain

Dean George Cain (né Tanaka; born July 31, 1966) is an American actor, producer and television show host, best known for playing the role of Clark Kent/Superman in the TV series Lois & Clark: The New Adventures of Superman. He was also host of Ripley's Believe It or Not! and appeared in the soap opera series Hit the Floor.

Director of audiography

The director of audiography, (DA) within Indian-style filmmaking, is the head of the sound department and the person responsible for planning the audiography and managing the audiographers of a film.

The title is not used professionally in most of the world. The role of audiographer and the title "director of audiography" derives from Bollywood-style filmmaking in India, where it is an established title credit.

The DA works to carry out the director's vision, identifies the tasks necessary to realize this vision, budgets for those tasks and coordinates all the work from pre-production to post-production whilst keeping an eye on overall sound quality.

Since the onset of the "talkies", a creative and professional conflict has emerged from the ongoing tension between the visual and aural dimensions of film. Production sound crews often complain about the lack of consideration given to sound on film productions.

Having a DA in pre-production helps to exert a powerful presence to defend the dimension of sound in film.

In the early days of the Hollywood studio system, every studio had a sound director (SD) or a recording director (RD), who headed the sound department and took sole credit for the work done by a large crew of sound technicians.

Hollywood sound editor David Yewdall bemoans the loss of the SD in Hollywood and recalls the story of film producer Ross Hunter, working on the film Airport, who neglected to take the advice of sound editor Joe Sikorski to record aircraft sound effects on location; an SD would have immediately appreciated the financial implications of not taking such advice.Following the demise of the studio system and the loss of the sound director, part of this role was delegated to the post-production supervisor, supervising sound editor, sound designer or production sound mixer - each role allegedly having less influence, responsibility and scope than the former SD. Where no DA is hired - as is the case when making films in the West - there has been some debate on the most appropriate role to head the sound department; a supervising sound editor is seen as a technical manager - comparable to an art director - whereas a sound designer is viewed as a creative visionary, analogous to a production designer.

In practice, the industry sees both roles as equivalent.The DA should not be confused with a production supervisor or post-production supervisor - both are administrative roles in the production department. In contrast, the DA is a technical role blending leadership, management and administrative skills with creative audiography ranging over pre-production, production and post-production - constrained only by the Director's vision and the production's schedule and budget. In many ways the DoA role is a natural extension of the more limited post-production role of supervising sound editor.

The term director of sound (DoS) has also been proposed as an alternative title to that of DA.

Dock10 (television facility)

Dock10 is a television facility owner and media services company, located in the City of Salford, Greater Manchester, England. Dock10 offers a number of services, but its two most notable is post production and The Studios.

Its studio filming facility is the best-known part of the company, often referred to as The Studios. It was built as a major part of MediaCityUK, a development in Salford, Greater Manchester. The move saw a number of major productions leave London for the first time and head north to Manchester. The BBC, ITV and Channel 4 all relocated the filming of various shows to The Studios. This included established British shows, Match of the Day and Countdown.

Dock10 also offers other media services, such as post production. Their post-production shows include Match of the Day, Blue Peter and Who Wants to be a Millionaire.

Film crew

A film crew is a group of people, hired by a production company, for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. The crew is distinguished from the cast as the cast are understood to be the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. The crew is also separate from the producers as the producers are the ones who own a portion of either the film company or the film's intellectual property rights. A film crew is divided into different departments, each of which specializes in a specific aspect of the production. Film crew positions have evolved over the years, spurred by technological change, but many traditional jobs date from the early 20th century and are common across jurisdictions and film-making cultures.

Motion picture projects have three discrete stages: development, production and distribution. Within the production stage there are also three clearly defined sequential phases — pre-production, principal photography and post-production — and many film crew positions are associated with only one or two of the phases. Distinctions are also made between above-the-line personnel (such as the director, the screenwriter and the producers) who begin their involvement during the project's development stage, and the below-the-line "technical" crew involved only with the production stage.

Film director

A film director is a person who directs the making of a film. A film director controls a film's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the screenplay (or script) while guiding the technical crew and actors in the fulfilment of that vision. The director has a key role in choosing the cast members, production design, and the creative aspects of filmmaking. Under European Union law, the director is viewed as the author of the film.The film director gives direction to the cast and crew and creates an overall vision through which a film eventually becomes realized, or noticed. Directors need to be able to mediate differences in creative visions and stay within the boundaries of the film's budget.

