Porto

Porto (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈpoɾtu]) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon[3] and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula. The city proper has a population of 287,591 and the metropolitan area of Porto, which extends beyond the administrative limits of the city, has a population of 2.3 million (2011)[4] in an area of 2,395 km2 (925 sq mi),[5] making it the second-largest urban area in Portugal.[6][7][8] It is recognized as a gamma-level global city by the Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group,[9] the only Portuguese city besides Lisbon to be recognised as a global city.

Located along the Douro River estuary in northern Portugal, Porto is one of the oldest European centres, and its historical core was proclaimed a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996. The western part of its urban area extends to the coastline of the Atlantic Ocean. Its settlement dates back many centuries, when it was an outpost of the Roman Empire. Its combined Celtic-Latin name, Portus Cale,[10] has been referred to as the origin of the name "Portugal", based on transliteration and oral evolution from Latin. In Portuguese, the name of the city includes a definite article: o Porto. Consequently, its English name, Oporto, evolved from a misinterpretation of the Portuguese pronunciation.

Port wine, one of Portugal's most famous exports, is named after Porto, since the metropolitan area, and in particular the cellars of Vila Nova de Gaia, were responsible for the packaging, transport, and export of fortified wine.[11] In 2014 and 2017, Porto was elected The Best European Destination by the Best European Destinations Agency.[12] Porto is on the Portuguese Way path of the Camino de Santiago.

Porto
From the top left corner clockwise: Clérigos Tower; Palácio da Bolsa; Avenida dos Aliados; Church of São Francisco; Porto Cathedral; Porto City Hall; Ribeira
From the top left corner clockwise: Clérigos Tower; Palácio da Bolsa; Avenida dos Aliados; Church of São Francisco; Porto Cathedral; Porto City Hall; Ribeira
Flag of Porto

Flag
Coat of arms of Porto

Coat of arms
Etymology: Portuguese: "port" (or O porto "the port")
Nickname(s): 
A Cidade Invicta (The Unvanquished City) A Cidade da Virgem (The City of the Virgin)
Motto(s): 
Antiga, Mui Nobre, Sempre Leal e Invicta (Old, Most Noble, Always Loyal and Unvanquished)
Porto is located in Portugal
Porto
Porto
Location within Portugal
Porto is located in Europe
Porto
Porto
Location within Europe
Coordinates: 41°9′43.71″N 8°37′19.03″W / 41.1621417°N 8.6219528°WCoordinates: 41°9′43.71″N 8°37′19.03″W / 41.1621417°N 8.6219528°W
Country Portugal
RegionNorte
SubregionGrande Porto
DistrictPorto
Settlement275 BOT
Municipality868
Civil parishes7
Government
 • TypeLAU
 • BodyConcelho/Câmara Municipal
 • MayorRui Moreira
 • Municipal ChairMiguel Pereira Leite
Area
 • Total41.42 km2 (15.99 sq mi)
Elevation
104 m (341 ft)
Population
 • Total287,591
 • Density6,900/km2 (18,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC0 (WET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1 (WEST)
Postal Zone
4000-286 Porto
Area code(s)(+351) 22[1]
DemonymPortuense
Patron SaintNossa Senhora de Vandoma
Municipal Holidays24 June (São João)
Websitewww.cm-porto.pt
Geographic detail from CAOP (2010)[2] produced by Instituto Geográfico Português (IGP)
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official nameHistoric Centre of Porto
Criteriaiv
Reference755
Inscription1996 (20th Session)

History

Early history

The history of Porto dates back to around 300 BC with Proto-Celtic and Celtic people being the first known inhabitants. Ruins of that period have been discovered in several areas.

During the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula, the city developed as an important commercial port, primarily in the trade between Olissipona (the modern Lisbon) and Bracara Augusta (the modern Braga)[13]. Porto was also important during the Suebian and Visigothic times, and a centre for the expansion of Christianity during that period.[14]

Porto fell under the control of the Moors during the invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711.[15] In 868, Vímara Peres, an Asturian count from Gallaecia, and a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure the lands back into Christian hands. This included the area from the Minho to the Douro River: the settlement of Portus Cale and the area that is known as Vila Nova de Gaia. Portus Cale, later referred to as Portucale, was the origin for the modern name of Portugal.[16] In 868, Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal, or (Portuguese: Condado de Portucale), usually known as Condado Portucalense after reconquering the region north of Douro.[13]

In 1387, Porto was the site of the marriage of John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; this symbolized a long-standing military alliance between Portugal and England.[17] The Portuguese-English alliance (see the Treaty of Windsor) is the world's oldest recorded military alliance.[18][19]

In the 14th and the 15th centuries, Porto's shipyards contributed to the development of Portuguese shipbuilding. Also from the port of Porto, in 1415, Prince Henry the Navigator (son of John I of Portugal) embarked on the conquest of the Moorish port of Ceuta, in northern Morocco.[20][21] This expedition by the king and his fleet, which counted among others, Prince Henry, was followed by navigation and exploration along the western coast of Africa, initiating the Portuguese Age of Discovery. The nickname given to the people of Porto began in those days; Portuenses are to this day, colloquially, referred to as tripeiros (English: tripe peoples), referring to this period of history, when higher-quality cuts of meat were shipped from Porto with their sailors, while off-cuts and byproducts, such as tripe, were left behind for the citizens of Porto; tripe remains a culturally important dish in modern-day Porto.

18th century

Av Aliados 5 (Porto)
Avenida dos Aliados
Magestic café
The iconic Majestic Café
Pergola Foz (Porto)
Foz neighbourhood, along the coast

Wine, produced in the Douro valley, was already in the 13th century transported to Porto in barcos rabelos (flat sailing vessels). In 1703, the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between Portugal and England.[22] In 1717, a first English trading post was established in Porto. The production of port wine then gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, Prime Minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley. He demarcated the region for production of port, to ensure the wine's quality; this was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm. The revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos (revolt of the drunks).

Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that became its architectural and visual icon: the Torre dos Clérigos (English: Clerics' Tower). During the 18th and 19th centuries, the city became an important industrial centre and had its size and population increase.

19th century

The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult also brought war to the city of Porto. On 29 March 1809, as the population fled from the advancing French troops[23][24] and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge), the bridge collapsed under the weight. This event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I. The French army was rooted out of Porto by Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when his Anglo-Portuguese Army crossed the Douro River from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar (a former convent) in a brilliant daylight coup de main, using wine barges to transport the troops, so outflanking the French Army.[25]

On 24 August 1820, a liberal revolution occurred, quickly spreading without resistance to the rest of the country.[26] In 1822, a liberal constitution was accepted, partly through the efforts of the liberal assembly of Porto (Junta do Porto). When Miguel I of Portugal took the Portuguese throne in 1828, he rejected this constitution and reigned as an absolutist monarch.[27] A Civil War was then fought from 1828 to 1834 between those supporting Constitutionalism, and those opposed to this change, keen on near-absolutism and led by D. Miguel. Porto rebelled again and had to undergo a siege of eighteen months between 1832 and 1833 by the absolutist army.[28] Porto is also called "Cidade Invicta" (English: Unvanquished City) after successfully resisting the Miguelist siege. After the abdication of King Miguel, the liberal constitution was re-established.

