Position paper

A position paper is an essay that presents an arguable opinion about an issue – typically that of the author or some specified entity. Position papers are published in academia, in politics, in law and other domains. The goal of a position paper is to convince the audience that the opinion presented is valid and worth listening to. Ideas for position papers that one is considering need to be carefully examined when choosing a topic, developing an argument, and organizing the paper.

Position papers range from the simplest format of a letter to the editor, through to the most complex in the form of an academic position paper.[1] Position papers are also used by large organizations to make public the official beliefs and recommendations of the group.[2]

In academia

Position papers in academia enable discussion on emerging topics without the experimentation and original research normally present in an academic paper. Commonly, such a document will substantiate the opinions or positions put forward with evidence from an extensive objective discussion of the topic.

In politics

Position papers are most useful in contexts where detailed comprehension of another entity's views is important; as such, they are commonly used by political campaigns,[3] government organizations,[4] in the diplomatic world,[5] and in efforts to change values (e.g. through public service announcements) and organisational branding.[6] They are also an important part of the Model United Nations process[7], and are used in the European Union.

In government, a position paper lies on somewhere between a white paper and a green paper in that they affirm definite opinions and propose solutions but may not go so far as detailing specific plans for implementation.

In law

In international law, the term for a position paper is Aide-mémoire. An Aide-Mémoire is memorandum setting forth the minor points of a proposed discussion or disagreement, used especially in undiplomatic communications.


  1. ^ Sanders, Tingloo & Verhulst 2005, p. 11, "The simplest form is the letter to the editor... The most complex type of position paper is the academic position paper in which arguments and evidence are presented to support the writer's views."
  2. ^ An example of a position paper published by an organization: Information Literacy: A Position Paper on Information Problem Solving, American Association of School Librarians, archived from the original on 2008-04-22
  3. ^ Steely 2000, p. 186, "Through the use of position papers, telephone briefings, audio and video tapes and personal appearances Newt was able to share his ideas, ... ."
  4. ^ Government position papers, Brake: the Road Safety Charity, retrieved 2008-08-24
  5. ^ Bond 1998, "..., writing position papers and talking points, ... are examples of non-classified work which is carried out at virtually every diplomatic post."
  6. ^ Newsom & Haynes 2004, p. 163, "Another special area is the use of position papers as the locus for image ads and public service announcements (PSAs) for an organization."
  7. ^ How to Write a Position Paper, United Nations Association of the United States of America, archived from the original on April 10, 2008, retrieved 2008-08-25


External links

A Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion

A Catholic Statement on Pluralism and Abortion, alternatively referred to by its pull quote "A Diversity of Opinions Regarding Abortion Exists Among Committed Catholics" or simply "The New York Times ad", was a full-page advertisement placed on October 7, 1984, in The New York Times by Catholics for a Free Choice (CFFC). Its publication brought to a head the conflict between the Vatican and those American Catholics who were pro-choice. The publicity and controversy which followed its publication helped to make the CFFC an important element of the pro-choice movement.Before mid-1984, a Catholic position paper was signed by about 80 reform-minded theologians and members of religious institutes who were sympathetic to choice in abortion. This position paper was used by CFFC as the basis for the New York Times ad. CFFC's statement said that the Catholic Church's doctrine condemning abortion as "morally wrong in all instances" was "not the only legitimate Catholic position." It said that "a large number" of Catholic theologians considered abortion to be a moral choice in some cases and cited a recent survey which found that only 11% of Catholics believed that abortion was wrong under all circumstances. It called for value pluralism and discussion within the Church on the subject. More signatures were added, bringing the total to 97 prominent Catholics including theologians, nuns, priests and lay persons.

The advertisement was intended to help 1984 vice-presidential candidate Geraldine Ferraro, a pro-choice Catholic, to resist the sharp criticism directed at her by Archbishop of New York John Joseph O'Connor during the 1984 U.S. presidential election. Following the ad's publication, the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops denounced it and called it contrary to "the clear and consistent teaching of the church that deliberately chosen abortion is objectively immoral." Subsequently, the Vatican pursued recantings by or reprimands of the signers who were directly subject to Church authority, including 24 nuns who became known as the "Vatican 24". Some signers recanted their affiliation with CFFC; most were said by their superiors to be in line with Catholic teaching. Two nuns resisted, publicly embraced a pro-choice position and eventually left their order.

