Poseidon

Poseidon (/pəˈsaɪdən, pɒ-, poʊ-/;[1] Greek: Ποσειδῶν, pronounced [pose͜edɔ́͜ɔn]) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth. He was god of the Sea and other waters; of earthquakes; and of horses.[2] In pre-Olympian Bronze Age Greece, he was venerated as a chief deity at Pylos and Thebes.[2] His Roman equivalent is Neptune.

Poseidon was protector of seafarers, and of many Hellenic cities and colonies. In Homer's Iliad, Poseidon supports the Greeks against the Trojans during the Trojan War. In the Odyssey, during the sea-voyage from Troy back home to Ithaca, the Greek hero Odysseus provokes Poseidon's fury by blinding his son, the Cyclops Polyphemus, resulting in Poseidon punishing him with storms, the complete loss of his ship and companions, and a ten-year delay. Poseidon is also the subject of a Homeric hymn. In Plato's Timaeus and Critias, the island of Atlantis was Poseidon's domain.[3][4][5]

Poseidon
God of the sea, earthquakes, soil, storms, and horses
0036MAN Poseidon
Poseidon from Milos, 2nd century BC (National Archaeological Museum of Athens)
AbodeMount Olympus, or the Sea
SymbolTrident, fish, dolphin, horse and bull
Personal information
ConsortAmphitrite, Aphrodite, Demeter, and various others
ChildrenTheseus
Triton
Polyphemus
Orion
Belus
Agenor
Neleus
Atlas (the first king of Atlantis)
ParentsCronus and Rhea
SiblingsHades, Demeter, Hestia, Hera, Zeus, Chiron
Roman equivalentNeptune

Etymology

The earliest attested occurrence of the name, written in Linear B, is 𐀡𐀮𐀆𐀃 Po-se-da-o or 𐀡𐀮𐀆𐀺𐀚 Po-se-da-wo-ne, which correspond to Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn) and Ποσειδάϝονος (Poseidawonos) in Mycenean Greek; in Homeric Greek it appears as Ποσειδάων (Poseidaōn); in Aeolic as Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn); and in Doric as Ποτειδάν (Poteidan), Ποτειδάων (Poteidaōn), and Ποτειδᾶς (Poteidas).[6] The form Ποτειδάϝων (Poteidawon) appears in Corinth.[7] A common epithet of Poseidon is Ἐνοσίχθων Enosichthon, "Earth-shaker", an epithet which is also identified in Linear B, as 𐀁𐀚𐀯𐀅𐀃𐀚, E-ne-si-da-o-ne,[8] This recalls his later epithets Ennosidas and Ennosigaios indicating the chthonic nature of Poseidon.[9]

The origins of the name "Poseidon" are unclear. One theory breaks it down into an element meaning "husband" or "lord" (Greek πόσις (posis), from PIE *pótis) and another element meaning "earth" (δᾶ (da), Doric for γῆ ()), producing something like lord or spouse of Da, i.e. of the earth; this would link him with Demeter, "Earth-mother".[10] Walter Burkert finds that "the second element da- remains hopelessly ambiguous" and finds a "husband of Earth" reading "quite impossible to prove."[2]

Another theory interprets the second element as related to the word *δᾶϝον dâwon, "water"; this would make *Posei-dawōn into the master of waters.[11] There is also the possibility that the word has Pre-Greek origin.[12] Plato in his dialogue Cratylus gives two alternative etymologies: either the sea restrained Poseidon when walking as a "foot-bond" (ποσίδεσμον), or he "knew many things" (πολλά εἰδότος or πολλά εἰδῶν).[13]

At least a few sources deem Poseidon as a "prehellenic" (i.e. Pelasgian) word, considering an Indo-European etymology "quite pointless".[14]

Bronze Age Greece

07Pella Museum Poseidon
Poseidon, Paella Museum

Linear B (Mycenean Greek) inscriptions

If surviving Linear B clay tablets can be trusted, the name po-se-da-wo-ne ("Poseidon") occurs with greater frequency than does di-u-ja ("Zeus"). A feminine variant, po-se-de-ia, is also found, indicating a lost consort goddess, in effect the precursor of Amphitrite. Poseidon carries frequently the title wa-na-ka (wanax) in Linear B inscriptions, as king of the underworld. The chthonic nature of Poseidon-Wanax is also indicated by his title E-ne-si-da-o-ne in Mycenean Knossos and Pylos,[8] a powerful attribute (earthquakes had accompanied the collapse of the Minoan palace-culture). In the cave of Amnisos (Crete) Enesidaon is related with the cult of Eileithyia, the goddess of childbirth.[15] She was related with the annual birth of the divine child.[16] During the Bronze Age, a goddess of nature, dominated both in Minoan and Mycenean cult, and Wanax (wa-na-ka) was her male companion (paredros) in Mycenean cult.[17] It is possible that Demeter appears as Da-ma-te in a Linear B inscription (PN EN 609), however the interpretation is still under dispute.[18]

In Linear B inscriptions found at Pylos, E-ne-si-da-o-ne is related with Poseidon, and Si-to Po-tini-ja is probably related with Demeter.[19] Tablets from Pylos record sacrificial goods destined for "the Two Queens and Poseidon" ("to the Two Queens and the King": wa-na-soi, wa-na-ka-te). The "Two Queens" may be related with Demeter and Persephone, or their precursors, goddesses who were not associated with Poseidon in later periods.[20]

Arcadian myths

The illuminating exception is the archaic and localised myth of the stallion Poseidon and mare Demeter at Phigalia in isolated and conservative Arcadia, noted by Pausanias (2nd century AD) as having fallen into desuetude; the stallion Poseidon pursues the mare-Demeter, and from the union she bears the horse Arion, and a daughter (Despoina), who obviously had the shape of a mare too. The violated Demeter was Demeter Erinys (furious) .[21] In Arcadia, Demeter's mare-form was worshiped into historical times. Her xoanon of Phigaleia shows how the local cult interpreted her, as goddess of nature. A Medusa type with a horse's head with snaky hair, holding a dove and a dolphin, probably representing her power over air and water.[22]

