Post-9/11

The post-9/11 period is the time after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, characterized by heightened suspicion of non-Americans in the United States, increased government efforts to address terrorism, and a more aggressive American foreign policy.

Political consequences

We also must never forget the most vivid events of recent history. On September the 11th, 2001, America felt its vulnerability – even to threats that gather on the other side of the earth. We resolved then, and we are resolved today, to confront every threat, from any source, that could bring sudden terror and suffering to America.
— George W. Bush, 2002.[1]

The attacks led to significant and widespread changes in U.S. politics and foreign policy. Domestically, both parties rallied around new or strengthened anti-terrorism legislation. Much of this legislation has been funded by western countries. Since 9/11 and as of 2011, there have been 119,044 anti-terror arrests and 35,117 convictions in 66 countries. By contrast, before 9/11 there were only a few hundred terrorism convictions each year.[2]

In recent years, the war in Afghanistan, once viewed largely as a "just war", has lost popularity. As of 2011, more than 60% of Americans opposed the war.[3]

Department of Homeland Security

The United States government created the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in response to the attacks. DHS is a cabinet-level department of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting the territory of the United States from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters.

With approximately 184,000 employees, DHS is the third-largest cabinet department in the U.S. federal government, after the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Energy.

Societal consequences

Suspicion

In the U.S., many activities of foreigners or American citizens, which, prior to 9/11, would be viewed innocently (or as just eccentric), are now viewed with suspicion, especially in regards to the behavior of anyone who looks "Arab" in terms of clothing or skin color.[4] Six Muslim imams were removed from a U.S. airliner when they prayed before the flight and showed "suspicious behavior".[5] Various government agencies and police forces in the U.S. have asked people to watch people around them and report "unusual" behavior, and signs posted in all public places request citizens to report anything out of the ordinary. The United States Department of Homeland Security has advised citizens to "be vigilant, take notice of your surroundings, and report suspicious items or activities to local authorities immediately."[6]

Discriminatory backlash

Since the attacks, Arab, Muslim, Sikh, and South-Asian Americans – as well as those perceived to be members of these groups – have been victims of threats, vandalism, arson, and murder in the United States.[7]

Safety concerns

Due to Americans having the fear of flying, auto usage increased after the attacks. This resulted in an estimated 1,595 additional highway deaths in the ensuing year.[8]

Censorship

Films and television programs produced before 2001 that feature the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center or events similar to 9/11 have been edited in re-airings on television. One such example is an episode of The Simpsons, "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson," the main setting of which is the World Trade Center.[9][10]

After 9/11, Clear Channel Communications (an owner of over 1,000 radio stations in the U.S.) released a list of songs deemed "inappropriate". The songs were not banned outright, but stations were advised not to play them.[11]

The New York-based band Dream Theater released a live album titled Live Scenes from New York on September 11, 2001. The cover art depicted the Manhattan skyline, including the World Trade Center towers in flames. It was immediately recalled, and the artwork altered.

Another New York-based band, The Strokes, originally had "New York City Cops" as the ninth track on their 2001 breakthrough debut album Is This It. The album, initially released in June of that year in Australia, was released stateside on October 9, with "New York City Cops" removed and replaced with the newer "When It Started" as a result of the attacks.

In an act of self-censorship, American rock band Jimmy Eat World changed the title of their third album, Bleed American, to a self-titled album, after the attacks.

British band Bush were forced to change the name of their single 'Speed Kills' to The People That We Love. They also changed the original artwork for their album Golden State before it was released which originally depicted a picture of a plane in mid-air.

The music video for a song called 'Piece By Piece' by British band Feeder was also changed. The original video depicted animated characters of the band playing in a New York skyscraper with the world trade center in the background and planes flying near by. The band later jump from the window of the building.[12]

When Sean Altman recorded "Zombie Jamboree" for The GrooveBarbers album, "Guts", he changed the lyrics to, "There's an acapella zombie singing down Broadway" instead of the line that he and Rockapella sung for years, "There's a high wire zombie between the World Trades".