Assembly of Manitoba Chiefs

The Grand Chief is Arlen Dumas. He is from Mathias Colomb Cree Nation in Pukatawagan. Grand Chief Arlen Dumas was elected on July 19, 2017. He won on an unprecedented first ballot with 33 of 54 possible votes. The AMC represents 62 of 63 First Nations in Manitoba.

Critical emergency medicine

Critical emergency medicine (CREM) refers to the acute medical care of patients who have medical emergencies that pose an immediate threat to life, irrespective of location. In particular, the term is used to describe the role of anaesthesiologists in providing such care.The term was introduced in 2010 in a position paper by the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, who defined it as "immediate

life support and resuscitation of critically ill and injured patients in the pre-hospital as well as hospital settings". It describes the roles and competencies of anaesthesiologists and intensive care physicians in caring for patients with life-threatening illness or injury who require resuscitation or support of their vital functions, particularly in Scandinavia and other parts of Europe. One reason the term was introduced was to distinguish these core activities from the broader internationally recognised medical specialty of emergency medicine; the latter deals with the broad swathe of minor and major medical complaints which may attend the emergency department, and not just those patients with immediate life threats.The European Board of Anaesthesiology and European Society of Anaesthesiology formally adopted the term in 2016 "to define anaesthesiologists’ competencies and role in the acute management of life-threatening emergencies", which had previously been referred to in the anaesthesiology speciality European training requirements simply as "emergency medicine".

The European Training Requirement curriculum for anaesthesiology was updated in 2018 to state that knowledge, clinical skills and specific attitudes for CREM should form part of postgraduate training for doctors specialising in anaesthesiology.

Cross Island MRT line

The Cross Island line (CRL) is an upcoming high capacity Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) line in Singapore. It is currently under planning and will be the eighth MRT line when built. The line will be coloured lime green on the rail map.

The full line when completed will begin from Changi, passing through Loyang, Pasir Ris, Hougang, Ang Mo Kio, Bukit Timah, Clementi, West Coast before terminating at Jurong Industrial Estate. The eastern leg of the line is expected to include a segment that branches out from Pasir Ris and extends into Punggol. It will be the first line to have stations that cater to eight-car trains, but will operate with six-car trains initially.

Discovery Institute

The Discovery Institute (DI) is a politically conservative non-profit think tank based in Seattle, Washington, that advocates the pseudoscientific concept of intelligent design (ID). Its "Teach the Controversy" campaign aims to permit the teaching of anti-evolution, intelligent-design beliefs in United States public high school science courses in place of accepted scientific theories, positing that a scientific controversy exists over these subjects.

Ex Corde Ecclesiae

Ex Corde Ecclesiae (English: From the Heart of the Church) is an apostolic constitution issued by Pope John Paul II regarding Catholic colleges and universities.

Promulgated on 15 August 1990 and intended to become effective in the academic year starting in 1991, its aim was to define and refine the Catholicism of Catholic institutions of higher education. Institutions newly claiming to be Catholic would require affirmation from "the Holy See, by an Episcopal Conference or another Assembly of Catholic hierarchy, or by a diocesan bishop". Institutions currently claiming to be Catholic are considered Catholic, unless declared otherwise by the same. The document cites canon 810 of the Code of Canon Law, which instructs Catholic educational facilities to respect norms established by local bishops. Ex corde underscores the authority of bishops and mentions that canon law (canon 812) requires all teachers of theology, in Catholic colleges and universities, to have the mandate of the local ecclesiastical authority (normally the local bishop).

The apostolic constitution was viewed as a rebuttal to the Land O'Lakes Statement, a 1967 position paper adopted by the participants of a seminar sponsored by University of Notre Dame on the role of Catholic universities. Attendees at this American seminar included the following university presidents: University of Notre Dame, Georgetown, Seton Hall, Boston College, Fordham, St. Louis University, and the Pontifical Catholic University of Puerto Rico. Over a dozen other educators from North American Catholic institutions of higher education were also present.