Origins

It seems that the Arcadian myth is related with the first Greek speaking people who entered the region during the Bronze Age. (Linear B represents an archaic Greek dialect). Their religious beliefs were mixed with the beliefs of the indigenous population. It is possible that the Greeks did not bring with them other gods except Zeus, Eos, and the Dioskouroi. The horse (numina) was related with the liquid element, and with the underworld. Poseidon appears as a beast (horse), which is the river spirit of the underworld, as it usually happens in northern-European folklore, and not unusually in Greece.[23][24] Poseidon “Wanax”, is the male companion (paredros) of the goddess of nature. In the relative Minoan myth, Pasiphaë is mating with the white bull, and she bears the hybrid creature Minotaur.[25] The Bull was the old pre-Olympian Poseidon.[26] The goddess of nature and her paredros survived in the Eleusinian cult, where the following words were uttered : " Mighty Potnia bore a strong son"[27]

In the heavily sea-dependent Mycenaean culture, there is not sufficient evidence that Poseidon was connected with the sea. We do not know if "Posedeia" was a sea-goddess. Homer and Hesiod suggest that Poseidon became lord of the sea following the defeat of his father Kronos, when the world was divided by lot among his three sons; Zeus was given the sky, Hades the underworld, and Poseidon the sea, with the Earth and Mount Olympus belonging to all three.[2][28] Given Poseidon's connection with horses as well as the sea, and the landlocked situation of the likely Indo-European homeland, Nobuo Komita has proposed that Poseidon was originally an aristocratic Indo-European horse-god who was then assimilated to Near Eastern aquatic deities when the basis of the Greek livelihood shifted from the land to the sea, or a god of fresh waters who was assigned a secondary role as god of the sea, where he overwhelmed the original Aegean sea deities such as Proteus and Nereus.[29] Conversely, Walter Burkert suggests that the Hellene cult worship of Poseidon as a horse god may be connected to the introduction of the horse and war-chariot from Anatolia to Greece around 1600 BC.[2]

It is almost sure that once Poseidon was worshiped as a horse, and this is evident by his cult in Peloponnesos. However he was originally a god of the waters, and therefore he became the "earth-shaker", because the Greeks believed that the cause of the earthquakes was the erosion of the rocks by the waters, by the rivers who they saw to disappear into the earth and then to burst out again. This is what the natural philosophers Thales, Anaximenes and Aristotle believed, which could not be different from the folklore belief.[30] Later, when the Myceneans travelled along the sea, he was assigned a role as god of the sea.

In any case, the early importance of Poseidon can still be glimpsed in Homer's Odyssey, where Poseidon rather than Zeus is the major mover of events. In Homer, Poseidon is the master of the sea.[31]

Worship of Poseidon

Poseidon was a major civic god of several cities: in Athens, he was second only to Athena in importance, while in Corinth and many cities of Magna Graecia he was the chief god of the polis.[2]

In his benign aspect, Poseidon was seen as creating new islands and offering calm seas. When offended or ignored, he supposedly struck the ground with his trident and caused chaotic springs, earthquakes, drownings and shipwrecks. Sailors prayed to Poseidon for a safe voyage, sometimes drowning horses as a sacrifice;[32] in this way, according to a fragmentary papyrus, Alexander the Great paused at the Syrian seashore before the climactic battle of Issus, and resorted to prayers, "invoking Poseidon the sea-god, for whom he ordered a four-horse chariot to be cast into the waves."[33]

According to Pausanias, Poseidon was one of the caretakers of the oracle at Delphi before Olympian Apollo took it over. Apollo and Poseidon worked closely in many realms: in colonization, for example, Delphic Apollo provided the authorization to go out and settle, while Poseidon watched over the colonists on their way, and provided the lustral water for the foundation-sacrifice. Xenophon's Anabasis describes a group of Spartan soldiers in 400–399 BC singing to Poseidon a paean—a kind of hymn normally sung for Apollo.

Like Dionysus, who inflamed the maenads, Poseidon also caused certain forms of mental disturbance. A Hippocratic text of ca 400 BC, On the Sacred Disease[34] says that he was blamed for certain types of epilepsy.

Epithets

Dionysus-or-Plato-Herculaneum-papyri-Villa-of-the-Papyri-Barker
Dionysus, Plato, or Poseidon sculpture excavated at the Villa of the Papyri.

Poseidon was known in various guises, denoted by epithets. In the town of Aegae in Euboea, he was known as Poseidon Aegaeus and had a magnificent temple upon a hill.[35][36][37] Poseidon also had a close association with horses, known under the epithet Poseidon Hippios, usually in Arcadia. He is more often regarded as the tamer of horses, but in some myths he is their father, either by spilling his seed upon a rock or by mating with a creature who then gave birth to the first horse.[2] He was closely related with the springs, and with the strike of his trident, he created springs. Many springs like Hippocrene and Aganippe in Helikon are related with the word horse (hippos). (also Glukippe, Hyperippe).[38] In the historical period, Poseidon was often referred to by the epithets Enosichthon, Seisichthon and Ennosigaios, and Γαιήοχος Gaiēochos all meaning "earth-shaker" and referring to his role in causing earthquakes.

Some other epithets of Poseidon are:[39]

  • "Asphaleios", (ασφάλεια:safety), as protector from the earthquakes.
  • "Helikonios", (Ελικώνιος) related with the mountain Helikon.
  • "Tavreios", (Ταύρειος: related with the bull). There was a fest "Tavreia" in Ephesos.
  • "Petraios" (Πετραίος: related with rocks) in Thessaly. He hit a rock, and the horse "Skyphios" appeared.
  • "Epoptis"(επόπτης: supervisor) in Megalopolis
  • "Pelagios" in Ionia.
  • "Phykios" ( Φύκιος: related with seaweeds) in Mykonos.
  • "Phytalmios" ( Φυτάλμιος) related with the vegetation in Troizen, Megara, Rhodes.
  • Epithets related with the genealogy trees: "Patrigenios", "Genethlios", "Genesios", "Pater", "Phratrios".
  • "Epactaeus", meaning "god worshipped on the coast", in Samos.<ef> Leonhard Schmitz (1870). "Epactaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology.</ref>

Mythology

Birth

Poseidon was the second son of titans Cronus and Rhea. In most accounts he is swallowed by Cronus at birth but later saved, with his other brothers and sisters, by Zeus. However, in some versions of the story, he, like his brother Zeus, did not share the fate of his other brother and sisters who were eaten by Cronus. He was saved by his mother Rhea, who concealed him among a flock of lambs and pretended to have given birth to a colt, which she gave to Cronus to devour.[40]

According to John Tzetzes[41] the kourotrophos, or nurse of Poseidon was Arne, who denied knowing where he was, when Cronus came searching; according to Diodorus Siculus[42] Poseidon was raised by the Telchines on Rhodes, just as Zeus was raised by the Korybantes on Crete.