See also

References

  1. ^ President Bush Outlines Iraqi Threat Archived 2013-03-07 at the Wayback Machine, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 7, 2002
  2. ^ "AP IMPACT: 35,000 worldwide convicted for terror". Yahoo News. September 4, 2011. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  3. ^ "CNN Poll: U.S. opposition". CNN. Archived from the original on October 31, 2011. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. ^ "Poll: Suspicion of Arabs, Arab-Americans deepen". USA Today. September 16, 2001. Archived from the original on October 6, 2001. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  5. ^ "Imams removed from flight may sue passengers". msn.com. March 31, 2007. Archived from the original on October 20, 2012. Retrieved April 27, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  6. ^ "DHS - Report Incidents". dhs.gov. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved April 27, 2018. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  7. ^ Civil Rights Division National Origin Working Group Initiative to Combat Post-Terrorism Discrimination Archived 2007-02-13 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ Gardner, Daniel (2008). The Science of Fear: Why We Fear the Things We Shouldn't—and Put Ourselves in Greater Danger. Dutton Adult. p. 3. ISBN 0-525-95062-1. Archived from the original on April 3, 2017. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  9. ^ Oakley, Bill (2006). The Simpsons season 9 DVD commentary for the episode "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  10. ^ Weinstein, Josh (2006). The Simpsons season 9 DVD commentary for the episode "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox.
  11. ^ http://www.snopes.com/rumors/radio.htm Urban Legends Reference Pages: Radio, Radio. Published September 18, 2001. Accessed February 10, 2008.
  12. ^ "Feeder FAQ". Archived from the original on October 24, 2009. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
Aftermath of the September 11 attacks

The September 11 attacks transformed the first term of President George W. Bush and led to what he has called the Global War on Terrorism. The accuracy of describing it as a "war" and its political motivations and consequences are the topic of strenuous debate. The U.S. government increased military operations, economic measures and political pressure on groups which it accused of being terrorists, as well as increasing pressure on the governments and countries which was accused of sheltering them. October 2001 saw the first military action initiated by the US. Under this policy, the NATO invaded Afghanistan in order to remove the Taliban regime (which harbored al-Qaeda) and capture al-Qaeda forces.

The war, however, is ongoing and it has not been won. Critics point out that the Afghan conflict has contributed to the destabilization of neighbouring Pakistan and Afghanistan itself is far from at peace—Lord Ashdown, British diplomat and former international High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina, has gone as far as to describe the country as "a failed state". The US government has also asserted that the US invasion of Iraq is connected to 9/11.

Chick flick

Chick flick is a slang term, sometimes used pejoratively, for the film genre that tends to appeal more to a youngish female audience and deals mainly with love and romance. Although many types of films may be directed towards a female audience, the term "chick flick" is typically used only in reference to films that contain personal drama and emotion or themes that are relationship-based (although not necessarily romantic as films may focus on parent-child or friend relationships). Chick flicks often are released en masse around Valentine's Day. Feminists such as Gloria Steinem have objected to terms such as "chick flick" and the related genre term "chick lit", and a film critic has called it derogatory.

G.I. Bill

The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, commonly known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). The original G.I. Bill expired in 1956, but the term "G.I. Bill" is still used to refer to programs created to assist U.S. military veterans.

It was largely designed and passed through Congress in 1944 by conservatives led by the American Legion who wanted to reward practically all wartime veterans. Since the First World War the Legion had been in the forefront of lobbying Congress for generous benefits for war veterans. Roosevelt, by contrast, wanted a much smaller and more elitist program. The final bill provided immediate financial rewards for practically all World War II veterans, thereby avoiding the highly disputed postponed life insurance policy payout for World War I veterans that had caused political turmoil in the 1920s and 1930s. Benefits included low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start a business or farm, one year of unemployment compensation, and dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college, or vocational school. These benefits were available to all veterans who had been on active duty during the war years for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged.By 1956, 7.8 million veterans had used the G.I. Bill education benefits, some 2.2 million to attend colleges or universities and an additional 5.6 million for some kind of training program. Historians and economists judge the G.I. Bill a major political and economic success—especially in contrast to the treatments of World War I veterans—and a major contribution to America's stock of human capital that encouraged long-term economic growth. However, the G.I. Bill received criticism for directing some funds to for-profit educational institutions and for failing to benefit African Americans.