Global Commission on Drug Policy

The Global Commission on Drug Policy (GCDP) is a panel of world leaders and intellectuals, with a Secretariat based in Geneva, Switzerland.In June 2011, the commission said: "The global war on drugs has failed, with devastating consequences for individuals and societies around the world." The emphasis in drug policy on harsh law enforcement over four decades has not accomplished its goal of banishing drugs and has in fact spawned wide, dramatic eruptions of violence, the report continued. By way of alternative, the GCDP report "advocates decriminalizing drug use by those who do no harm to others."The commission was formed to "bring to the international level an informed, science-based discussion about humane and effective ways to reduce the harm caused by drugs to people and societies. [It built] on the experience of the Latin American Commission on Drugs and Democracy" and extended to West Africa in 2013-4 via an initiative of GCPD board member and former UN Secretary General Kofi Annan and the West Africa Commission on Drugs.At year-end 2017, GCDP board member George Shultz and economist and former secretary of finance in Mexico Pedro Aspe reaffirmed the message of the commission in a New York Times op-ed.The Secretariat is based in Geneva, Switzerland, and handles the daily operations of the Commission. Its work is directed by the Executive Secretary, Khalid Tinasti.

Institute for Zionist Strategies

The Institute for Zionist Strategies (Hebrew: המכון לאסטרטגיה ציונית‎; IZS) is an Israeli policy and research think tank that is ideologically Zionist. The IZS was established in 2005 by Israel Harel and Attorney Joel Golovensky. It is based in Jerusalem. IZS's chairman is Yoaz Hendel.

The self-described goal of the IZS is "to preserve Israel as a viable, democratic Jewish state, now and forever." For this purpose, the IZS seeks "to put forward creative policies and programs" for implementation by Israeli politicians and the general public.

LGBT rights in Hong Kong

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender (LGBT) persons in Hong Kong may face legal challenges not experienced by non-LGBT residents.

List of historic places in Greater Sudbury

This is a list of significant historic properties in Greater Sudbury, Ontario. The Sudbury Municipal Heritage Committee (SMHC) listed 64 sites in a Heritage Position Paper as part of its new Downtown Sudbury Master Plan in April 2011.

Marriage privatization

Marriage privatization is the concept that the state should have no authority to define the terms of personal relationships such as marriage. Proponents of marriage privatization, including certain minarchists, anarchists, libertarians, and opponents of government interventionism, claim that such relationships are best defined by private individuals and not the state. Arguments for the privatization of marriage have been offered by a number of scholars and writers. Proponents of marriage privatization often argue that privatizing marriage is a solution to the social controversy over same-sex marriage. Arguments for and against the privatization of marriage span both liberal and conservative political camps.

National Council Against Health Fraud

The National Council Against Health Fraud (NCAHF) was a not-for-profit, US-based organization, run by Dr. Stephen Barrett, a retired American psychiatrist and author, that described itself as a "private nonprofit, voluntary health agency that focuses upon health misinformation, fraud, and quackery as public health problems." The NCAHF has been criticized by the supporters of the treatments it opposes, including practitioners of alternative medicine.


In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.The fields of medicine (particularly veterinary) and zoology often distinguish a poison from a toxin, and from a venom. Toxins are poisons produced by organisms in nature, and venoms are toxins injected by a bite or sting (this is exclusive to animals). The difference between venom and other poisons is the delivery method.

Industry, agriculture, and other sectors employ poisonous substances for reasons other than their toxicity. Most poisonous industrial compounds have associated material safety data sheets and are classed as hazardous substances. Hazardous substances are subject to extensive regulation on production, procurement and use in overlapping domains of occupational safety and health, public health, drinking water quality standards, air pollution and environmental protection. Due to the mechanics of molecular diffusion, many poisonous compounds rapidly diffuse into biological tissues, air, water, or soil on a molecular scale. By the principle of entropy, chemical contamination is typically costly or infeasible to reverse, unless specific chelating agents or micro-filtration processes are available. Chelating agents are often broader in scope than the acute target, and therefore their ingestion necessitates careful medical or veterinarian supervision.