According to a single reference in the Iliad, when the world was divided by lot in three, Zeus received the sky, Hades the underworld and Poseidon the sea. In the Odyssey (v.398), Poseidon has a home in Aegae.

Foundation of Athens

René-Antoine Houasse - The Dispute of Minerva and Neptune, 1689
The Dispute of Minerva and Neptune by René-Antoine Houasse (circa 1689 or 1706)

Athena became the patron goddess of the city of Athens after a competition with Poseidon. Yet Poseidon remained a numinous presence on the Acropolis in the form of his surrogate, Erechtheus.[2] At the dissolution festival at the end of the year in the Athenian calendar, the Skira, the priests of Athena and the priest of Poseidon would process under canopies to Eleusis.[43] They agreed that each would give the Athenians one gift and the Athenians would choose whichever gift they preferred. Poseidon struck the ground with his trident and a spring sprang up; the water was salty and not very useful,[44] whereas Athena offered them an olive tree.

The Athenians or their king, Cecrops, accepted the olive tree and along with it Athena as their patron, for the olive tree brought wood, oil and food. After the fight, infuriated at his loss, Poseidon sent a monstrous flood to the Attic Plain, to punish the Athenians for not choosing him. The depression made by Poseidon's trident and filled with salt water was surrounded by the northern hall of the Erechtheum, remaining open to the air. "In cult, Poseidon was identified with Erechtheus," Walter Burkert noted; "the myth turns this into a temporal-causal sequence: in his anger at losing, Poseidon led his son Eumolpus against Athens and killed Erectheus."[45]

The contest of Athena and Poseidon was the subject of the reliefs on the western pediment of the Parthenon, the first sight that greeted the arriving visitor.

This myth is construed by Robert Graves and others as reflecting a clash between the inhabitants during Mycenaean times and newer immigrants. Athens at its height was a significant sea power, at one point defeating the Persian fleet at Salamis Island in a sea battle.

Walls of Troy

Poseidon and Apollo, having offended Zeus by their rebellion in Hera's scheme, were temporarily stripped of their divine authority and sent to serve King Laomedon of Troy. He had them build huge walls around the city and promised to reward them well, a promise he then refused to fulfill. In vengeance, before the Trojan War, Poseidon sent a sea monster to attack Troy. The monster was later killed by Heracles.

Consorts and children

Poseidon was said to have had many lovers of both sexes (see expandable list below). His consort was Amphitrite, a nymph and ancient sea-goddess, daughter of Nereus and Doris. Together they had a son named Triton, a merman.

Poseidon was the father of many heroes. He is thought to have fathered the famed Theseus.

A mortal woman named Tyro was married to Cretheus (with whom she had one son, Aeson), but loved Enipeus, a river god. She pursued Enipeus, who refused her advances. One day, Poseidon, filled with lust for Tyro, disguised himself as Enipeus, and from their union were born the heroes Pelias and Neleus, twin boys. Poseidon also had an affair with Alope, his granddaughter through Cercyon, his son and King of Eleusis, begetting the Attic hero Hippothoon. Cercyon had his daughter buried alive but Poseidon turned her into the spring, Alope, near Eleusis.

Sea thiasos Amphitrite Poseidon Glyptothek Munich 239 front n3
Sea thiasos depicting the wedding of Poseidon and Amphitrite, from the Altar of Domitius Ahenobarbus in the Field of Mars, bas-relief, Roman Republic, 2nd century BC

Poseidon rescued Amymone from a lecherous satyr and then fathered a child, Nauplius, by her.

After having raped Caeneus, Poseidon fulfilled her request and changed her into a male warrior.

A mortal woman named Cleito once lived on an isolated island; Poseidon fell in love with the human mortal and created a dwelling sanctuary at the top of a hill near the middle of the island and surrounded the dwelling with rings of water and land to protect her. She gave birth to five sets of twin boys; the firstborn, Atlas, became the first ruler of Atlantis.[3][4][5]

Not all of Poseidon's children were human. In an archaic myth, Poseidon once pursued Demeter. She spurned his advances, turning herself into a mare so that she could hide in a herd of horses; he saw through the deception and became a stallion and captured her. Their child was a horse, Arion, which was capable of human speech. Poseidon also raped Medusa on the floor of a temple to Athena.[46][47] Medusa was then changed into a monster by Athena.[48][47] When she was later beheaded by the hero Perseus, Chrysaor and Pegasus emerged from her neck.

His other children include Polyphemus (the cyclops) and, finally, Alebion and Bergion and Otos and Ephialtae (the giants).[46]