The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 further expanded benefits, providing veterans with funding for the full cost of any public college in their state. The G.I. Bill was also modified through the passage of the Forever GI Bill in 2017.

Harkat-ul-Mujahideen

Harkat-ul-Mujahideen- al-Islami (Urdu: حرکت المجاہدین الاسلامی‎) (abbreviated HUM) is a Pakistan-based Islamic Terrorist group operating primarily in Kashmir. The group have been considered as having links to Osama bin Laden and al-Qaeda and the group has been designated as a terrorist organization by the United Nations, the United Kingdom and the United States. In response the organization changed its name to Harkat-ul-Mujahideen. The group splintered from Harkat-ul-Jihad-al-Islami (HuJI), a Pakistani group formed in 1980 to fight the Soviet military in Afghanistan. Government of India has declared and banned HuM as a terrorist organisation.

Hawala

Hawala or hewala (Arabic: حِوالة‎ ḥawāla, meaning transfer or sometimes trust), also known as havaleh in Persian, hundi (हुण्डी huṇḍī) in Hindi, and xawala or xawilaad in Somali, is a popular and informal value transfer system based not on the movement of cash, or on telegraph or computer network wire transfers between banks, but instead on the performance and honour of a huge network of money brokers (known as hawaladars). While hawaladars are spread throughout the world, they are primarily located in the Middle East, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, and the Indian subcontinent, operating outside of, or parallel to, traditional banking, financial channels, and remittance systems. Hawala follows Islamic traditions but its use is not limited to Muslims.

Itaewon

Itaewon (Korean: 이태원, IPA [itʰɛwʌn]) refers to an area surrounding Itaewon-dong, Yongsan-gu, Seoul, South Korea. It is served by Seoul Subway Line 6 via Itaewon, Noksapyeong and Hanganjin stations. About 22,000 people reside in the district and it is a popular area for residents of Seoul, tourists, expats and U.S. military personnel.

List of cultural references to the September 11 attacks

This list of cultural references to the September 11 attacks and to the post-9/11 sociopolitical climate, includes works of art, music, books, poetry, comics, theater, film, and television.

List of unsuccessful terrorist plots in the United States post-9/11

The following is a list of unsuccessful alleged terrorist plots in the Post-9/11 United States. After the initiation of the War on Terrorism following the attacks of September 11, 2001, several terrorist plots aimed at civilian and military targets have failed to succeed.

Metropolitan Detention Centers

Metropolitan Detention Centers (MDCs) are federal detention facilities (prisons) operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons and located throughout the United States. These facilities are considered to be administrative facilities, defined by bop.gov as:

Administrative facilities are institutions with special missions, such as the detention of pretrial offenders; the treatment of inmates with serious or chronic medical problems; or the containment of extremely dangerous, violent, or escape-prone inmates. Administrative facilities include Metropolitan Correctional Centers (MCCs), Metropolitan Detention Centers (MDCs), Federal Detention Centers (FDCs), and Federal Medical Centers (FMCs), as well as the Federal Transfer Center (FTC), the Medical Center for Federal Prisoners (MCFP), and the Administrative-Maximum (ADX) U.S. Penitentiary. Administrative facilities are capable of holding inmates in all security categories.1

They are run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons. Detention Centers, as opposed to Federal Penitentiaries, are designed to hold prisoners who have either not yet been arraigned, have been denied bail, or are awaiting trial. Metropolitan Detention Centers also hold inmates on their way to their designated 'home' prison.

Convicted prisoners are transferred to one of a series of Federal Prisons, also run by the Bureau of Prisons.