Pesticides are one group of substances whose toxicity to various insects and other animals deemed to be pests (e.g., rats and cockroaches) is their prime purpose. Natural pesticides have been used for this purpose for thousands of years (e.g. concentrated table salt is toxic to many slugs). Bioaccumulation of chemically-prepared agricultural insecticides is a matter of concern for the many species, especially birds, which consume insects as a primary food source. Selective toxicity, controlled application, and controlled biodegradation are major challenges in herbicide and pesticide development and in chemical engineering generally, as all lifeforms on earth share an underlying biochemistry; organisms exceptional in their environmental resilience are classified as extremophiles, these for the most part exhibiting radically different susceptibilities.

A poison which enters the food chain—whether of industrial, agricultural, or natural origin—might not be immediately toxic to the first organism that ingests the toxin, but can become further concentrated in predatory organisms further up the food chain, particularly carnivores and omnivores, especially concerning fat soluble poisons which tend to become stored in biological tissue rather than excreted in urine or other water-based effluents.

Two common cases of acute natural poisoning are theobromine poisoning of dogs and cats, and mushroom poisoning in humans. Dogs and cats are not natural herbivores, but a chemical defense developed by Theobroma cacao can be incidentally fatal nevertheless. Many omnivores, including humans, readily consume edible fungi, and thus many fungi have evolved to become decisively inedible, in this case as a direct defense.

Apart from food, many poisons readily enter the body through the skin and lungs. Hydrofluoric acid is a notorious contact poison, in addition to its corrosive damage. Naturally occurring sour gas is a notorious, fast-acting atmospheric poison (as released by volcanic activity or drilling rigs). Plant-based contact irritants, such as that possessed by poison ivy or poison oak, are often classed as allergens rather than poisons; the effect of an allergen being not a poison as such, but to turn the body's natural defenses against itself. Poison can also enter the body through the teeth (in the controversial case of dental malpractice), faulty medical implants, or by injection (which is the basis of lethal injection in the context of capital punishment).

In 2013, 3.3 million cases of unintentional human poisonings occurred. This resulted in 98,000 deaths worldwide, down from 120,000 deaths in 1990. In modern society, cases of suspicious death elicit the attention of the Coroner's office and forensic investigators. While arsenic is a naturally occurring environmental poison, its artificial concentrate was once nicknamed inheritance powder. In Medieval Europe, it was common for monarchs to employ personal food tasters to thwart royal assassination, in the dawning age of the Apothecary.

Of increasing concern since the isolation of natural radium by Marie and Pierre Curie in 1898—and the subsequent advent of nuclear physics and nuclear technologies—are radiological poisons. These are associated with ionizing radiation, a mode of toxicity quite distinct from chemically active poisons. In mammals, chemical poisons are often passed from mother to offspring through the placenta during gestation, or through breast milk during nursing. In contrast, radiological damage can be passed from mother or father to offspring through genetic mutation, which—if not fatal in miscarriage or childhood, or a direct cause of infertility—can then be passed along again to a subsequent generation. Atmospheric radon is a natural radiological poison of increasing impact since humans moved from hunter-gatherer lifestyles though cave dwelling to increasingly enclosed structures able to contain radon in dangerous concentrations. The 2006 poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko was a novel use of radiological assassination, presumably meant to evade the normal investigation of chemical poisons.

Poisons widely dispersed into the environment are known as pollution. These are often of human origin, but pollution can also include unwanted biological processes such as toxic red tide, or acute changes to the natural chemical environment attributed to invasive species, which are toxic or detrimental to the prior ecology (especially if the prior ecology was associated with human economic value or an established industry such as shellfish harvesting).

The scientific disciplines of ecology and environmental resource management study the environmental life cycle of toxic compounds and their complex, diffuse, and highly interrelated effects.

Proposals for Assyrian autonomy in Iraq

Throughout history there were few proposals for the establishment of an autonomy or an independent state for the Syriac-speaking Assyrians in northern Iraq.

Reed Mangels

Ann Reed Mangels is a registered dietitian and Adjunct Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition in the School of Public Health and Health Sciences at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, specializing in vegan and vegetarian nutrition. She is the author or co-author of numerous papers and books on the subject, including the American Dietetic Association's position paper on vegan and vegetarian diets, Vegan & Vegetarian FAQ (2001), The Dietitian's Guide to Vegetarian Diets (2004), and The Everything Vegan Pregnancy Book (2011).Mangels is nutrition adviser for the Vegetarian Resource Group, and nutrition editor for Vegetarian Journal.