List of Poseidon's consorts and children

Female lovers and offspring

Goddesses Children Mortal Women Children Mortal Women Children
Amphitrite Triton Agamede Dictys Laodice[49] No known offspring
Benthesikyme Actor Larissa • Achaeus
Rhodos Aethra Theseus • Pelasgus
Gaea Antaeus Alistra[50] Ogygus • Pythius
Charybdis Alope Hippothoon Leis, daughter of Orus • Altephus, king of Troezen[51]
Laistryon Amphimedusa Erythras[52] Libya Agenor
Demeter Despoina Amymone Nauplius Belus
Areion Anippe or Busiris Lelex
Aphrodite Rhodos Lysianassa Melantho Delphus
Herophile (possibly) Arene Idas (possibly) Melissa[53] • Dyrrhachius[54]
Medusa Pegasus Arne or Aeolus Melite • Metus[55]
Chrysaor Melanippe Boeotus Mestra No known offspring
Unknown mother Cymopoleia Ascre • Oeoclus[56] Molione • The Molionides
Nymphs Children Astypalaea Ancaeus 1. Cteatus
Aba Ergiscus[57] Eurypylus 2. Eurytus
Alcyone Aethusa Boudeia / Bouzyge Erginus Mytilene • Myton[58]
Hyrieus Caenis No known offspring Oenope Megareus (possibly)
Hyperenor Calchinia • Peratus Ossa Sithon (possibly)
Hyperes Calyce or Cycnus Periboea Nausithous
Anthas Harpale or Phoenice • Torone[59]
Arethusa Abas Scamandrodice Proteus
Bathycleia[60] or Halirrhothius a Nereid[61] Rhode[62] • Ialysus
Euryte[63] Canace Hopleus • Cameirus
Beroe No known offspring • Nireus • Lindus
Bisalpis or Chrysomallus Aloeus Syme Chthonius
Bisaltis or Epopeus Themisto Leucon or Leuconoe
Theophane Triopas Tyro Pelias
Celaeno[64] Lycus Celaeno • Celaenus Neleus
Nycteus Cerebia[65] Dictys Daughter of Amphictyon Cercyon
Eurypylus (Eurytus) Polydectes Unknown Woman • Dicaeus[66]
Lycaon Ceroessa Byzas Syleus
Kelousa or Asopus (possibly) Chrysogeneia Chryses Unknown Woman Amphimarus[67]
Pero Circe • Phaunos Unknown Woman • Amyrus[68]
Cleodora • Parnassus Cleito[69] • Ampheres Unknown Woman Aon, eponym of Aonia[70]
Chione Eumolpus • Atlas Unknown Mother • Astraeus of Mysia[71]
Corcyra Phaeax • Autochthon Alcippe of Mysia[71]
Diopatra No known offspring • Azaes Unknown Woman Augeas[72]
Halia • Rhode (possibly) • Diaprepes Unknown Woman • Beergios[61]
• Six sons • Elasippus Unknown Woman • Byzenus[61]
Melantheia Eirene[73] • Euaemon Unknown Woman • Calaurus[74]
Melia Amycus • Eumelus (Gadeirus) Unknown Woman • Caucon or Glaucon[75]
Mygdon • Mestor Unknown Woman Corynetes (possibly)
Mideia • Aspledon • Mneseus Unknown Woman • Cromus, eponym of Crommyon[76]
Olbia Astacus[77] Coronis No known offspring Unknown Woman • Dercynus (Bergion) of Liguria[78]
Peirene • Cenchrias Eidothea • Eusiros[79] Unknown Woman Eryx, king of Eryx in Sicily
• Leches Ergea Celaeno Unknown Woman • Euseirus, father of Cerambus
Pitane or Euadne Europa or Euphemus Unknown Woman • Geren[80]
Lena Mecionice Unknown Woman • Ialebion (Alebion) of Liguria[78]
Pronoe Phocus Euryale Orion Unknown Woman • Lamus, king of the Laestrygonians
Rhodope • Athos[81] Eurycyda Eleius Unknown Woman • Messapus
Salamis Cychreus Eurynome (Eurymede) Bellerophon Unknown Woman • Onchestus[82]
Satyria of Taras Taras[83] Helle • Almops Unknown Woman • Palaestinus[84]
Thoosa Polyphemus • Edonus Unknown Woman Phineus[85]
Thyia No known offspring • Paion Unknown Woman Phorbas of Acarnania
Nymph of Chios Chios Hermippe Minyas (possibly) Unknown Woman Poltys
Nymph of Chios

(another one)

Melas Hippothoe Taphius Unknown Woman Procrustes
• Agelus Iphimedeia • The Aloadae Unknown Woman Sarpedon of Ainos
• Malina 1. Ephialtes Unknown Woman Sciron
Unknown mother Lotis (possibly) 2. Otus Unknown Woman Taenarus (possibly)
Unknown mother • Ourea, a nymph[86] Lamia • Sibylla (Sibyl) Unknown Woman • Terambos
Unknown Woman Thasus

Male lovers

In literature and art

JacobdeGheynII-NeptuneandAmphitrite
Neptune and Amphitrite by Jacob de Gheyn II (late 1500s)

In Greek art, Poseidon rides a chariot that was pulled by a hippocampus or by horses that could ride on the sea. He was associated with dolphins and three-pronged fish spears (tridents). He lived in a palace on the ocean floor, made of coral and gems.

In the Iliad Poseidon favors the Greeks, and on several occasion takes an active part in the battle against the Trojan forces. However, in Book XX he rescues Aeneas after the Trojan prince is laid low by Achilles.

In the Odyssey, Poseidon is notable for his hatred of Odysseus who blinded the god's son, the cyclops Polyphemus. The enmity of Poseidon prevents Odysseus's return home to Ithaca for many years. Odysseus is even told, notwithstanding his ultimate safe return, that to placate the wrath of Poseidon will require one more voyage on his part.

In the Aeneid, Neptune is still resentful of the wandering Trojans, but is not as vindictive as Juno, and in Book I he rescues the Trojan fleet from the goddess's attempts to wreck it, although his primary motivation for doing this is his annoyance at Juno's having intruded into his domain.

A hymn to Poseidon included among the Homeric Hymns is a brief invocation, a seven-line introduction that addresses the god as both "mover of the earth and barren sea, god of the deep who is also lord of Helicon and wide Aegae,[94] and specifies his twofold nature as an Olympian: "a tamer of horses and a saviour of ships."

Poseidon appears in Percy Jackson and the Olympians as the father of Percy Jackson and Tyson the Cyclops. He also appears in the ABC television series Once Upon a Time as the guest star of the second half of season four played by Ernie Hudson.[95] In this version, Poseidon is portrayed as the father of the Sea Witch Ursula.

Narrations

Neptúnova fontána
Neptune's fountain in Prešov, Slovakia.
Poseidon myths as told by story tellers

Bibliography of reconstruction:

  • Homer, Odyssey, 11.567 (7th century BC)
  • Pindar, Olympian Odes, 1 (476 BC)
  • Euripides, Orestes, 12–16 (408 BC)
  • Bibliotheca Epitome 2: 1–9 (140 BC)
  • Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI: 213, 458 (AD 8);
  • Hyginus, Fables, 82: Tantalus; 83: Pelops (1st century AD)
  • Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2.22.3 (AD 160 – 176)

Bibliography of reconstruction:

Gallery

Paintings

Poseidon Penteskouphia Louvre CA452

Poseidon holding a trident. Corinthian plaque, 550-525 BC. From Penteskouphia.

Poseidon enthroned De Ridder 418 CdM Paris n2

Poseidon on an Attic kalyx krater (detail), first half of the 5th century BC.

Cirta mosaic

Triumph of Poseidon and Amphitrite showing the couple in procession, detail of a vast mosaic from Cirta, Roman Africa (ca. 315–325 AD, now at the Louvre)

Poseidon and Athena battle for control of Athens - Benvenuto Tisi da Garofalo (1512)

Poseidon and Athena battle for control of Athens by Benvenuto Tisi(1512)

Statues

MillesPoseidon

Poseidon statue in Gothenburg, Sweden.

Neptun v prešovskej fontane

Poseidon statue in Prešov, Slovakia

Poseidon.statue.arp.500pix

Poseidon statue in Bristol, England.