A report by the Justice Department Office of the Inspector General on the experience of 762 post-9/11 detainees found confirmed the physical and verbal abuse of detainees. On arrival at the Metropolitan Detention Center in Brooklyn, New York, the detainees were slammed face first into a wall against a shirt with an American flag; the bloodstain left behind was described by one officer as the print of bloody noses and a mouth. Once inside they were threatened with detention for the rest of their lives, verbally abused, exposed to cold, deprived of sleep, and had their hands, cuffed arms, and fingers severely twisted.

Muslims in the United States military

Service by Muslims in the United States military dates back to the American Revolutionary War where records indicate that at least a few Muslims fought on the rebel side.Muslims have fought in all major US wars including the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Vietnam War. More recently they have served in Gulf War, Iraq War, and the War in Afghanistan.

On December 14, 1993, the Army Chief of Chaplains requested that an insignia be created to represent Muslim chaplains, and the design (a crescent) was completed January 8, 1994.In 2011 there were approximately 3,500 American Muslims serving in the United States military.

Ohio National Guard

The Ohio National Guard comprises the Ohio Army National Guard and the Ohio Air National Guard. The commander-in-chief of the Ohio Army National Guard is the governor of the state of Ohio. If the Ohio Army National Guard is called to federal service, then the President of the United States becomes the commander-in-chief. The military commander of all forces in the State of Ohio is the Adjutant General, Major General Mark Bartman is responsible for the command of 17,000 members, preparedness and readiness, installation management, and budget of the Ohio National Guard. The current Assistant Adjutant General for Army, with responsibility for overseeing the Ohio Army National Guard training and operations, is Major General John C. Harris Jr. The current Assistant Adjutant General for Air is Brigadier General Stephen E Markovich, with responsibility for overseeing the Ohio Air National Guard.

Ohio Army and Air National Guard units can be mobilized at any time by the governor of the State of Ohio upon declaration of a state of emergency or by the presidential order to supplement regular armed federal forces. Unlike Army Reserve members, National Guard members cannot be mobilized individually (except through voluntary transfers and temporary duty assignment (TDY), but only as part of their respective units. However, there has been a significant number of individual activation's to support military operations since 2001. The legality of this policy has been a source of contention in some quarters. The Ohio Military Reserve and the Ohio Naval Militia constitute Ohio's state defense force, and augment the Ohio National Guard during stateside missions, especially when units of the National Guard are federalized.

The Ohio National Guard is made up of Citizen-Soldiers, meaning that the members of the National Guard lead civilian lives in addition to their duties as a soldier. As a Citizen-Soldier members only train with their National Guard Units for roughly two days a month (one weekend), and two weeks of training in the summer, called Annual Training (AT).

Omar bin Laden

Omar bin Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: عمر بن أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن‎, ʿUmar bin ʾUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʿAwaḍ bin Lādin; born March 1, 1982), better known as Omar bin Laden, is one of the sons of Osama bin Laden and his first wife and first cousin Najwa Ghanem (see Bin Laden family). He is the fourth-eldest son among 20 children of Osama bin Laden. Older reports have described Omar and his brother Abdallah bin Laden as nephews or cousins of Osama bin Laden.

Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008

The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 is Title V of the Supplemental Appropriations Act of 2008, Pub.L. 110–252, H.R. 2642, an Act of Congress which became law on June 30, 2008. The act amended Part III of Title 38, United States Code to include a new Chapter 33, which expands the educational benefits for military veterans who have served since September 11, 2001. At various times the new education benefits have been referred to as the Post-9/11 GI Bill, the 21st Century G.I. Bill of Rights, or the Webb G.I. Bill, with many current references calling it simply the new G.I. Bill. President George W. Bush signed H.R. 2642 into law on June 30, 2008.The law is an effort to pay for veterans' college expenses to a similar extent that the original G.I. Bill did after World War II. The main provisions of the act include funding 100% of a public four-year undergraduate education to a veteran who has served three years on active duty since September 11, 2001. The act also provides the ability for the veteran to transfer benefits to a spouse or children after serving (or agreeing to serve) ten years.

This bill was written, introduced and guided to passage by Senator Jim Webb of Virginia, who introduced it on his first day in the Senate in January 2007. Webb's hope was that these benefits would help current veterans as much as the original G.I. Bill helped the Greatest Generation in shaping America.