There are many pathways to becoming a film director. Some film directors started as screenwriters, cinematographers, producers, film editors or actors. Other film directors have attended a film school. Directors use different approaches. Some outline a general plotline and let the actors improvise dialogue, while others control every aspect, and demand that the actors and crew follow instructions precisely. Some directors also write their own screenplays or collaborate on screenplays with long-standing writing partners. Some directors edit or appear in their films, or compose the music score for their films.

Film editing

Film editing is both a creative and a technical part of the post-production process of filmmaking. The term is derived from the traditional process of working with film which increasingly involves the use of digital technology.

The film editor works with the raw footage, selecting shots and combines them into sequences which create a finished motion picture. Film editing is described as an art or skill, the only art that is unique to cinema, separating filmmaking from other art forms that preceded it, although there are close parallels to the editing process in other art forms such as poetry and novel writing. Film editing is often referred to as the "invisible art" because when it is well-practiced, the viewer can become so engaged that he or she is not aware of the editor's work.

On its most fundamental level, film editing is the art, technique and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence. The job of an editor is not simply to mechanically put pieces of a film together, cut off film slates or edit dialogue scenes. A film editor must creatively work with the layers of images, story, dialogue, music, pacing, as well as the actors' performances to effectively "re-imagine" and even rewrite the film to craft a cohesive whole. Editors usually play a dynamic role in the making of a film. Sometimes, auteurist film directors edit their own films, for example, Akira Kurosawa, Bahram Beyzai and the Coen brothers.

With the advent of digital editing, film editors and their assistants have become responsible for many areas of filmmaking that used to be the responsibility of others. For instance, in past years, picture editors dealt only with just that—picture. Sound, music, and (more recently) visual effects editors dealt with the practicalities of other aspects of the editing process, usually under the direction of the picture editor and director. However, digital systems have increasingly put these responsibilities on the picture editor. It is common, especially on lower budget films, for the editor to sometimes cut in temporary music, mock up visual effects and add temporary sound effects or other sound replacements. These temporary elements are usually replaced with more refined final elements produced by the sound, music and visual effects teams hired to complete the picture.

Film producer

A film producer is a person who oversees film production. Either employed by a production company or working independently, producers plan and coordinate various aspects of film production, such as selecting the script; coordinating writing, directing, and editing; and arranging financing.During the "discovery stage," the producer finds and selects promising material for development. Then, unless the film is based on an existing script, the producer has to hire a screenwriter and oversee the development of the script. Once a script is completed, the producer will lead a pitch to secure the financial backing (a "green light") to allow production to begin.

The producer also supervises the pre-production, production, and post-production stages of filmmaking. One of the most important tasks is to hire the director and other key crew members. Whereas the director makes the creative decisions during the production, the producer typically manages the logistics and business operations, though some directors also produce their own films. The producer is tasked with making sure the film is delivered on time and within budget, and has the final say on creative decisions. Finally, the producer will oversee the marketing and distribution.

For various reasons, producers cannot always supervise all of the production. In this case, the main producer may hire and delegate work to executive producers, line producers, or unit production managers.

Filmmaking

Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition. Filmmaking involves a number of discrete stages including an initial story, idea, or commission, through screenwriting, casting, shooting, sound recording and reproduction, editing, and screening the finished product before an audience that may result in a film release and exhibition. Filmmaking takes place in many places around the world in a range of economic, social, and political contexts, and using a variety of technologies and cinematic techniques. Typically, it involves a large number of people, and can take from a few months to several years to complete.

Goldcrest Films

Goldcrest Films is an independent British distribution, production, post production, and finance company. Operating from London and New York, Goldcrest is a privately owned integrated filmed entertainment company.

Her (film)

Her is a 2013 American romantic science-fiction drama film written, directed, and produced by Spike Jonze. It marks Jonze's solo screenwriting debut. The film follows Theodore Twombly (Joaquin Phoenix), a man who develops a relationship with Samantha (Scarlett Johansson), an artificially intelligent virtual assistant personified through a female voice. The film also stars Amy Adams, Rooney Mara, and Olivia Wilde.

Jonze conceived the idea in the early 2000s after reading an article about a website that allowed for instant messaging with an artificial intelligence program. After making I'm Here (2010), a short film sharing similar themes, Jonze returned to the idea. He wrote the first draft of the script in five months. Principal photography took place in Los Angeles and Shanghai in mid-2012. The role of Samantha was recast in post-production, with Samantha Morton being replaced with Johansson. Additional scenes were filmed in August 2013 following the casting change.