Neptun brunnen1

The Neptunbrunnen fountain in Berlin

Poseidon sculpture Copenhagen 2005

Poseidon sculpture in Copenhagen, Denmark

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Jones, Daniel (2003) [1917], Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Burkert 1985, pp. 136–139.
  3. ^ a b Plato (1971). Timaeus and Critias. London, England: Penguin Books Ltd. p. 167. ISBN 9780140442618.
  4. ^ a b Timaeus 24e–25a, R. G. Bury translation (Loeb Classical Library).
  5. ^ a b Also it has been interpreted that Plato or someone before him in the chain of the oral or written tradition of the report accidentally changed the very similar Greek words for "bigger than" ("meson") and "between" ("mezon") – Luce, J.V. (1969). The End of Atlantis – New Light on an Old Legend. London: Thames and Hudson. p. 224.
  6. ^ Martin Nilsson (1967). Die Geschichte der Griechische Religion. Erster Band. Verlag C. H. Beck. p. 444.
  7. ^ Liddell & Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, Ποσειδῶν.
  8. ^ a b Adams, Professor John Paul. "Mycenaean Divinities". List of Handouts for Classics 315. Retrieved 2 September 2006.
  9. ^ Ennosidas (Pindar), Ennosigaios (Homer): Dietrich, p. 185 n. 305.
  10. ^ Pierre Chantraine Dictionnaire etymologique de la langue grecque Paris 1974–1980 4th s.v.; Lorenzo Rocci Vocabolario Greco-Italiano Milano, Roma, Napoli 1943 (1970) s.v.
  11. ^ Martin Nilsson, p. 417, p. 445
  12. ^ R. S. P. Beekes. Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 324 (s.v. "Δημήτηρ").
  13. ^ Plato, Cratylus, 402d–402e
  14. ^ van der Toorn, Karel; Becking, Bob; van der Horst, Pieter Willem (1999), Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (second ed.), Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdman's Publishing Company, ISBN 0-8028-2491-9
  15. ^ Dietrich, pp. 220221.
  16. ^ Dietrich, p. 109.
  17. ^ Dietrich, p. 181.
  18. ^ Ventris/Chadwick,Documents in Mycenean Greek p. 242; Dietrich, p. 172, n. 218.
  19. ^ George Mylonas (1966), Mycenae and the Mycenean world. p.159. Princeton University Press
  20. ^ "Wa-na-ssoi, wa-na-ka-te, (to the two queens and the king). Wanax (Greek : Αναξ) is best suited to Poseidon, the special divinity of Pylos. The identity of the two divinities addressed as wanassoi, is uncertain ": George Mylonas (1966) Mycenae and the Mycenean age p. 159 .Princeton University Press
  21. ^ Pausanias VIII 23. 5; Raymond Bloch "Quelques remarques sur Poseidon, Neptunus et Nethuns" in Comptes-rendus des séances de l' Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Letres 2 1981 p. 345.
  22. ^ L. H. Jeffery (1976). Archaic Greece: The Greek city states c.800-500 B.C (Ernest Benn Limited) p 23 ISBN 0-510-03271-0
  23. ^ F.Schachermeyer: Poseidon und die Entstehung des Griechischen Gotter glaubens :Nilsson p 444
  24. ^ The river god Acheloos is represented as a bull
  25. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheke 3.1.4
  26. ^ Ruck and Staples 1994:213.
  27. ^ Dietrich, p. 167.
  28. ^ Hesiod, Theogony 456.
  29. ^ Komita, "Poseidon the horse-god and the early Indo-Europeans", Research Reports of Ikutoku Tech. University, 1985; Komita, "The Indo-European attribute of Poseidon was a water-god", Research Reports of the Kanagawa Institute of Technology, 1990.
  30. ^ Seneca quaest. Nat. VI 6 :Nilsson Vol I p.450
  31. ^ "Poseidon – God of the Sea – Crystalinks". www.crystalinks.com. Retrieved 6 November 2017.
  32. ^ Forever, Education. "The Greek God Of The Sea: Poseidon". 5amily. Retrieved 10 December 2018.
  33. ^ Papyrus Oxyrrhincus FGH 148, 44, col. 2; quoted by Robin Lane Fox, Alexander the Great (1973) 1986:168 and note. Alexander also invoked other sea deities: Thetis, mother of his hero Achilles, Nereus and the Nereids
  34. ^ (Hippocrates), On the Sacred Disease, Francis Adams, tr.
  35. ^ Strabo, ix. p. 405
  36. ^ Virgil, Aeneid iii. 74, where Servius erroneously derives the name from the Aegean Sea
  37. ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegaeus". In Smith, William (ed.). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston. p. 24.
  38. ^ Nildsson Vol I p.450
  39. ^ Nilsson, Vol I pp. 446–450
  40. ^ In the 2nd century AD, a well with the name of Arne, the "lamb's well", in the neighbourhood of Mantineia in Arcadia, where old traditions lingered, was shown to Pausanias. (Pausanias viii.8.2.)
  41. ^ Tzetzes, ad Lycophron 644.
  42. ^ Diodorus, v. 55.
  43. ^ Burkert 1983, pp. 143–149.
  44. ^ Another version of the myth says that Poseidon gave horses to Athens.
  45. ^ Burkert 1983, pp. 149, 157.
  46. ^ a b Gill, N.S. (2007). "Mates and Children of Poseidon". Retrieved 5 February 2007.
  47. ^ a b Seelig 2002, p. 895-911.
  48. ^ Philip Freeman (2013). Oh My Gods: A Modern Retelling of Greek and Roman Myths. p. 30. ISBN 9781451609981.
  49. ^ Ovid, Heroides, 18 (19). 135
  50. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 1206
  51. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2. 30. 5
  52. ^ Scholia on Homer, Iliad, 2. 499
  53. ^ daughter of Epidamnus
  54. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Dyrrhakhion
  55. ^ Hyginus. Fabulae, 157
  56. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 29. 1
  57. ^ Suida, Suda Encyclopedia s.v. Ergiske
  58. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Mytilene
  59. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Torōnē
  60. ^ Scholia on Pindar. Olympian Ode 10.83 quoted in Hesiod. Catalogue of Women, fr.64
  61. ^ a b c Murray, John (1833). A Classical Manual, being a Mythological, Historical and Geographical Commentary on Pope's Homer, and Dryden's Aeneid of Virgil with a Copious Index. Albemarle Street, London. p. 78.
  62. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 923
  63. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca 3.14.2
  64. ^ also said to be the daughter of Ergeus
  65. ^ Tzetzes on Lycophron, 838
  66. ^ eponym of Dicaea, a city in Thrace as cited in Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Dikaia
  67. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 29. 5
  68. ^ eponym of a river in Thessaly as cited in Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1. 596
  69. ^ In Plato, Critias, 114c: Myth of Atlantis, Poseidon consorted with Cleito, daughter of the autochthons Evenor and Leucippe, and had by her ten sons.
  70. ^ Scholia on Statius, Thebaid, 1. 34
  71. ^ a b Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 21. 1
  72. ^ Bibliotheca 2.88.
  73. ^ Plutarch, Quaestiones Graecae, 19
  74. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Kalaureia
  75. ^ Aelian, Various Histories, 1. 24
  76. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 2. 1. 3
  77. ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Astakos, with a reference to Arrian
  78. ^ a b Bibliotheca 2. 5. 10
  79. ^ Antoninus Liberalis. Metamorphoses, 22 vs Cerambus
  80. ^ eponym of a town or village Geren on Lesbos as cited in Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Gerēn
  81. ^ Scholia on Theocritus, Idyll 7. 76
  82. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 26. 5
  83. ^ Probus on Virgil's Georgics, 2. 197
  84. ^ Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 11. 1
  85. ^ Pseudo-Apollodorus. Bibliotheca, Book 1.9.21
  86. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae, 161
  87. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History, 1 in Photius, 190
  88. ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted.
  89. ^ According to Homer, Iliad 1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey 8.312, Hephaestus was apparently the son of Hera and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74.
  90. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 927–929, Hephaestus was produced by Hera alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74.
  91. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus himself gave birth to Athena "from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84.
  92. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony 183–200, Aphrodite was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  93. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite was the daughter of Zeus (Iliad 3.374, 20.105; Odyssey 8.308, 320) and Dione (Iliad 5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.
  94. ^ The ancient palace-city that was replaced by Vergina
  95. ^ Andreeva, Nellie (19 December 2014). "Ernie Hudson To Play Poseidon On 'Once Upon a Time'". Deadline Hollywood. Retrieved 20 December 2014.