The original Post-9/11 GI Bill's provisions went into effect on August 1, 2009.

In 2017, according to CBS News, approximately 40 percent of all GI Bill funds were distributed to for-profit colleges.

Rick Rescorla

Cyril Richard "Rick" Rescorla (May 27, 1939 – September 11, 2001) was a British-born military officer, police officer and private security specialist who was a British paratrooper during the Cyprus Emergency and a United States commissioned officer in the Vietnam War. He rose to the rank of colonel in the United States Army and eventually became head of security at Morgan Stanley at the World Trade Center.As the director of security for the financial services firm Morgan Stanley at the World Trade Center, Rescorla anticipated attacks on the towers and implemented evacuation procedures credited with saving thousands of lives. He died during the attacks of September 11, 2001, while leading evacuees from the South Tower.

SWAT

In the United States, a SWAT (special weapons and tactics) team is a law enforcement unit which uses specialized or military equipment and tactics. First created in the 1960s to handle riot control or violent confrontations with criminals, the number and usage of SWAT teams increased in the 1980s and 1990s during the War on Drugs and later in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. In the United States as of 2005, SWAT teams were deployed 50,000 times every year, almost 80% of the time to serve search warrants, most often for narcotics. SWAT teams are increasingly equipped with military-type hardware and trained to deploy against threats of terrorism, for crowd control, hostage taking, and in situations beyond the capabilities of ordinary law enforcement, sometimes deemed "high-risk". Other countries have developed their own paramilitary police units (PPUs) which are also described as or comparable to SWAT forces.

SWAT units are often equipped with specialized firearms including submachine guns, assault rifles, breaching shotguns, sniper rifles, riot control agents, and stun grenades. In addition, they may use specialized equipment including heavy body armor, ballistic shields, entry tools, armored vehicles, night vision devices, and motion detectors for covertly determining the positions of hostages or hostage takers, inside enclosed structures.

September 11 attacks

The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,977 people (not counting the 19 hijackers who also died), injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage. Additional people have died of 9/11-related cancer and respiratory diseases in the months and years following the attacks.

Four passenger airliners operated by two major U.S. passenger air carriers (United Airlines and American Airlines)—all of which departed from airports in northeastern United States bound for San Francisco and Los Angeles—were hijacked by 19 al-Qaeda terrorists. Two of the planes, American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175, were crashed into the North and South towers, respectively, of the World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan. Within an hour and 42 minutes, both 110-story towers collapsed. Debris and the resulting fires caused a partial or complete collapse of all other buildings in the World Trade Center complex, including the 47-story 7 World Trade Center tower, as well as significant damage to ten other large surrounding structures. A third plane, American Airlines Flight 77, was crashed into the Pentagon (the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense) in Arlington County, Virginia, which led to a partial collapse of the building's west side. The fourth plane, United Airlines Flight 93, was initially flown toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers thwarted the hijackers. 9/11 is the single deadliest terrorist attack in human history and the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed, respectively.

Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had failed to comply with U.S. demands to extradite Osama bin Laden and expel al-Qaeda from Afghanistan. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of law enforcement and intelligence agencies to prevent terrorist attacks. Although Osama bin Laden, al-Qaeda's leader, initially denied any involvement, in 2004 he claimed responsibility for the attacks. Al-Qaeda and bin Laden cited U.S. support of Israel, the presence of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia, and sanctions against Iraq as motives. After evading capture for almost a decade, bin Laden was located in Pakistan and killed by SEAL Team Six of the U.S. Navy in May 2011.

The destruction of the World Trade Center and nearby infrastructure seriously harmed the economy of Lower Manhattan and had a significant effect on global markets, which resulted in the closing of Wall Street until September 17 and the civilian airspace in the U.S. and Canada until September 13. Many closings, evacuations, and cancellations followed, out of respect or fear of further attacks. Cleanup of the World Trade Center site was completed in May 2002, and the Pentagon was repaired within a year. On November 18, 2006, construction of One World Trade Center began at the World Trade Center site. The building opened on November 3, 2014. Numerous memorials have been constructed, including the National September 11 Memorial & Museum in New York City, the Pentagon Memorial in Arlington County, Virginia, and the Flight 93 National Memorial in a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania.