Known as the city of bridges, Porto built its first permanent bridge, the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge), in 1806. Three years later, it collapsed under the weight of thousands of fugitives from the French invasions during the Peninsular War, causing thousands of deaths.[29] It was replaced by the Ponte D. Maria II, popularised under the name Ponte Pênsil (suspended bridge) and built between 1841–43; only its supporting pylons have remained.

The Ponte D. Maria, a railway bridge, was inaugurated on 4 November of that same year;[30] it was considered a feat of wrought iron engineering and was designed by Gustave Eiffel, notable for his Parisian tower. The later Ponte Dom Luís I replaced the aforementioned Ponte Pênsil.[31] This last bridge was made by Teophile Seyrig, a former partner of Eiffel. Seyrig won a governmental competition that took place in 1879. Building began in 1881 and the bridge was opened to the public on 31 October 1886.[32]

A higher-learning institution in nautical sciences (Aula de Náutica, 1762) and a stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto, 1834) were established in the city, but were discontinued later.

Unrest by Republicans led to the first revolt against the monarchy in Porto on 31 January 1891. This resulted ultimately in the overthrow of the monarchy and proclamation of the republic by the 5 October 1910 revolution.[33][34][35]

20th century

Porto, Praça de Almeida Garrett (10)
A street in Porto

On 19 January 1919, forces favorable to the restoration of the monarchy launched in Porto a counter-revolution known as Monarchy of the North.[36][37] During this time, Porto was the capital of the restored kingdom, as the movement was contained to the north. The monarchy was deposed less than a month later and no other monarchist revolution in Portugal happened again.

The historic centre of Porto was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1996. The World Heritage Site is defined in two concentric zones; the "Protected area", and within it the "Classified area". The Classified area comprises the medieval borough located inside the 14th-century Romanesque wall.[38]

Geography

Porto Panorama 2004
Historical part of Porto and the Douro River

In 1996, UNESCO recognised its historic centre as a World Heritage Site.[13] Among the architectural highlights of the city, Porto Cathedral is the oldest surviving structure, together with the small romanesque Church of Cedofeita, the gothic Igreja de São Francisco (Church of Saint Francis), the remnants of the city walls and a few 15th-century houses. The baroque style is well represented in the city in the elaborate gilt work interior decoration of the churches of St. Francis and St. Claire (Santa Clara), the churches of Mercy (Misericórdia) and of the Clerics (Igreja dos Clérigos), the Episcopal Palace of Porto, and others. The neoclassicism and romanticism of the 19th and 20th centuries also added interesting monuments to the landscape of the city, like the magnificent Stock Exchange Palace (Palácio da Bolsa), the Hospital of Saint Anthony, the Municipality, the buildings in the Liberdade Square and the Avenida dos Aliados, the tile-adorned São Bento Train Station and the gardens of the Crystal Palace (Palácio de Cristal). A guided visit to the Palácio da Bolsa, and in particular the Arab Room, is a major tourist attraction.

Many of the city's oldest houses are at risk of collapsing. The population in Porto municipality dropped by nearly 100,000 since the 1980s, but the number of permanent residents in the outskirts and satellite towns has grown strongly.[39]

Ayuntamiento de Oporto, Portugal, 2012-05-09, DD 03
Porto City Hall in the Avenida dos Aliados

Administratively, the municipality is divided into 7 civil parishes (freguesias):[40]

Climate

Porto features a warm-summer Mediterranean climate (Köppen: Csb), with influences of an oceanic climate (Cfb) like the north of Spain.[41] As a result, its climate shares many characteristics with the coastal south: warm, dry summers and mild, rainy winters. Cool and rainy days can, occasionally, interrupt the dry season. These occasional summer rainy periods may last a few days and are characterised by showers and cool temperatures around 20 °C (68 °F) in the afternoon. The annual precipitation is high and concentrated in the winter months, making Porto one of the wettest major cities of Europe. However, long periods with mild temperatures and sunny days are frequent even during the rainiest months.

Summers are typically sunny with average temperatures between 16 and 27 °C (61 and 81 °F), but can rise to as high as 38 °C (100 °F) during occasional heat waves. During such heat waves, the humidity remains quite low. Nearby beaches are often windy and usually cooler than the urban areas. Summer average temperatures are a few degrees cooler than those expected in more continentally Mediterranean influenced metropolises on the same latitude such as Barcelona and Florence.

Winter temperatures typically range between 5 °C (41 °F) during morning and 15 °C (59 °F) in the afternoon, but rarely drop below 0 °C (32 °F) at night. The weather is often rainy for long stretches, although prolonged sunny periods do occur.

Politics and government

See also: List of mayors of Porto and Metropolitan Area of Porto

Local election results 1976-2017

Summary of local elections for Porto city hall, 1976-2017
Election year PCP PS PSD CDS UDP APU AD PRD CDU BE PAN RM Oth Inv Turnout
1976 13.8 34.7 24.5 20.0 0.4 - - - - - - - 5.1 2.1 73.4
1979 - 30.7 - - 1.6 16.7 49.7 - - - - - 0.6 2.0 79.3
1982 - 34.5 - - 0.8 19.5 42.6 - - - - - 0.4 2.2 73.8
1985 - 26.8 36.1 8.4 0.9 18.1 - 7.4 - - - - 0.2 2.1 60.8
1989 - 41.5 31.8 10.3 0.4 - - 0.7 11.5 - - - 1.4 2.4 54.5
1993 - 59.6 25.6 4.8 0.4 - - - 7.2 - - - 0.4 2.0 58.3
1997 - 55.8 26.3 0.7 - - - 11.3 - - - 1.5 4.5 48.1
2001 - 38.5 42.8 - - - - 10.5 2.6 - - 1.3 4.5 48.3
2005 - 36.1 46.2 - - - - 9.0 4.2 - - 1.4 3.2 58.5
2009 - 34.7 47.5 - - - - 9.8 5.0 - - 0.7 2.4 56.8
2013 - 22.7 21.1 - - - - - 7.4 3.6 - 39.3 1.6 4.4 52.6
2017 - 28.6 10.4 - - - - - 5.9 5.3 1.9 44.5 0.5 3.0 53.7
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Economy

Cave do Vinho do Porto 03
Barrels of port wine aging: the fortified wine is the best-known of city's exports
Bolhao Market
Mercado Bolhão

As the most important city in the heavily industrialized northwest, many of the largest Portuguese corporations from diverse economic sectors, like Altri, Ambar, Amorim, Bial, Cerealis, BPI, CIN, EFACEC, Frulact, Lactogal, Millennium bcp, Porto Editora, Grupo RAR, Sonae, Sonae Indústria, and Unicer, are headquartered in the Greater Metropolitan Area of Porto, most notably, in the core municipalities of Maia, Matosinhos, Porto, and Vila Nova de Gaia.

The country's biggest exporter (Petrogal) has one of its two refineries near the city, in Leça da Palmeira (13 km) and the second biggest (Qimonda, now bankrupt) has its only factory also near the city in Mindelo (26 km).[45]

The city's former stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto) was transformed into the largest derivatives exchange of Portugal, and merged with Lisbon Stock Exchange to create the Bolsa de Valores de Lisboa e Porto, which eventually merged with Euronext, together with Amsterdam, Brussels, LIFFE and Paris stock and futures exchanges. The building formerly hosting the stock exchange is currently one of the city's touristic attractions, the Salão Árabe (Arab Room in English) being its major highlight.