References

  • Burkert, Walter (1983), Homo Necans, University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles. 1983. ISBN 978-0-520-05875-0.
  • Burkert, Walter (1985), Greek Religion, Wiley-Blackwell 1985. ISBN 978-0-631-15624-6.
  • Dietrich, B. C., The Origins of Greek Religion, Bristol Phoenix Press, 2004. ISBN 978-1-904675-31-0.
  • Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2).
  • GML Poseidon
  • Gods found in Mycenaean Greece; a table drawn up from Michael Ventris and John Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek second edition (Cambridge 1973)
  • Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PhD in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Homer; The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library.
  • Jenks, Kathleen (April 2003). "Mythic themes clustered around Poseidon/Neptune". Myth*ing links. Archived from the original on 27 September 2006. Retrieved 13 January 2007.
  • Seelig, Beth J. (August 2002), "The Rape of Medusa in the Temple of Athena: Aspects of Triangulation in the Girl", The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 83 (4): 895–911, doi:10.1516/3NLL-UG13-TP2J-927M

External links

Amphitrite

In ancient Greek mythology, Amphitrite (; Greek: Ἀμφιτρίτη) was a sea goddess and wife of Poseidon and the queen of the sea. Under the influence of the Olympian pantheon, she became the consort of Poseidon and was later used as a symbolic representation of the sea. In Roman mythology, the consort of Neptune, a comparatively minor figure, was Salacia, the goddess of saltwater.

Boeing P-8 Poseidon

The Boeing P-8 Poseidon (formerly the Multimission Maritime Aircraft or MMA) is a military aircraft developed for the United States Navy (USN). The aircraft has been developed by Boeing Defense, Space & Security, modified from the 737-800ERX. The P-8 conducts anti-submarine warfare (ASW), anti-surface warfare (ASUW), and shipping interdiction, along with an early warning self-protection (EWSP) ability, otherwise known as electronic support measures (ESM). This involves carrying torpedoes, Harpoon anti-ship missiles, and other weapons. It is able to drop and monitor sonobuoys. It is designed to operate in conjunction with the Northrop Grumman MQ-4C Triton Broad Area Maritime Surveillance unmanned aerial vehicle.

The P-8 is operated by the U.S. Navy, the Indian Navy (as the P-8I Neptune), and the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF). The aircraft has been ordered by the UK's Royal Air Force (RAF) where it will be known as the Poseidon MRA1, the Royal Norwegian Air Force (RNoAF), and the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF).

Demeter

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (; Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr, pronounced [dɛːmɛ́ːtɛːr]; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito (Σιτώ), "she of the Grain", as the giver of food or grain, and Thesmophoros (θεσμός, thesmos: divine order, unwritten law; φόρος, phoros: bringer, bearer), "Law-Bringer", as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society.Though Demeter is often described simply as the goddess of the harvest, she presided also over the sacred law, and the cycle of life and death. She and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a religious tradition that predated the Olympian pantheon, and which may have its roots in the Mycenaean period c. 1400–1200 BC. Demeter was often considered to be the same figure as the Anatolian goddess Cybele, and in Rome she was identified as the Latin goddess Ceres.

In the Wake of Poseidon

In the Wake of Poseidon is the second studio album by English progressive rock group King Crimson, released in May 1970 by Island Records in Europe, Atlantic Records in the United States, and Vertigo Records in New Zealand. The album was recorded during instability in the band, with several personnel changes, but repeats the style of their first album, In the Court of the Crimson King. As with their first album, the mood of In the Wake of Poseidon often and quickly changes from serene to chaotic, reflecting the versatile musical aspects of progressive rock. To date the album is their highest-charting in the UK, reaching number 4. It has been well received by critics.

Jason-1

Jason-1 was a satellite oceanography mission to monitor global ocean circulation, study the ties between the ocean and the atmosphere, improve global climate forecasts and predictions, and monitor events such as El Niño and ocean eddies.

Neptune (mythology)

Neptune (Latin: Neptūnus [nɛpˈtuːnus]) was the god of freshwater and the sea in Roman religion. He is the counterpart of the Greek god Poseidon. In the Greek-influenced tradition, Neptune was the brother of Jupiter and Pluto; the brothers presided over the realms of Heaven, the earthly world, and the Underworld. Salacia was his wife.

Depictions of Neptune in Roman mosaics, especially those of North Africa, are influenced by Hellenistic conventions. Neptune was likely associated with fresh water springs before the sea. Like Poseidon, Neptune was worshipped by the Romans also as a god of horses, under the name Neptunus Equester, a patron of horse-racing.

