The Post-'80 (also the Post-1980, Chinese: 八零后; pinyin: bālínghòu) is a colloquial term which refers to the generation, especially in urban cities, whose members were born between 1980 and 1989 in Mainland China after the introduction of the one-child policy. This generation, the first to grow up entirely within the reformist era, currently ranges in age from 29 to 39, making up a major portion of China's young adult demographic.


In English, this group is also sometimes called China's Generation Y after the use of the term in the book China’s Generation Y by Michael Stanat in 2005 (though he references the dates 1981–1995[1]).[2]

  • People born in other periods are also named in the same way in Mainland China.
The Post-'70 is used to describe Chinese people born in the 1970s.
The Post-'90 (九零后) means people born from 1990 to 1999 in urban areas. They are usually concerted to brain-disabled characters and non-mainstream culture. This generation has similar traits to post-'80 such as being open to premarital sex,[3] but to an even greater degree. It also has a much larger male surplus population than the post-80s, who already have a significant gap between the male and female population. As birth rates rapidly fell between 1990 and 1991 following the Tiananmen Square massacre this cohort is much smaller than the post-80s generation.
The Pre-'60 (六零前) means people born before the year 1960.

It is a generation of approximately 240 million people born between 1980 and 1990, although characteristics of the after-eighty generation have also been seen in those born in the 1990s. Growing up in modern China, this generation has been characterized by its optimism for the future, newfound excitement for consumerism, entrepreneurship, and acceptance of its historic role in transforming modern China into an economic superpower.

These people are also distinguished by their increased access to digital media such as computers, MP3 players and mobile phones. Post-'80ers in China often experience a palpable generation gap between them and their elders; while their parents lived during the Mao Zedong era, experienced famine and political instability and lack proper education because of the policies set forth under the Cultural Revolution, they live in an environment of tremendous economic growth and social change, high technology, and rigorous education standards. There is also a significant generation gap between them and Post-'90, who are even more thoroughly entrenched in digitality and capitalism.

A clash between tradition and modern influences is noticeable in purchasing habits, career pursuits, and daily interaction between child and elders. Furthermore, young adults have been indirectly affected by forced government shutdowns of thousands of Internet bars each year that prevent the excessive use of the Internet. Young people are also affected by China's large socioeconomic divide between urban and rural residents and societal problems resulting from modernization.


The Post-'80 generation illuminates important questions not only about China's future but also those of the United States and the global economy. Several factors that may influence the generation are individualism, consumerism, modernization, and technology.

"Little emperors"

When parents over-indulge their only child, who has no siblings as a result of the One Child Policy, the indulged children may be referred to as "little emperors" (xiaohuangdi 小皇帝). Many Chinese families have the 4-2-1 format: 4 grandparents, 2 parents, one child. Parents and grandparents eat less and spend less money on themselves, only so the youngster could feel physically and mentally strong, focus on one's studies and be successful later on in life.[4]

Almost all Chinese families usually adopt a set of traditional Confucian values when raising their only child. Because Confucianism considers Ren (仁; love and social responsibility) the core emotion that develops moral conceptions into genuine personal motivation, a child who has received too much familial attention but also endured high mental and physical restrictions because the economic future of the family depends on their academic success directly leads to a situation that is often considered in academic and popular discourse as over-indulging the children, in opposition to concepts of Ren and filial piety (孝; xiao). There is substantial evidence that many young Chinese feel a heavy burden[5] and a huge responsibility towards their parents, understanding that their performances in school or other domains can be of crucial consequences towards their family.[4]

Depending on the specific family conditions and children's mental healthy condition, this burden could lead to a diligent lifestyle by youngsters or to a more rebellious attitude to traditional Confucian codes or not being able to cope with such pressure nor develop self-discipline.[6]

While being nurtured by parents and relatives gives children some clear advantages and opportunities, the fact that a child doesn't have sibling who 'compete' with him or her in a younger age could also lead to some psychological difficultes as the child grows. "Lacking adapting capabilities" (Chinese: 没有适应能力; pinyin: méiyǒu shìyìng nénglì) is a description which is commonly associated with the new post-'80 generation.[6] Since such children don't need to put any efforts in order to gain parents' attention or to win family resources, they develop no competitive abilities and have weak social skills once they are older and need to be self-sufficient.