Porto hosts a popular Portuguese newspaper, Jornal de Notícias. The building where its offices are located (which has the same name as the newspaper) was up to recently one of the tallest in the city (it has been superseded by a number of modern buildings which have been built since the 1990s).

Porto Editora, one of the biggest Portuguese publishers, is also in Porto. Its dictionaries are among the most popular references used in the country, and the translations are very popular as well.

The economic relations between the city of Porto and the Upper Douro River have been documented since the Middle Ages. However, they were greatly deepened in the modern ages. Indeed, sumach, dry fruits and nuts and the Douro olive oils sustained prosperous exchanges between the region and Porto. From the riverside quays at the river mouth, these products were exported to other markets of the Old and New World. But the greatest lever to interregional trade relations resulted from the commercial dynamics of the Port wine (Vinho do Porto) agro industry. It decidedly bolstered the complementary relationship between the large coastal urban centre, endowed with open doors to the sea, and a region with significant agricultural potential, especially in terms of the production of extremely high quality fortified wines, known by the world-famous label Port. The development of Porto was also closely connected with the left margin of River Douro in Vila Nova de Gaia, where is located the amphitheatre-shaped slope with the Port wine cellars.

Vila Nova de Gaia from Porto (6847153331)
South side of Douro, Vila Nova de Gaia

In a study concerning competitiveness of the 18 Portuguese district capitals, Porto was the worst-ranked. The study was made by Minho University economics researchers and was published in Público newspaper on 30 September 2006. The best-ranked cities in the study were Évora, Lisbon and Coimbra.[46] Nevertheless, the validity of this study was questioned by some Porto's notable figures (such as local politicians and businesspersons) who argued that the city proper does not function independently but in conurbation with other municipalities.[47] A new ranking, published in the newspaper Expresso (Portuguese Newspaper) in 2007 which can be translated to "The Best Cities to Live in Portugal" ranked Porto in third place (tied with Évora) below Guimarães and Lisbon.[48] The two studies are not directly comparable as they use different dependent measures.

The Porto metropolitan area had a GDP amounting to $43.0 billion, and $21,674 per capita.[49]

Transport

Roads and bridges

Aeroporto Porto 17
Francisco Sá Carneiro Airport
VCI
Internal highway
Autocarro STCP (Porto)
STCP bus
Electrico e Câmara do Porto (Av. dos Aliados)
Heritage tram

The road system capacity is augmented by the Via de Cintura Interna or A20, an internal highway connected to several motorways and city exits, complementing the Circunvalação 4-lane peripheric road, which borders the north of the city and connects the eastern side of the city to the Atlantic shore. The city is connected to Valença (Viana do Castelo) by highway A28, to Estarreja (Aveiro) by the A29, to Lisbon by the A1, to Bragança by the A4 and to Braga by the A3. There is also an outer-ring road, the A41, that connects all the main cities around Porto, linking the city to other major metropolitan highways such as the A7, A11, A42, A43 and A44. Since 2011, a new highway, the A32, connects the metropolitan area to São João da Madeira and Oliveira de Azeméis.

During the 20th century, major bridges were built: Arrábida Bridge, which at its opening had the biggest concrete supporting arch in the world, and connects north and south shores of the Douro on the west side of the city, S. João, to replace D. Maria Pia and Freixo, a highway bridge on the east side of the city. The newest bridge is Ponte do Infante, finished in 2003. Two more bridges are said to be under designing stages and due to be built in the next 10 years, one on the Campo Alegre area, nearby the Faculty of Humanities and the Arts, and another one in the area known as the Massarelos valley.

Porto is often referred to as Cidade das Pontes (City of the Bridges), besides its more traditional nicknames of "Cidade Invicta" (Unconquered/ Invincible City) and "Capital do Norte" (Capital of the North).

Cruising

In July 2015 a new cruise terminal was opened at the port of Leixões, which is north of the city in Matosinhos.

Airports

Porto is served by Francisco de Sá Carneiro Airport which is located in Pedras Rubras, Moreira da Maia civil parish of the neighbouring Municipality of Maia, some 15 kilometres (9 miles) to the north-west of the city centre. The airport is a state-of-the-art facility, having undergone a massive programme of refurbishment due to the Euro 2004 football championships being partly hosted in the city.

Public transport

Railways

Porto's main railway station is Campanhã railway station, located in the eastern part of the city and connected to the lines of Douro (Peso da Régua/Tua/Pocinho), Minho (Barcelos/Viana do Castelo/Valença) and centre of Portugal (on the main line to Aveiro, Coimbra and Lisbon).

From Campanhã station, both light rail and suburban rail services connect to the city center. The main central station is São Bento Station, which is itself a notable landmark located in the heart of Porto.

Porto is well connected with Lisbon with high-speed trains called Alpha Pendular, that cover the distance in 2h 42min. The intercities take slightly more than 3 hours to cover the same distance.

In addition, Porto is connected to the Spanish city of Vigo with the Celta train, running twice every day. The journey takes 2 hours and 20 minutes to connect both cities. [50]

Light rail

Currently the major project is the Porto Metro, a light rail system. Consequently, the Infante bridge was built for urban traffic, replacing the Dom Luís I, which was dedicated to the light rail on the second and higher of the bridge's two levels. Six lines are open: lines A (blue), B (red), C (green) and E (purple) all begin at Estádio do Dragão (home to FC Porto) and terminate at Senhor de Matosinhos, Póvoa de Varzim (via Vila do Conde), ISMAI (via Maia) and Francisco Sá Carneiro airport respectively. Line D (yellow) currently runs from Hospital S. João in the north to Santo Ovídio on the southern side of the Douro river. Line F (orange), from Senhora da Hora (Matosinhos) to Fânzeres (Gondomar). The lines intersect at the central Trindade station. Currently the whole network spans 60 km (37 mi) using 68 stations, thus being the biggest rapid transit system in the country.

PortoMetro.png   Metro do Porto
Line Length
(km)
Stations Inauguration Vehicle
Metro do Porto linha A.svg
Estádio do Dragão ↔ Senhor de Matosinhos
15,6 23 7 December 2002 Flexity Outlook (Eurotram)
Metro do Porto linha B.svg
Estádio do Dragão ↔ Póvoa de Varzim
33,6 35 13 March 2005 Flexity Swift (Tram-train)
Metro do Porto linha C.svg
Campanhã ↔ ISMAI
19,6 24 30 July 2005 Flexity Swift (Tram-train)
Metro do Porto linha D.svg
Hospital São João ↔ Santo Ovídio
9,2 16 18 September 2005 Flexity Outlook (Eurotram)
Metro do Porto linha E.svg
Estádio do Dragão ↔ Aeroporto BSicon FLUG.svg
16,7 21 27 May 2006 Flexity Outlook (Eurotram)
Metro do Porto linha F.svg
Fânzeres ↔ Senhora da Hora
17,4 24 2 January 2011 Flexity Outlook (Eurotram)
Logo funicular 2.png
Ribeira ↔ Batalha
0,3 2 19 February 2004 Funicular of Guindais

Buses

The city has an extensive bus network run by the STCP (Sociedade dos Transportes Colectivos do Porto, or Porto Public Transport Society) which also operates lines in the neighbouring cities of Gaia, Maia, Matosinhos, Gondomar and Valongo. Other smaller companies connect such towns as Paços de Ferreira and Santo Tirso to the town center. In the past the city also had trolleybuses.[51] A bus journey is 1.85 Euro, which must be paid in cash.