OSTM/Jason-2

OSTM/Jason-2, or the Ocean Surface Topography Mission on the Jason-2 satellite, is an international Earth observation satellite mission that continues the sea surface height measurements begun in 1992 by the joint NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon mission and followed by the NASA/CNES Jason-1 mission launched in 2001.

Pegasus

Pegasus (Greek: Πήγασος, Pḗgasos; Latin: Pegasus, Pegasos) is a mythical winged divine stallion, and one of the most recognized creatures in Greek mythology. Usually depicted as pure white, Pegasus is a child of the Olympian god Poseidon. He was foaled by the Gorgon Medusa upon her death, when the hero Perseus decapitated her. Pegasus is the brother of Chrysaor and the uncle of Geryon.

Greco-Roman poets wrote about the ascent of Pegasus to heaven after his birth, and his subsequent obeisance to Zeus, king of the gods, who instructed him to bring lightning and thunder from Olympus. Friend of the Muses, Pegasus created Hippocrene, the fountain on Mt. Helicon.

Pegasus was caught by the Greek hero Bellerophon, near the fountain Peirene, with the help of Athena and Poseidon. Pegasus allowed Bellerophon to ride him in order to defeat the monstrous Chimera, which led to many other exploits. Bellerophon later fell from the winged horse's back while trying to reach Mount Olympus. Afterwards, Zeus transformed Pegasus into the eponymous constellation.

The symbolism of Pegasus varies with time. Symbolic of wisdom and fame from the Middle Ages until the Renaissance, Pegasus became associated with poetry around the 19th century, as the fountainhead of sources from which the poets gained their inspiration. Pegasus is the subject of a very rich iconography, especially throughout ancient Greek pottery and paintings and sculptures of the Renaissance. Hypotheses have been proposed regarding the relationship between Pegasus and the Muses, the gods Athena, Poseidon, Zeus, Apollo, and the hero Perseus.

Percy Jackson

Perseus "Percy" Jackson is a fictional character, the title character and narrator of Rick Riordan's Percy Jackson & the Olympians series. He is also one of seven main protagonists of the sequel series The Heroes of Olympus, appearing in every book except The Lost Hero, and appears in the ongoing Trials of Apollo series, making him one of the few characters to appear in all three series of the Camp Half-Blood chronicles. He has also been a narrator and protagonist in Riordan's Greco-Roman/Egyptian crossover stories, part of the Demigods and Magicians collection. The character serves as the narrator in Percy Jackson's Greek Gods and Percy Jackson's Greek Heroes, also by Rick Riordan.

Percy Jackson is played by Logan Lerman in the film adaptations of the novels and by Chris McCarrell in the musical.

Poseidon (DC Comics)

Poseidon is the name of a DC Comics deity who is based on the Greek god of the same name. Due to his status as Greek god of the sea, the character has figured primarily in stories relating to two of DC Comics' main superhero properties: Wonder Woman (an Amazon warrior with various connections to the Greek pantheon) and Aquaman (the king of the underwater city of Atlantis).

Poseidon (film)

Poseidon is a 2006 American disaster film directed and co-produced by Wolfgang Petersen. It is the third film adaptation of Paul Gallico's novel The Poseidon Adventure, and a loose remake of the 1972 film of the same name. It stars Kurt Russell, Josh Lucas, Richard Dreyfuss, Emmy Rossum, Jacinda Barrett, Mike Vogel, Jimmy Bennett, and Andre Braugher. It was produced and distributed by Warner Bros. in association with Virtual Studios. The film had a simultaneous release in the IMAX format. It was released on May 12, 2006, and nominated at the 79th Academy Awards for Best Visual Effects. Poseidon grossed $181 million at the worldwide box office on a budget of $160 million, resulting in losses of around $69 million for the studio.

Poseidon bubble

The Poseidon bubble was a stock market bubble in which the price of Australian mining shares soared in late 1969, then crashed in early 1970. It was triggered by the discovery by Poseidon NL of the early indications of a promising nickel deposit in September 1969.

In the late 1960s, nickel was in high demand due to the Vietnam War, but there was a shortage of supply due to industrial action against the major Canadian supplier Inco. These factors pushed the price of nickel to record levels, peaking at around £7,000/ton (£113,000 in 2018 adjusted for inflation) on the London market early in November 1969. In September 1969, the mineral exploration company Poseidon NL made a major nickel discovery at Mount Windarra 22 kilometres (14 mi) northwest of Laverton, Western Australia. In early September its shares, which had been trading at $0.80, began rising on insider trading (at that time insider trading was not illegal). On 1 October Poseidon announced that drilling had struck 40 metres of ore averaging 3.56% nickel and the price immediately rose until it was trading at $12.30. After this very little further information came to light but the price continued to climb on speculation; at one point, a UK broker suggested a value of up to $382 a share.The price of Poseidon shares quickly became too high for many investors, so some turned to stocks in other companies exploring near Windarra, and eventually other nickel mining stocks in general. As the price of mining shares grew, new companies were listed by promoters hoping to cash in. From October to December 1969 the ASX All Mining index rose by 44%. Mining stocks peaked in January 1970, then immediately crashed. Poseidon shares peaked at an intraday high of $280 in February 1970, and fell rapidly thereafter.By the time Poseidon actually started producing nickel, the price of nickel had fallen. Also, the nickel ore was of a lower grade than originally thought and extraction costs were higher. Profits from the mine were not sufficient to keep Poseidon afloat, and in 1974 it went into receivership. Western Mining then took over management of the mine, operating it until 1991. Mount Windarra produced 5.3 million tonnes of ore grading 1.5% nickel during its minelife.In 1974, the Rae Committee handed down its report on the Poseidon bubble, in which it documented numerous cases of improper trade practices. It recommended a number of changes to the regulation of stock markets, which ultimately led to Australia's national companies and securities legislation.In the late 1901, Robert Champion de Crespigny's Normandy Resources took over Poseidon, becoming Normandy Poseidon, the largest gold miner in Australia. In 2001 Normandy Mining was taken over by the Newmont Mining Corporation, which also at that time acquired Canadian company Franco-Nevada. The acquisitions made Newmont the world's largest producer of gold.

TOPEX/Poseidon

TOPEX/Poseidon was a joint satellite mission between NASA, the U.S. space agency; and CNES, the French space agency, to map ocean surface topography. Launched on August 10, 1992, it was the first major oceanographic research satellite. TOPEX/Poseidon helped revolutionize oceanography by providing data previously impossible to obtain. Oceanographer Walter Munk described TOPEX/Poseidon as "the most successful ocean experiment of all time." A malfunction ended normal satellite operations in January 2006.