Traditionally seen as a rite of passage, marriage has been linked as milestones to adulthood. Yet, the Chinese millennials are late bloomers when it comes to marriage. Although some members of the millennials are well in their 30s, statistics show they are still living their lives as bachelors or bachelorettes.

Having grown up in times of modern consumerism and popular media, rather than the ideals of the Cultural Revolution, many single-children are inclined to spend large amounts of money on themselves and thus are a cornerstone of retail sales.[7] Families which are well-off economically sometimes allow their children to indulge in the new materialistic sphere, while poorer families often still make efforts to keep their children inside the consumers' race, allowing them to purchase new clothes, new cell-phone brands, etc.

Post-'80 in Hong Kong

Post-'80 in Hong Kong and the after-eighty generation in mainland China are for the most part different.[8] The term Post-'80 (Chinese: 八十後) came into use in Hong Kong between 2009 and 2010, particularly during the course of the opposition to the Guangzhou-Hong Kong Express Rail Link, during which a group of young activists came to the forefront of the Hong Kong political scene.[9] They are said to be "post-materialist" in outlook, and they are particularly vocal in issues such as urban development, culture and heritage, and political reform. Their campaigns include the fight for the preservation of Lee Tung Street, the Star Ferry Pier and the Queen's Pier, Choi Yuen Tsuen Village, real political reform (on June 23), and a citizen-oriented West Kowloon Cultural District. Their discourse mainly develops around themes such as anti-colonialism, sustainable development, and democracy.

Post-'80 in Canada

According to the Canadian Census, among the population that was never married, there was a large increase in the proportions for those in their 20s and 30s in 2011 in comparison to 1981. For young adults aged 25 to 29, the proportion who were never married increased from 26.0% of the population in 1981 to close to 73.1% in 2011. Even among individuals in their early 30s, the proportion of men who were never married increased from 15.0% in 1981 to 54.0% in 2011. For women, the increase was from 10.5% in 1981 to 43.4% in 2011.

See also


  1. ^ "China's Generation Y".
  2. ^ Stanat, Michael (2005). China’s Generation Y: Understanding the Future Leaders of the World’s Next Superpower. New York City: Paramus: Homa & Sekey. SIS International Research. ISBN 1-931907-25-0.
  3. ^ "More than half Chinese say premarital sex ok: poll". 12 June 2007 – via Reuters.
  4. ^ a b Vanessa L. Fong. Only Hope: Coming of Age Under China's One-Child Policy. Stanford University Press, 2004, 256 pp.
  5. ^ Psychological problems in the post-'90 generation Archived 2015-07-14 at the Wayback Machine (Chinese; 90后易出现的心理问题) - Psychology Center of Shandong Normal University
  6. ^ a b Chinese Singletons - Basic ‘Spoiled’ Related Vocabulary, Thinking Chinese, September 2010.
  7. ^ NHK World, Japan 7 Days, Matter of Fact: "Cause for Celebration" aired February 20, 2010.
  8. ^ Post 80s rebels with a cause Archived 2011-06-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Standard, Coleen Lee, 15 Jan 2010, Accessed 20 Jun 2010
  9. ^ Kwong wing-yuen (ed.), Zhan zai dan de yi bian, Xianggang bashihou, Hong Kong, UP Publications Limited, 2010, pp. 16-32.
Dysfunctional (Dokken album)

Dysfunctional is the fifth studio album by heavy metal band Dokken, released in 1995. It was the band's first release after reuniting in 1993. Although the album entered the chart respectably at No. 47 at a time when 1980s hard rock and heavy metal had largely declined, sales quickly dropped off and were not enough to reach gold RIAA certification. In a later interview, Don Dokken revealed that the album had sold 500,000 copies in America and was officially certified gold. The song "Too High to Fly" was released as a promo single from the album and was a minor hit. It is one of the post 80s Dokken songs that is played live on a consistent basis.