Trams

A tram (streetcar) network, of which only three lines remain one of them being a tourist line on the shores of the Douro, saw its construction begin on 12 September 1895, therefore being the first in the Iberian Peninsula. The lines in operation all use vintage tramcars, so the service has become a heritage tramway. STCP also operates these routes as well as a tram museum. The first line of the area's modern-tram, or light rail system, named Metro do Porto, opened for revenue service in January 2003[52] (after a brief period of free, introductory service in December 2002).

Porto Public Transportation Statistics

The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Porto, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 47 min. 6.5% of public transit riders, ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 12 min, while 17.4% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 6 km, while 5% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.[53]

Culture

Escultura Angelo de Sousa 2 (Porto)
Sculpture of Ângelo de Sousa at Avenida da Boavista, a services avenue

In 2001, Porto shared the designation European Culture Capital.[54] In the scope of these events, the construction of the major concert hall space Casa da Música, designed by the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas, was initiated and finished in 2005.

The first Portuguese moving pictures were taken in Porto by Aurélio da Paz dos Reis and shown there on 12 November 1896 in Teatro do Príncipe Real do Porto, less than a year after the first public presentation by Auguste and Louis Lumière. The country's first movie studios Invicta Filmes was also erected in Porto in 1917 and was open from 1918 to 1927 in the area of Carvalhido. Manoel de Oliveira, a Portuguese film director and the oldest director in the world to be active until his death in 2015, is from Porto. Fantasporto is an international film festival organized in Porto every year.

Many renowned Portuguese music artists and cult bands such as GNR, Rui Veloso, Sérgio Godinho, Clã, Pluto, Azeitonas and Ornatos Violeta are from the city or its metropolitan area. Porto has several museums, concert halls, theaters, cinemas, art galleries, libraries and bookshops. The best-known museums of Porto are the National Museum Soares dos Reis (Museu Nacional de Soares dos Reis), which is dedicated especially to the Portuguese artistic movements from the 16th to the 20th century, and the Museum of Contemporary Art of the Serralves Foundation (Museu de Arte Contemporânea).

The city has concert halls of a rare beauty and elegance such as the Coliseu do Porto by the Portuguese architect Cassiano Branco; an exquisite example of the Portuguese decorative arts. Other notable venues include the historical São João National Theatre, the Rivoli theatre, the Batalha cinema and Casa da Música, inaugurated in 2005.[55] The city has the Lello Bookshop, which is frequently rated among the top bookstores in the world.[56]

Porto houses the largest synagogue in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the largest in EuropeKadoorie Synagogue, inaugurated in 1938.

Sinagoga Kadoorie10
Kadoorie Synagogue, the biggest in the Iberian Peninsula

Entertainment

Casamusicaexterior
Casa da Música

Porto's most popular event is St. John (São João Festival) on the night of 23–24 June.[57] In this season it's a tradition to have a vase with bush basil decorated with a small poem. During the dinner of the great day people usually eat sardines and boiled potatoes together with red wine.

Another major event is Queima das Fitas, that starts in the first Sunday of May and ends in the second Sunday of the month. Basically, before the beginning of the study period preceding the school year’s last exams, academia tries to have as much fun as possible. The week has 12 major events, starting with the Monumental Serenata on Sunday, and reaching its peak with the Cortejo Académico on Tuesday, when about 50,000 students of the city's higher education institutions march through the downtown streets till they reach the city hall. During every night of the week a series of concerts takes place on the Queimódromo, next to the city’s park, where it’s also a tradition for the students in their second-to-last year to erect small tents where alcohol is sold in order to finance the trip that takes place during the last year of their course of study; an average of 50,000 students attend these shows.[58]

Porto was considered the fourth best value destination for 2012, by Lonely Planet.

Arts

Porto - Matosinhos - Praça da Cidade de Salvador
On the waterfront, She Changes sculpture by artist Janet Echelman

In 2005, the municipality funded a public sculpture to be built in the Waterfront Plaza of Matosinhos. The resulting sculpture is entitled She Changes[59] by American artist, Janet Echelman, and spans the height of 50 × 150 × 150 metres.

Architecture

Due to its long history, the city of Porto carries an immense architectural patrimony. From the Romanesque Cathedral to the Social Housing projects developed through the late 20th century, much could be said surrounding architecture.

Porto is home to the Porto School of Architecture, one of the most prestigious architecture schools in Europe and the world. It is also home to two earners of the Pritzker Architecture Prize (two former students of the aforementioned school): Álvaro Siza Vieira and Eduardo Souto de Moura.

Gastronomy

Porto Ribeira
Cais da Ribeira, Porto

Porto is home to a number of dishes from traditional Portuguese cuisine. A typical dish from this city is Tripas à Moda do Porto (Tripes Porto style). Bacalhau à Gomes de Sá (Gomes de Sá Bacalhau) is another typical codfish dish born in Porto and popular in Portugal.

The Francesinha – literally Frenchy, or more accurately little French (female) – is the most famous popular native snack food in Porto. It is a kind of sandwich with several meats covered with cheese and a special sauce made with beer and other ingredients.

Port wine, an internationally renowned wine, is widely accepted as the city's dessert wine, especially as the wine is made along the Douro River which runs through the city.

Tourism

Over the last years, Porto has experienced significant tourism increases which may be linked to the Ryanair hub at Francisco de Sá Carneiro Airport. Porto won the European Best Destination 2012, 2014 and 2017 awards.[12]

Education

Up reitoria
The rectory of the University of Porto

The city has a large number of public and private elementary and secondary schools, as well as kindergartens and nurseries. Due to the depopulation of the city's interior, however, the number of students has dropped substantially in the last decade, forcing a closure of some institutions. The oldest and largest international school located in Porto is the Oporto British School, established in 1894. There are more international schools in the city, such as the French School[60] and the Deutsch School[61], both created in the 20th century.

Porto has several institutions of higher education, the largest one being the state-managed University of Porto (Universidade do Porto), which is the second largest Portuguese university, after the University of Lisbon, with approximately 28,000 students and considered one of the 100 best Universities in Europe.[62] There is also a state-managed polytechnic institute, the Instituto Politécnico do Porto (a group of technical colleges), and private institutions like the Lusíada University of Porto, Universidade Fernando Pessoa (UFP), the Porto's Higher Education School of Arts (ESAP- Escola Superior Artística do Porto) and a Vatican state university, the Portuguese Catholic University in Porto (Universidade Católica Portuguesa – Porto) and the Portucalense University in Porto (Universidade Portucalense – Infante D. Henrique). Due to the recognition, potential for employment and higher revenue, there are many students from the entire country, particularly from the north of Portugal, attending a college or university in Porto.

For foreigners wishing to study Portuguese in the city there are a number of options. As the most popular city in Portugal for ERASMUS students, most universities have facilities to assist foreigners in learning the language. There are also several private learning institutions in the city.