Although not confirmed, there is evidence of alleged Saudi Arabian involvement in the attacks. Given as main evidence in these charges are the contents of the 28 redacted pages of the December 2002 Joint Inquiry into Intelligence Community Activities before and after the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, conducted by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence. These 28 pages contain information regarding the material and financial assistance given to the hijackers and their affiliates leading up to the attacks by the Saudi Arabian government.As a consequence of the attacks, the United States has been in a state of national emergency ever since 2001.

Slate Hill, New York

Slate Hill is one of the eight hamlets found in the town of Wawayanda, New York. It is home to the Minisink Valley Central School District. Slate Hill is found in Orange County, New York, one of the fastest-growing counties in the state. The area, along with its surrounding regions and the county in which it resides, has seen a recent surge in population growth that can be partially attributed to suburbanization from the New York City metropolitan area. This growth reached a peak in the post 9/11 era, but has since seen a decrease in the past 3 years.

Spy fiction

Spy fiction, a genre of literature involving espionage as an important context or plot device, emerged in the early twentieth century, inspired by rivalries and intrigues between the major powers, and the establishment of modern intelligence agencies. It was given new impetus by the development of fascism and communism in the lead-up to World War II, continued to develop during the Cold War, and received a fresh impetus from the emergence of rogue states, international criminal organizations, global terrorist networks, maritime piracy and technological sabotage and espionage as potent threats to Western societies. As a genre, spy fiction is thematically related to the novel of adventure (The Prisoner of Zenda, 1894, The Scarlet Pimpernel, 1905), the thriller (such as the works of Edgar Wallace) and the politico-military thriller (The Schirmer Inheritance, 1953, The Quiet American, 1955).

Yaser Tabbara

M. Yaser Tabbara served as the spokesperson and legal advisor for the President of the Syrian Interim Government (SIG), the National Coalition of Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (SOC), and the Syrian National Council (SNC). He was also a founding member of the SNC (National Council of Syria).Tabbara is the Legal and Strategy Advisor and co-founder of the Syrian Forum. He is also the Managing Partner of the US-based Law Firm of Zarzour, Khalil and Tabbara, LLC, since 2008.

An international human rights attorney by profession Tabbara helped assemble evidence of Syrian regime crimes against humanity, in 2011, for submission to the International Criminal Court. He is a frequent media contributor and commentator on issues related to the Syrian uprising. He has long played a role in Syrian politics and has been working to bring educational reforms to Syria. During the 2011 Syrian uprising Tabbara took a stance in opposition to the government.

Tabbara also served as Executive Director of the Syrian American Council (SAC), Syrian American Council,An advocate of Arab and Muslim American rights, Tabbara established Project Mobilize to support disenfranchised political candidates around Chicago. In 2004 Tabbara co-founded the Chicago Office of the Council for American Islamic Relations (CAIR-Chicago) and served as its Executive Director until deciding to relocate to Damascus, Syria.

In Damascus, Tabbara taught at the University of Kalamoon subjects related to Public International Law at the College of International Relations and Diplomacy. Shortly after, Tabbara worked with the International Bar Association (IBA) towards supporting judicial and legal reform in Syria.

Tabbara was born in Chicago but grew up in Damascus, Syria, before moving back to Chicago in 1993 to complete his undergraduate studies in Political Science and Economics from University of Illinois. Tabbara then went on to finish his Juris Doctor degree from the DePaul University College of Law, where he was a research assistant to M. Cherif Bassiouni. Upon graduating in 2002, Tabbara initiated the Post 9/11 Immigrant Legal Rights Project at Midwest Immigrant and Human Rights Center (MIHRC). Subsequently, he coordinated the Legal Education Reform Project, which was tasked with improving legal education standards at three Iraqi law faculties.

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Aftermath
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Perpetrators
Inquiries
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