Her premiered at the 2013 New York Film Festival on October 12, 2013. Warner Bros. Pictures initially provided a limited release for Her at six theaters on December 18. It was later given a wide release at over 1,700 theaters in the United States and Canada on January 10, 2014. Her received widespread critical acclaim upon its release, and grossed over $48 million worldwide on a production budget of $23 million. The film received numerous awards and nominations, primarily for Jonze's screenplay. At the 86th Academy Awards, Her received five nominations, including Best Picture, and won the award for Best Original Screenplay. Jonze also won awards for his screenplay at the 71st Golden Globe Awards, the 66th Writers Guild of America Awards, the 19th Critics' Choice Awards, and the 40th Saturn Awards. In a 2016 BBC poll of 177 critics around the world, Her was voted the 84th-greatest film since 2000.

Nicolas Cage filmography

The filmography of American actor, director and producer, Nicolas Cage includes the year the film was or will be released, the name of his character, the director, and other related notes. There is also a list of films he has produced and his appearances in television. Cage has appeared in over 90 films throughout his career.

Pre-production

Pre-production is the process of planning some of the elements involved in a film, play, or other performance. There are three parts in a production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production ends when the planning ends and the content starts being produced.

Principal photography

Principal photography is the phase of film production in which the bulk of the movie is filmed, with actors on set and cameras rolling, as distinct from pre-production and post-production.Principal photography is typically the most expensive phase of film production, due to actor, director, and set crew salaries, as well as the costs of certain shots, props, and on-set special effects. Its start generally marks a point of no return for the financiers, because until it is complete, there is unlikely to be enough material filmed to release a final product needed to recoup costs. While it is common for a film to lose its greenlight status during pre-production – for example, because an important cast member drops out or unexpectedly dies, or some kind of scandal engulfs the studio or an actor – it is extremely uncommon for financing to be withdrawn once principal photography has begun.Feature films usually have insurance in place by the time principal photography begins. The death of a bankable star before completing all planned takes, or the loss of sets or footage can render a film impossible to complete as planned. For example, sets are notoriously flammable. Furthermore, professional-quality movie cameras are normally rented as needed, and most camera houses will not allow rentals of their equipment without proof of insurance.Once a film concludes principal photography, it is said to have wrapped, and a wrap party may be organized to celebrate. During post-production, it may become clear that certain shots or sequences are missing or incomplete and are required to complete the film, or that a certain scene is not playing as expected, or even, as seen in the late stages of filming The Hate U Give, that a particular actor's performance or behavior has not turned out as desired, causing him or her to be completely replaced with another. In these circumstances, additional material may have to be shot. If the material has already been shot once, or is substantial, the process is referred to as a re-shoot, but if the material is new and relatively minor, it is often referred to as a pick-up.

Ra.One

Ra.One is a 2011 Indian Hindi-language superhero film directed by Anubhav Sinha and starring Shah Rukh Khan, Armaan Verma, Kareena Kapoor, Arjun Rampal, Shahana Goswami and Tom Wu in pivotal roles. The script, written by Anubhav Sinha and Kanika Dhillon, originated as an idea that Anubhav Sinha got when he saw a television commercial and which he subsequently expanded. The film follows Shekhar Subramanium (Shah Rukh Khan), a game designer who creates a motion sensor-based game in which the antagonist (Ra.One) is more powerful than the protagonist (G.One). The former escapes from the game's virtual world and enters the real world; his aim is to kill Lucifer, the game ID of Shekhar's son and the only player to have challenged Ra.One's power. Relentlessly pursued, the family is forced to bring out G.One from the virtual world to defeat Ra.One and protect them.

Principal photography began in March 2010 and took place in India and the United Kingdom and was overseen by an international crew. The post-production involved 3-D conversion and the application of visual effects, the latter being recognised as a technological breakthrough among Indian films. With a budget of ₹150 crore (equivalent to ₹231 crore or US$32 million in 2018), inclusive of publicity costs, Ra.One was the most expensive Indian film at the time of release surpassing the ₹132 crore (equivalent to ₹221 crore or US$31 million in 2018) budget of Enthiran. The producers spent ₹130 crore (equivalent to ₹200 crore or US$28 million in 2018) out of a ₹52 crore (equivalent to ₹80 crore or US$11 million in 2018) marketing budget, which involved a nine-month publicity campaign, brand tie-ups, merchandise, video games and viral marketing.