Public health

Porto district has the highest rate of tuberculosis positive cases in Portugal. Porto tuberculosis rates are at Third World proportions (comparatively, London faces a similar phenomenon).[63] The incidence of positive cases was 23/100 000 nationwide in 1994, with a rate of 24/100 000 in Lisbon and 37/100 000 in Porto. Porto area represented the worst epidemiological situation in the country, with very high rates in some city boroughs and in some poor fishing and declining industrial communities. Epidemiological analysis indicated the existence of undisclosed sources of infection in these communities, responsible for continuing transmission despite a control rate of 83% in the district.[64] In 2002, the situation was not better with 34/100 000 nationwide and 64/100 000 in Porto district. In 2004 the situation improved to 53/100 000.[65]

Sport

Porto, in addition to football, is the home to many athletic sports arenas, most notably the city-owned Pavilhão Rosa Mota, swimming pools in the area of Constituição (between the Marquês and Boavista), and other minor arenas, such as the Pavilhão do Académico.

Porto is home to northern Portugal's only cricket club, the Oporto Cricket and Lawn Tennis Club. Annually, for more than 100 years, a match (the Kendall Cup) has been played between the Oporto Club and the Casuals Club of Lisbon, in addition to regular games against touring teams (mainly from England). The club's pitch is located off the Rua Campo Alegre.

In 1958 and 1960, Porto's streets hosted the Formula One Portuguese Grand Prix on the Boavista street circuit, which are reenacted annually, in addition to a World Touring Car Championship race.

Every year in October the Porto Marathon is held through the streets of the old city of Porto.

Football

As in most Portuguese cities, football is the most important sport. There are two main teams in Porto: FC Porto in the parish of Campanhã, in the eastern part of the city and Boavista in the area of Boavista in the parish of Ramalde, in the western part of the city, close to the city centre. FC Porto is one of the "Big Three" teams in the Portuguese league, and was European champion in 1987 and 2004, won the UEFA Cup (2003) and Europa League (2011) and the Intercontinental Toyota Cup in 1987 and 2004. Boavista have won the championship once, in the 2000–01 season and reached the semi-finals of the UEFA Cup in 2003, where they lost 2–1 to Celtic.

Formerly, Salgueiros from Paranhos was a regular first division club during the 1980s and 1990s but, due to financial indebtedness, the club folded in the 2000s. The club was refounded in 2008 and began playing at the regional level. They now play at the third level of Portugal's national football pyramid. However, the new Salgueiros club plays outside the city in Pedrouços, Maia.

The biggest stadiums in the city are FC Porto's Estádio do Dragão and Boavista's Estádio do Bessa. The first team in Porto to own a stadium was Académico, who played in the Estádio do Lima, Académico was one of the eight teams to dispute the first division. Salgueiros, who sold the grounds of Estádio Engenheiro Vidal Pinheiro field to the Porto Metro and planned on building a new field in the Arca d'Água area of Porto. Located a few hundred metres away from the old grounds, it became impossible to build on this land due to a large underground water pocket, and, consequently, they moved to the Estádio do Mar in Matosinhos (owned by Leixões). For the Euro 2004 football competition, held in Portugal, the Estádio do Dragão was built (replacing the old Estádio das Antas) and the Estádio do Bessa was renovated.

Basketball

The FC Porto (basketball) team plays its home games at the Dragão Caixa. Its squad won the second most championships in the history of Portugal's 1st Division. Traditionally, the club provides the Portuguese national basketball team with numerous key players.[66]

International relations

Twin towns — sister cities

Porto is twinned with:[67]

Notable citizens

References

Bibliography

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  • John Lomas, ed. (1889), "Porto", O'Shea's Guide to Spain and Portugal (8th ed.), Edinburgh: Adam & Charles Black, retrieved 10 February 2016
  • Loyrette, Henri. Gustave Eiffel. New York: Rizzoli, 1985 ISBN 0 8478 0631 6
  • "Porto", A Handbook for Travellers in Portugal (2nd ed.), London: John Murray, 1856, OCLC 34745440, retrieved 10 February 2016
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Notes

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External links

2003–04 UEFA Champions League

The 2003–04 UEFA Champions League was the 12th season of UEFA's premier European club football tournament, the UEFA Champions League, since its rebranding from the European Cup in 1992, and the 49th tournament overall. The competition was won by Portugal's Porto, who defeated AS Monaco of France 3–0 at the Arena AufSchalke in Gelsenkirchen, Germany for Portugal's first win since 1987. This was Porto's second European trophy in two years, following their UEFA Cup success from the previous season. This was the first UEFA Champions League competition to feature a 16-team knockout round instead of a second group stage.

After eliminating (in order) Manchester United, Lyon and Deportivo La Coruña, Porto met AS Monaco in the final. Monaco had previously knocked out Lokomotiv Moscow, Real Madrid and Chelsea.

Milan were the defending champions, but were eliminated by Deportivo La Coruña in the quarter-finals.

2004 UEFA Champions League Final

The 2004 UEFA Champions League Final was a football match played at the Arena AufSchalke in Gelsenkirchen, Germany, on 26 May 2004, to decide the winner of the 2003–04 UEFA Champions League. Monaco, a Monaco-based club representing the French Football Federation, faced Portugal's Porto, who won the match 3–0, with Carlos Alberto, man of the match Deco and Dmitri Alenichev scoring the goals.

Before 2004, Porto's last triumph in the competition had been in 1987 – although they had won the UEFA Cup the previous season – while Monaco were playing in their first ever Champions League final. Both teams started their UEFA Champions League campaigns in the group stage and defeated former European champions on their way to the final. Porto beat 1968 and 1999 winners Manchester United while Monaco defeated nine-time champions Real Madrid.

Both teams were considered underdogs in the competition before the final stages and were led by young managers: Monaco had former France national football team star Didier Deschamps and Porto were led by rising star José Mourinho, who left the team for Chelsea after the final.

Monaco became the second team representing France to reach the Champions League final after Olympique de Marseille. Marseille lost their first appearance in the 1991 final, but triumphed two years later, defeating Milan.

This was the fifth final in the history of the European Cup in which neither of the teams came from England, Germany, Italy or Spain, and the first since the aforementioned 1991 final, when Red Star Belgrade of Yugoslavia beat Marseille.

2018–19 Primeira Liga

The 2018–19 Primeira Liga (also known as Liga NOS for sponsorship reasons) was the 85th season of the Primeira Liga, the top professional league for Portuguese association football clubs. Porto were the defending champions but finished behind Benfica, who became champions for a record 37th time while equalling their own scoring record of 103 goals in the 1963–64 season.

André Villas-Boas

Luís André de Pina Cabral e Villas-Boas (Portuguese pronunciation: [luˈiʃ ɐ̃ˈdɾɛ ðɨ ˈpinɐ kɐˈβɾaɫ i ˈviɫɐʒ ˈboɐʃ]; born 17 October 1977), known as André Villas-Boas, is a Portuguese football manager, who most recently managed Chinese Super League club Shanghai SIPG. He is one of a growing number of top-level managers who have never played football professionally.Highlights in his career include an undefeated 2010–11 season in the Primeira Liga with Porto, winning four trophies and becoming the youngest manager ever to win a European title in the process, helping Tottenham to their then-record tally of 72 points in the Premier League during the 2012–13 season (the highest points for a team to finish outside the top four at the time) and three trophies during his spell with Zenit, achieving the fifth league title in the club's history.