Research paper

Research paper may refer to:

Academic paper (also called scholarly paper), which is in academic journals and contains original research results or reviews existing results or show a totally new invention

Position paper, an essay that represents the author's opinion

Term paper, written by high school or college students

Thesis or dissertation, a document submitted in support of a candidature for a degree or professional qualification, presenting the author's research and findings

Southern Baptist Convention

The Southern Baptist Convention (SBC) is a Christian denomination based in the United States. With more than 15 million members as of 2015, it is the world's largest Baptist denomination, the largest Protestant denomination in the United States, and the second-largest Christian denomination in the United States after the Catholic Church.The word Southern in Southern Baptist Convention stems from it having been organized in 1845 at Augusta, Georgia, by Baptists in the Southern United States who split with northern Baptists over the issue of slavery, specifically whether Southern slave owners could serve as missionaries. After the American Civil War, another split occurred when most freedmen set up independent black congregations, regional associations, and state and national conventions, such as the National Baptist Convention, which became the second-largest Baptist convention by the end of the 19th century. Others joined new African-American denominations, chiefly the African Methodist Episcopal Church, which was established in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the early 19th century, as the first independent black denomination in the United States.

Since the 1940s, the Southern Baptist Convention has shifted from some of its regional and historical identification. Especially since the late 20th century, the SBC has sought new members among minority groups and to become much more diverse. In addition, while still heavily concentrated in the Southern United States, the Southern Baptist Convention has member churches across the United States and 41 affiliated state conventions. Southern Baptist churches are evangelical in doctrine and practice. As they emphasize the significance of the individual conversion experience, which is affirmed by the person having complete immersion in water for a believer's baptism, they reject the practice of infant baptism. Other specific beliefs based on biblical interpretation can vary somewhat due to their congregational polity, which allows local autonomy.The average weekly attendance is 5,200,716.

Trail of Broken Treaties

The Trail of Broken Treaties (also known as the Trail of Broken Treaties Caravan and the Pan American Native Quest for Justice ) was a cross-country protest, that was staged in the autumn of 1972 in the United States by American Indian and First Nations organizations. Designed to bring national attention to American Indian issues, such as treaty rights, living standards, and inadequate housing, it brought to the national capital the largest gathering ever of American Indians presenting their hopes.

The eight organizations sponsoring the caravan included the American Indian Movement, the National Indian Brotherhood (a Canadian organization), the Native American Rights Fund, the National Indian Youth Council, the National American Indian Council, the National Council on Indian Work, National Indian Leadership Training, and the American Indian Committee on Alcohol and Drug Abuse. In Minneapolis, AIM headquarters, activists developed a Twenty-Point Position paper to define their demands.The caravan began on the west coast of North America in October, with protesters traveling by car, bus, and van. It reached the national capital of Washington, D.C. in early November (the week before the day of the presidential election). This was the largest gathering ever in the capital of American Indians wanting to meet with government to discuss their needs and negotiate a new relationship.

The Nixon Administration refused to meet with the protesters to receive the Twenty-Point Position paper. Protesters believed they had been doublecrossed and occupied the Department of Interior headquarters building, where Bureau of Indian Affairs national offices were located. During their occupation, some protesters took out and destroyed records and deeds, burning papers in the building's corridors and lobbies, and vandalizing areas. The stand-off ended after about a week, with presidential aides negotiating with protest leaders. In these talks the federal government made concessions to the protesters, including further treaty negotiations.


The Web Hypertext Application Technology Working Group (WHATWG) is a community of people interested in evolving HTML and related technologies. The WHATWG was founded by individuals from Apple Inc., the Mozilla Foundation and Opera Software, leading Web browser vendors, in 2004. Since then, the editor of the WHATWG specifications, Ian Hickson (originally with Opera), has moved to Google.

The central organizational membership and control of WHATWG today – its "Steering Group" – consists of Apple, Mozilla, Google, and Microsoft. WHATWG has a small, invitation-only oversight committee called "Members", which has the power to impeach the editor of the specifications. Anyone can participate as a "Contributor" by joining the WHATWG mailing list.

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