The film faced controversies involving plagiarism, content leaks and copyright challenges. Consequently, Ra.One was theatrically released on 26 October 2011, the beginning of the five-day Diwali weekend, in 2D, 3D and dubbed versions in Tamil and Telugu languages, with three international premieres being held between 24 & 26 October 2011. The film witnessed the largest international theatrical release for an Indian film as of 2011, and was preceded by high audience and commercial expectations.

Upon release, Ra.One received mixed reviews, with critics praising the visuals and music, but criticising the script, direction and screenplay. Commercially, the film became the third highest-grossing Bollywood film of 2011 domestically, the second highest-grossing Bollywood film of 2011 worldwide, and broke a number of opening box office records. As the film earned more than Rs 170 crores, it was considered a Hit. The film subsequently won a number of awards for its technical aspects, notably one National Film Award, one Filmfare Award and four International Indian Film Academy Awards.

Sound stage

In common usage, a sound stage (also written soundstage) is a soundproof, hangar-like structure, building, or room, used for the production of theatrical film-making and television productions, usually located on a secured movie or television studio property.

A sound stage should not be confused with a silent stage. A sound stage is sound-proofed so that sound can be recorded along with the images. The recordings are known as "production sound." A silent stage is not soundproofed, and is susceptible to outside noise interference, and so sound is not generally recorded. Because most sound in movies, including dialogue, is added in post-production, this generally means that the main difference between the two is that sound stages are used for dialogue scenes, but silent stages are not. An alternative to production sound is to record additional dialogue during post-production using a technique known as dubbing.

Special effect

Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, SPFX, or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the film, television, theatre, video game and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

Special effects are traditionally divided into the categories of mechanical effects and optical effects. With the emergence of digital film-making a distinction between special effects and visual effects has grown, with the latter referring to digital post-production while "special effects" referring to mechanical and optical effects.

Mechanical effects (also called practical or physical effects) are usually accomplished during the live-action shooting. This includes the use of mechanized props, scenery, scale models, animatronics, pyrotechnics and atmospheric effects: creating physical wind, rain, fog, snow, clouds, making a car appear to drive by itself and blowing up a building, etc. Mechanical effects are also often incorporated into set design and makeup. For example, a set may be built with break-away doors or walls to enhance a fight scene, or prosthetic makeup can be used to make an actor look like a non-human creature.

Optical effects (also called photographic effects) are techniques in which images or film frames are created photographically, either "in-camera" using multiple exposure, mattes or the Schüfftan process or in post-production using an optical printer. An optical effect might be used to place actors or sets against a different background.

Since the 1990s, computer-generated imagery (CGI) has come to the forefront of special effects technologies. It gives filmmakers greater control, and allows many effects to be accomplished more safely and convincingly and—as technology improves—at lower costs. As a result, many optical and mechanical effects techniques have been superseded by CGI.

Television producer

A television producer is a person who oversees all aspects of video production on a television program. Some producers take more of an executive role, in that they conceive new programs and pitch them to the television networks, but upon acceptance they focus on business matters, such as budgets and contracts. Other producers are more involved with the day-to-day workings, participating in activities such as screenwriting, set design, casting and directing.

There is a variety of different producers on a television show. A traditional producer is one who manages a show's budget and maintains a schedule, but this is no longer the case in modern television.

Video production

Video production is the process of producing video content. It is the equivalent of filmmaking, but with images recorded digitally instead of on film stock. There are three stages of video production: pre-production, production, and post-production. Pre-production involves all of the planning aspects of the video production process before filming begins. This includes scriptwriting, scheduling, logistics, and other administrative duties. Production is the phase of video production which captures the video content (moving images / videography) and involves filming the subject(s) of the video. Post-production is the action of selectively combining those video clips through video editing into a finished product that tells a story or communicates a message in either a live event setting (live production), or after an event has occurred (post-production).

Currently, the majority of video content is captured through electronic media like an SD card for consumer grade cameras, or on solid state storage and flash storage for professional grade cameras. Video content that is distributed digitally often appears in common formats such as the Moving Picture Experts Group format (.mpeg, .mpg, .mp4), QuickTime (.mov), Audio Video Interleave (.avi), Windows Media Video (.wmv), and DivX (.avi, .divx).

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