FC Porto

Futebol Clube do Porto, MHIH, OM (Portuguese pronunciation: [futɨˈβɔl ˈkluβ(ɨ) ðu ˈpoɾtu]), commonly known as FC Porto or simply Porto, is a Portuguese sports club based in Porto. It is best known for the professional football team playing in the Primeira Liga, the top flight of Portuguese football

Founded on 28 September 1893, Porto is one of the "Big Three" (Portuguese: Os Três Grandes) teams in Portugal – together with Lisbon-based rivals Benfica and Sporting CP – that have appeared in every season of the Primeira Liga since its establishment in 1934. They are nicknamed Dragões (Dragons), for the mythical creature atop the club's crest, and Azuis e brancos (Blue-and-whites), for the shirt colours. The club supporters are called Portistas. Since 2003, Porto have played their home matches at the Estádio do Dragão, which replaced the previous 103-year-old ground, the Estádio das Antas.

Porto is the second most decorated team in Portugal, with 76 major trophies, of which 69 were achieved in domestic competitions. These comprise 28 Primeira Liga titles (five of which were won consecutively between 1994–95 and 1998–99, a Portuguese football record), 16 Taça de Portugal, 4 Campeonato de Portugal, and a record 21 Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira. Porto is the second team in Portuguese league history to have won two titles without any defeat, namely in the 2010–11 and 2012–13 seasons. In the former, Porto achieved the largest-ever difference of points between champion and runner-up in a three-points-per-win system (21 points), on their way to a second quadruple.

In international competitions, Porto is the most decorated Portuguese team, with seven trophies. They won the European Cup/UEFA Champions League in 1987 and 2004, the UEFA Cup/Europa League in 2003 and 2011, the UEFA Super Cup in 1987, and the Intercontinental Cup in 1987 and 2004. In addition, they were runners-up in the 1983–84 European Cup Winners' Cup and in the 2003, 2004 and 2011 editions of the UEFA Super Cup. Porto is the only Portuguese club to have won the UEFA Cup/Europa League, the UEFA Super Cup and the Intercontinental Cup, and to have achieved a continental treble of domestic league, domestic cup and European titles (2002–03 and 2010–11). Together with Barcelona and Real Madrid, Porto have the most appearances in the UEFA Champions League group stage (21). At the end of the 2017–18 season, Porto ranked 11th in the UEFA club coefficient ranking.

Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense

Grêmio Foot-Ball Porto Alegrense (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈɡɾẽmju ˌfutʃˈbɔw ˌpoɾtw ɐlɛˈɡɾẽsi]), commonly known as Grêmio, is a Brazilian professional football club based in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul. The club plays in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the top tier of the Brazilian football league system, and the Campeonato Gaúcho, Rio Grande do Sul's top state league. The club was founded in 1903.

As of 2017, Grêmio was ranked number one in the CBF club rankings and is listed by Forbes as the third most valuable football club in the Americas with an estimated value of $295.5 million. Grêmio has won 38 Campeonato Gaúcho, 2 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, 1 Campeonato Brasileiro Série B, 1 Supercopa do Brasil, 1 Copa Sul and 5 Copa do Brasil. Internationally, Grêmio has won 1 Intercontinental Cup, 3 Copa Libertadores de América, 2 Recopa Sudamericana and 1 Sanwa Bank Cup. Grêmio plays in a tricolor (blue, black and white) striped shirt, black shorts and white socks.

Grêmio has a fierce rivalry with Internacional, which is widely considered the most heated in Brazil and one of the most heated in the world. Matches between the two teams are known as Grenal.

Hulk (footballer)

Givanildo Vieira de Sousa (born 25 July 1986), known as Hulk (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈhuwki]), is a Brazilian professional footballer who plays for Shanghai SIPG as a forward, though he can also operate as a winger.

After starting out professionally with Vitória and then playing three years in Japan, he went on to play several seasons in Portugal with Porto, winning ten titles – including the 2010–11 UEFA Europa League and three national championships – and being crowned the league's top scorer once. In 2012, he joined Russian Premier League side Zenit Saint Petersburg for €60 million, winning all three domestic honours and being named the competition's best player and being top scorer, once each. He was transferred to Shanghai SIPG for an Asian record €58.6 million in 2016.

Hulk made his international debut in 2009, and played for Brazil at the 2012 Summer Olympics as one of the three permitted over-age players. He went on to represent the Brazilian senior team in their victory at the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup and fourth-place finish at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.

He is described by FIFA's official website as "a direct powerhouse of a centre- or wide-forward who knows his way around the box". He is strongly built for a footballer and acquired his nickname due to his likeness to actor Lou Ferrigno, who played the Incredible Hulk on the eponymous television show in the 1970s.

Iker Casillas

Iker Casillas Fernández (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈikeɾ kaˈsiʎas feɾˈnandeθ]; born 20 May 1981) is a Spanish professional footballer who plays as a goalkeeper for Portuguese club Porto and the Spain national team. Popularly dubbed "San Iker" ("Saint Iker") for his ability to produce spectacular saves, Casillas is widely considered to be one of the greatest goalkeepers of all time, known for his athleticism, quick reactions and outstanding shot-stopping ability.Casillas began his youth career with Real Madrid in 1990. After gaining promotion to the senior team in 1999, he remained with the club for 16 seasons, later serving as club captain. During his highly successful time in Madrid, he won five La Liga titles, two Copa del Rey titles, four Supercopa de España titles, three UEFA Champions League titles, two UEFA Super Cups, one Intercontinental Cup and the FIFA Club World Cup. He also amassed 725 appearances for Real Madrid, the second most in club history, before departing in 2015 to join Porto on a free transfer. In Portugal, Casillas captured a Primeira Liga and Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira title.

Casillas has played for the Spanish national team a record 167 times, and has been an international since June 2000, making him the joint sixth-most capped male footballer in history, and the joint second-most capped European player of all time. He became the nation's first-choice goalkeeper at the 2002 FIFA World Cup, and went on to play at UEFA Euro 2004 and the 2006 World Cup. In 2008, he was made captain, and led the team to that year's European Championship. He also led Spain to their first World Cup in 2010, and retained the European Championship in 2012. In 2014, Casillas also became one of four players to represent Spain at four World Cups.Casillas was nominated for the Ballon d'Or award in 2008, ranking fourth overall. In 2012, he was voted into the UEFA Team of the Year for a record sixth consecutive time. Casillas also holds the record for most appearances by a goalkeeper in the FIFPro World XI, and is the record appearances holder in the UEFA Champions League. He has also played over 1,000 professional matches, and won all major club and international championship titles for which he was eligible with Real Madrid and Spain.

James Rodríguez

James David Rodríguez Rubio (American Spanish: [ˈxamez roˈðɾiɣes]; born 12 July 1991), commonly known simply as James, is a Colombian professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder or winger for German club Bayern Munich on loan from Real Madrid, and the Colombia national team. He has been praised for his technique, vision and playmaking skills, and often referred as the successor to his compatriot Carlos Valderrama.James became well known in Europe during his time at Porto, winning several trophies and individual awards during his three years at the club. In 2014, James moved from AS Monaco to Real Madrid for a transfer fee of £63 million, which beat the one set by Radamel Falcao and made him the most expensive Colombian football player and one of the most expensive players in football. He started his international career with the Colombia under-20 team, with which he won the 2011 Toulon Tournament. He then captained the U-20 team during the 2011 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Due to his performance in the tournament, he was regularly called into the senior squad by the age of 20. He played in the 2014 and 2018 FIFA World Cup, winning the Golden Boot as the top goalscorer in the former tournament and being included in the Cup's All Star Team. He also represented his nation at the 2015 Copa América and the Copa América Centenario in 2016, winning a third-place medal in the latter tournament.