K (named kay ) is the eleventh letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet. In English, the letter K usually represents the voiceless velar plosive.

Localist groups (Hong Kong)

Localist groups (Chinese: 本土派 or 本土和自決派) are the various groups with localist ideologies in Hong Kong. It emerged from post-80s social movements in the late 2000s which centred on the preservation of the city's autonomy and local lifestyles and opposed the perceived growing encroachment of the Beijing government on the city's management of its own political, economic, and social affairs.Many of them have distinct point of view from pan-democrats, and advocate the Hong Kong people's right to self-determination, while milder elements advocate for greater autonomy while remaining part of China, and the most radical call for the return to British rule or full independence as a sovereign state. Certain right-wing localist groups also advocate for a more aggressive and militant stance against the mainland government in defending indigenous interests. For that reason, they are labelled as "radicals" and "separatists" by the Beijing government.The localists gained significant traction following widespread protests in 2014 against the Chinese government's decision to pre-screen Chief Executive candidates before allowing them to be chosen by the general public in the 2017 election. Following these protests, a number of localist political parties were formed, organising protests and participated in Legislative Council elections. They won a total numbers of six seats (excluding Claudia Mo) with 19 per cent of vote share (excluding Claudia Mo and Gary Fan) in the 2016 Legislative Council election.

After the election, the left-wing localists, Nathan Law and Lau Siu-lai, as well as the right-wing localists, Baggio Leung and Yau Wai-ching of Youngspiration, were unseated from the Legislative Council over the oath-taking controversy which became a huge blow to the localists, seeing the localist leaders turning themselves into the background.


The Post-90s generation (simplified Chinese: 九零后; traditional Chinese: 九零後) is a generation in China, especially in urban areas, generally considered to be born between 1990 and 1999 though sometimes considered to start with those born in fall 1989 (as they would graduate with those born in 1990). They are the second generation of Chinese people to grow up as only children and in the post-Tiananmen era and the first generation to be born after the protests. They are also China's last 20th century born cohort.

They are alleged to have traits that are similar to the Post-80s generation, such as the Little Emperor Syndrome and a knack for information technology and capitalism, but in a much more highly developed way. On the other hand, the post-1990s generation is also characterized as being more realistic than the post 1980s.Post-90s is also alleged to have less of a sense of hierarchy in the workplace and more of a sense of individuality compared to older generations.Post-90s have distinct cultural characteristics and are stereotyped as "lazy, promiscuous, confused, selfish, brain damaged and overall hopeless".Unlike the post-80s, who witnessed a glimpse of pre-affluent China in the late 1980s and 1990s, all but the oldest Post-90s have only known a booming urban China for most or all of their memory.

Strawberry generation

Strawberry generation (Chinese: 草莓族; pinyin: Cǎoméi zú; or 草莓世代; cǎoméi shìdài) is a Chinese-language neologism for Taiwanese people born in 1982 and beyond who "bruise easily" like strawberries – meaning they cannot withstand social pressure or work hard like their parents' generation; the term refers to people who are insubordinate, spoiled, selfish, arrogant, and sluggish in work.The term arises from the perception that members of this generation have grown up being overprotected by their parents and in an environment of economic prosperity, in a similar manner to how strawberries are grown in protected greenhouses and command a higher price compared to other fruits.

The term is starting to gain prominence in the East Asian press, as it could be a way to designate a rising demographic or psychographic in terms of consumer behavior. The Strawberry Generation, like the Post-80s of China, could be the Asian counterpart of the Millennials or the so-called Snowflake generation in the Western world.

Young adult development
Life stages or events
Generation labels
Psychological or social dysfunction


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