The Poseidon Adventure

The Poseidon Adventure may refer to:

The Poseidon Adventure (novel), an American adventure novel by Paul Gallico, published in 1969

The Poseidon Adventure (1972 film), a film adaptation of the novel, directed by Ronald Neame and Irwin Allen

Beyond the Poseidon Adventure (1979), sequel to The Poseidon Adventure, directed by Irwin Allen

The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film), directed by John Putch

Poseidon (film), a 2006 adaptation of the novel and remake of the 1972 film, directed by Wolfgang Petersen

The Poseidon Adventure (1972 film)

The Poseidon Adventure is a 1972 American disaster film directed by Ronald Neame, produced by Irwin Allen, and based on Paul Gallico's eponymous 1969 novel. It features an ensemble cast, including five Academy Award winners: Gene Hackman; Ernest Borgnine; Jack Albertson; Shelley Winters; and Red Buttons. Parts of the movie were filmed aboard the RMS Queen Mary. The plot centers on the fictional SS Poseidon, an aged luxury liner on her final voyage from New York City to Athens before being sent to the scrapyard. On New Year's Eve, she is overturned by a tsunami. Passengers and crew are trapped inside, and a rebellious preacher attempts to lead a small group of survivors to safety.It is in the vein of other all-star disaster films of the early-mid 1970s such as Airport (1970), Earthquake (1974), and The Towering Inferno (1974). By the end of 1974, it was regarded as a widely successful film. The film won two Academy Awards, a Golden Globe Award, a British Academy Film Award, and a Motion Picture Sound Editors Award. A sequel, Beyond the Poseidon Adventure (1979), also based on a novel by Gallico, was a critical and commercial failure.

Triton (mythology)

Triton (; Greek: Τρίτων Tritōn) is a Greek god, the messenger of the sea. He is the son of Poseidon and Amphitrite, god and goddess of the sea respectively, and is herald for his father. He is usually represented as a merman which has the upper body of a human and the tail and fins of a fish, "sea-hued", according to Ovid "his shoulders barnacled with sea-shells".

Like his father, Poseidon, he carried a trident. However, Triton's special attribute was a twisted conch shell, on which he blew like a trumpet to calm or raise the waves. Its sound was such a cacophony, that when loudly blown, it put the giants to flight, who imagined it to be the roar of a dark wild beast.According to Hesiod's Theogony, Triton dwelt with his parents in a golden palace in the depths of the sea; Homer places his seat in the waters off Aegae (presumably Aegae, Achaea, where Poseidon had his palace). The story of the Argonauts places his home on the coast of Libya. When the Argo was driven ashore in the Gulf of Syrtes Minor, the crew carried the vessel to the "Tritonian Lake", Lake Tritonis, whence Triton, the local deity euhemeristically rationalized by Diodorus Siculus as "then ruler over Libya", welcomed them with a guest-gift of a clod of earth and guided them through the lake's marshy outlet back to the Mediterranean. When the Argonauts were lost in the desert, he guided them to find the passage from the river back to the sea.

Triton was the father of Pallas and foster parent to the goddess Athena. Pallas was killed by Athena accidentally during a sparring fight between the two goddesses. Triton can sometimes be multiplied into a host of Tritones, daimones of the sea.

In Virgil's Aeneid, book 6, it is told that Triton killed Misenus, son of Aeolus, by drowning him after he challenged the gods to play as well as he did.

Twelve Olympians

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus. They were called Olympians because, according to tradition, they resided on Mount Olympus.

Although Hades was a major ancient Greek god, and was the brother of the first generation of Olympians (Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia), he resided in the underworld, far from Olympus, and thus was not usually considered to be one of the Olympians.

Besides the twelve Olympians, there were many other cultic groupings of twelve gods.

UGM-73 Poseidon

The UGM-73 Poseidon missile was the second US Navy nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) system, powered by a two-stage solid-fuel rocket. It succeeded the UGM-27 Polaris beginning in 1972, bringing major advances in warheads and accuracy. It was followed by Trident I in 1979, and Trident II in 1990.

USS Poseidon (ARL-12)

The USS Poseidon (ARL-12) was one of 39 Achelous-class landing craft repair ships built for the United States Navy during World War II. Named for Poseidon (the Greek god of the sea), she was the only ship U.S. Naval vessel to bear the name.

Her keel was laid down as LST-1037 by the Boston Navy Yard in Boston, Massachusetts, on 10 July 1944. She was renamed Poseidon and given hull classification symbol ARL-12 on 12 June 1944; launched on 24 August 1944; sponsored by Mrs. Nora T. Twomey; and placed in reduced commission on 22 September 1944. Following initial commissioning, Poseidon steamed south to Baltimore, Maryland, where she decommissioned and completed conversion to a landing craft repair ship. Commissioned in full 13 February 1945, she completed shakedown in Chesapeake Bay and, assigned to ServRon 10, sailed for Ulithi, thence, in early June, to Okinawa. There, at Kerama Retto and at Buckner Bay, she repaired landing and patrol craft until the cessation of hostilities. Ordered back to the United States after World War II for inactivation, she decommissioned on 30 November 1946 and was berthed with the Columbia River Group of the Pacific Reserve Fleet. She remained a unit of that group until struck from the Naval Vessel Register on 1 July 1961.

She was sold 3 November 1961 to the Marine Power and Equipment Company of Seattle, Washington. Her final fate is unknown.

Poseidon's family tree [88]
UranusGaia
Uranus' genitalsCronusRhea
ZeusHeraPOSEIDONHadesDemeterHestia
    a[89]
     b[90]
AresHephaestus
Metis
Athena[91]
Leto
ApolloArtemis
Maia
Hermes
Semele
Dionysus
Dione
    a[92]     b[93]
Aphrodite
Classical religious forms
Mystery religions
and sacred mysteries
Main beliefs
Texts/epic poems/odes
Rites and practices
Sacred places
Mythical beings
Deities
Heroes/heroines
Mythical tribes
Oracles/seers
Magic
Mythical realms
Underworld
Mythological wars
Mythological and
religious objects
Symbols
Mythological powers
Storage containers,
cups, vases
Musical Instruments
Games
Festivals/feasts
Vessels
Modern offshoot religions
Modern popular culture
Ancient Greek deities by affiliation
Primordial
deities
Titan
deities
Olympian
deities
Aquatic
deities
Chthonic
deities
Personifications
Other deities
Twelve Olympians
Aquatic deities
Chthonic Deities (Deities of the Underworld)
Anemoi (Deities of the Wind)

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.