José Mourinho

José Mário dos Santos Mourinho Félix, GOIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʒuˈzɛ moˈɾiɲu]; born 26 January 1963), is a Portuguese professional football coach and former player who most recently served as manager of English club Manchester United. As a manager, Mourinho has won 25 major honours, making him one of the most successful managers of all time. He was named Portuguese Coach of the Century by the Portuguese Football Federation (FPF) in 2015, and holds the distinction of being the first coach to have spent more than £1 billion on transfers. Due to his tactical knowledge, charismatic and controversial personality, and what his opponents regard as an emphasis on getting results over playing beautiful football, he has drawn comparisons, by both admirers and critics, with Argentine manager Helenio Herrera. He is regarded as one of the greatest managers of all time.Following an uneventful career as a player across Portugal's football pyramid, he initially worked as an interpreter for Sir Bobby Robson at Sporting CP and Porto, before gaining success as an assistant at Barcelona under both Robson and his successor, Louis van Gaal. Mourinho then impressed with brief managerial periods at Benfica and União de Leiria, taking the latter to their highest ever league finish. He returned to Porto as head coach in 2002, winning the Primeira Liga, Taça de Portugal and UEFA Cup in his first season, followed by the UEFA Champions League the season after, the club's first European Cup title since 1987, as well as retaining the Primeira Liga title. That success earned him a move to England with Chelsea, where he won the Premier League title in each of his first two seasons, as well as the FA Cup once and the League Cup twice, before departing amid reports of a rift with club owner Roman Abramovich.In 2008, Mourinho joined Italian club Inter Milan, where he won the Serie A title in his first season, before leading the club to become the first Italian side to win the Treble (Serie A, Coppa Italia and UEFA Champions League) in 2010, the latter making him one of five coaches to have won the European Cup with two different teams. He was also the recipient of the first ever FIFA World Coach of the Year award in 2010. He then signed with Real Madrid, where he won the Copa del Rey in his first season and La Liga with a record points total in his second, making him the fifth coach to have won league titles in four different countries. He left Madrid in 2013, however, after winning only the Supercopa de España in his final season there. He then returned to Chelsea, where he won another league title and League Cup, but was dismissed in 2015 after a poor run of results. He was appointed at Manchester United in 2016, where he won the UEFA Europa League and EFL Cup in his first season. Although he led the club to second place in the Premier League the following year, the club's highest league finish since 2013, he did not win any trophies, and was dismissed in December 2018, midway through his third season at the club.

Nuno Espírito Santo

Nuno Herlander Simões Espírito Santo (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈnunu (ɨ)ʃˈpiɾitu ˈsɐ̋tu]; born 25 January 1974), known simply as Nuno as a player, is a Portuguese former footballer who played as a goalkeeper, and is the head coach of Premier League club Wolverhampton Wanderers.

During his career he first made a name for himself in Spain, playing for three teams in five years. He later returned to Portugal to represent Porto, and also played professionally in Russia; he was part of the Portuguese squad at Euro 2008, but never won a cap for the national team.

Espírito Santo became a manager in 2012, leading Rio Ave to both domestic cup finals in 2014 before taking the reins at Valencia.

Port wine

Port wine (also known as vinho do Porto, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌviɲuduˈpoɾtu], Porto, and usually simply port) is a Portuguese fortified wine produced with distilled grape spirits exclusively in the Douro Valley in the northern provinces of Portugal. It is typically a sweet, red wine, often served as a dessert wine, though it also comes in dry, semi-dry, and white varieties. Fortified wines in the style of port are also produced outside Portugal, including in Australia, France, South Africa, Canada, India, Argentina, Spain, and the United States. Under European Union Protected Designation of Origin guidelines, only the product from Portugal may be labelled as port or Porto. In the United States, wines labelled "port" may come from anywhere in the world, while the names "Oporto", "Porto", and "Vinho do Porto" have been recognized as foreign, non-generic names for port wines originating in Portugal.

Porto-Novo

Porto-Novo (French pronunciation: ​[pɔʁtɔnɔvo]; also known as Hogbonu and Ajashe; Fon: Xɔ̀gbónù) is the capital of Benin, and was the capital of French Dahomey. The commune covers an area of 110 square kilometres (42 sq mi) and as of 2002 had a population of 223,552 people.As the name suggests, Porto-Novo (Portuguese: new port, Portuguese pronunciation: [ˡpoɾtʊ ˡnovʊ]) was originally developed as a port for the slave trade led by the Portuguese Empire.

Porto-Novo is a port on an inlet of the Gulf of Guinea, in the southeastern portion of the country. It is Benin's second-largest city, and although Porto-Novo is the official capital, where the national legislature sits, the larger city of Cotonou is the seat of government, where most of the government buildings are situated and government departments operate. The region around Porto-Novo produces palm oil, cotton and kapok. Petroleum was discovered off the coast of the city in the 1990s, and has since then become an important export.

Porto Alegre

Porto Alegre (UK: , US: , local Portuguese: [ˈpoɾtu aˈlɛɡɾi] (listen); lit. "Joyful Harbor") is the capital and largest city of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Founded in 1769 by Manuel Sepúlveda, its population of 1,481,019 inhabitants (2016) makes it the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fifth largest metropolitan area, with 4,405,760 inhabitants (2010). The city is the southernmost capital city of a Brazilian state.Porto Alegre was founded in 1769 by Manuel Jorge Gomes de Sepúlveda, who used the pseudonym José Marcelino de Figueiredo to hide his identity; but the official date is 1772 with the act signed by immigrants from the Azores, Portugal. The vast majority of the population is of European descent.

The city lies on the eastern bank of the Guaíba River (also referred to as a lake), where five rivers converge to form the Lagoa dos Patos (Lagoon of the Ducks), a giant freshwater lagoon navigable by even the largest of ships. This five-river junction has become an important alluvial port as well as a chief industrial and commercial center of Brazil.

In recent years, Porto Alegre hosted the World Social Forum, an initiative of several non-government organizations. The city became famous for being the first city that implemented participatory budgeting. The 9th Assembly of the World Council of Churches was held in Porto Alegre in 2006. Since 2000, Porto Alegre also hosts one of the world's largest free software events, called FISL.

The city was one of the host cities of the 2014 FIFA World Cup, having previously been a venue for the 1950 FIFA World Cup.

Previously a safe city by Brazilian standards, Porto Alegre is going through a growing wave of violence in this decade, and it's now ranked 43rd among the world's 50 most violent cities.

Primeira Liga

The Primeira Liga (European Portuguese: [pɾiˈmɐjɾɐ ˈliɣɐ]; English: Premier League), also known as Liga NOS for sponsorship reasons, is the top professional association football division of the Portuguese football league system. It is organised and supervised by the Liga Portuguesa de Futebol Profissional. As of the 2014–15 season, the Primeira Liga is contested by 18 teams, with the two lowest placed teams relegated to the Segunda Liga and replaced by the top-two non-reserve teams from this division (except in the 2018–19 season in which the three lowest placed teams are relegated to the Segunda Liga due to the integration in the Primeira Liga of Gil Vicente in the next season. However, the Portuguese Football Federation appealed to proceed with this integration as soon as possible.Founded in 1934 as an experimental league called Campeonato da Liga da Primeira Divisão, it was officialised in 1938 and named Campeonato Nacional da Primeira Divisão until 1999, when it was called Primeira Liga. A total of 70 teams have competed in the Primeira Liga, but only five have been crowned champions. Among them, the "Big Three" – Benfica (37 titles), Porto (28) and Sporting CP (18) – have won all but two Primeira Liga titles; the other winners are Belenenses (1945–46) and Boavista (2000–01).The Primeira Liga has increased its reputation in the last few years, occupying as of February 2017, the 7th place of UEFA's league ranking. It broke into the top five for the first time in the 2011–12 season, passing the French Ligue 1, one of the historical "big five" European leagues, for the first time since 1990. The Primeira Liga also reached a world ranking of 4th according to IFFHS's 2011 ranking.

Radamel Falcao

Radamel Falcao García Zárate (Spanish pronunciation: [raðaˈmel falˈkao]; 10 February 1986) is a Colombian professional footballer who plays as a forward for and captains both Monaco and the Colombia national team. He is sometimes nicknamed "El Tigre" (Spanish for The Tiger) or "King of the Europa League".Falcao began his professional career at the age of 13 at Lanceros Boyacá, before moving to the Argentine club River Plate, where he won the 2007–08 Clausura tournament. In 2009, he joined the Portuguese club Porto, where he won several trophies, including the Europa League and Primeira Liga double in 2011. Falcao became their all-time top goalscorer in international club competitions and set the record for most goals (17) in a European campaign. He also became the first Colombian to receive the Portuguese Golden Ball award. In August 2011, Falcao was transferred to Atlético Madrid for a club record €40 million, leading them to Europa League and Super Cup victories in 2012. Falcao finished as top goalscorer for the second straight year and became the first player to win consecutive Europa League titles with two teams. He was named in the FIFA World XI for 2012.In May 2013, Falcao joined newly promoted Monaco for a club record €60 million; however, an ACL injury ruled him out for several months. Falcao spent the next two seasons on loan at Premier League clubs Manchester United and Chelsea, eventually rejoining Monaco in 2016 and leading them to Ligue 1 title for the 2016–17 season.

Falcao made his senior debut for Colombia in 2007, and has since earned 83 caps and scored 33 goals, making him their all-time top scorer. He represented his country at the 2011 and 2015 Copa América. Falcao missed the 2014 FIFA World Cup through injury, but made his World Cup debut at the 2018 tournament in Russia.

Sport Club Internacional

Sport Club Internacional (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˌĩteɾnɐsjoˈnaw]), commonly known as Inter, is a professional football club based in Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Founded in April 4, 1909 by the Poppe brothers, with the clear goal of being a democratic institution without prejudice. Its colors are red and white and its fans are known as Colorados. It is one of the most successful clubs in Brazil and America in recent years, being the third club with the most international titles in Brazil, with 7 trophies. Its historical rival is Grêmio, with whom it contests the Grenal, one of the greatest derbies of the world.Internacional plays in the Brasileirão Série A as well as in the Campeonato Gaúcho, the state of Rio Grande do Sul's premier state league. The team's home stadium, known as Beira-Rio ("Riverside"), was one of the twelve 2014 FIFA World Cup venues and has a capacity of 51,300.

Internacional is part of a large membership-based sports club with more than 200,000. Internacional was South American champions in 2010, winning their second Copa Libertadores title. The year 2006 was the most successful in Inter's history as they won the Copa Libertadores and the FIFA Club World Cup for the first time, defeating European champions Barcelona in the latter and Club World Cup reigning champions São Paulo in the former. Other major honours include the 1975, 1976 and 1979 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A, the latter being undefeated throughout the campaign, the 2007 and the 2011 Recopa Sudamericana, the 1992 Copa do Brasil and the 2008 Copa Sudamericana.

Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira

The Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈsupɛɾ ˈtasɐ ˈkɐ̃didu dɨ oliˈvɐjɾɐ]; English: Cândido de Oliveira Super Cup, or simply Portuguese Super Cup) is an annual Portuguese football match played since 1979 between the winners of the previous season's league (Primeira Liga) and cup (Taça de Portugal) competitions. In the case that one team has won both competitions (i.e. the double, Portuguese: dobradinha), then it will play again against the runners-up of the Taça de Portugal.

The Supertaça has been organised by the Portuguese Football Federation since 1981, and is usually played in August, just before the start of the league season. The trophy is named after former player, coach, and sports journalist Cândido de Oliveira.

Taça de Portugal

The Taça de Portugal (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈtasɐ dɨ puɾtuˈɡaɫ]; Cup of Portugal) is an annual association football competition and the premier knockout tournament in Portuguese football. For sponsorship reasons, it has been known as Taça de Portugal Placard as of the 2015–16 season. Organised by the Portuguese Football Federation since it was first held in 1938, the competition is open to professional and amateur clubs from the top-four league divisions. Matches are played from August–September to May–June, and the final is traditionally held at the Estádio Nacional in Oeiras, near Lisbon. The winners qualify for the Supertaça Cândido de Oliveira (or the runners-up, in case the winners are also the league champions) and the UEFA Europa League (unless they already qualify for the UEFA Champions League through league placing).

Before 1938, a similar competition was held since 1922 under the name Campeonato de Portugal (English: Championship of Portugal), which determined the national champions from among the different regional championship winners. The establishment of the Primeira Liga, a nationwide league-based competition, as the official domestic championship in 1938, led to the conversion of the Campeonato de Portugal into the main domestic cup competition, under its current designation. In fact, the trophy awarded to the Portuguese Cup winners is the same that was awarded to the Campeonato de Portugal winners, although titles in each competition are counted separately.

The first winners of the Taça de Portugal were Académica, who defeated Benfica 4–3 in the 1939 final. Benfica are the most successful team in the competition, with 26 trophies in 36 final appearances. Desportivo das Aves are the current holders, who beat Sporting CP 2–1 in the 2018 final.

Climate data for Porto (Fontaínhas), elevation: 93 m or 305 ft, 1981-2010 normals , extremes 1981-2007
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.3
(73.9)
23.2
(73.8)
28.5
(83.3)
30.2
(86.4)
34.1
(93.4)
38.7
(101.7)
40.0
(104.0)
40.9
(105.6)
36.9
(98.4)
32.2
(90.0)
26.3
(79.3)
24.8
(76.6)
40.9
(105.6)
Average high °C (°F) 13.8
(56.8)
15.0
(59.0)
17.4
(63.3)
18.1
(64.6)
20.1
(68.2)
23.5
(74.3)
25.3
(77.5)
25.7
(78.3)
24.1
(75.4)
20.7
(69.3)
17.1
(62.8)
14.4
(57.9)
19.6
(67.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.5
(49.1)
10.4
(50.7)
12.6
(54.7)
13.7
(56.7)
15.9
(60.6)
19.0
(66.2)
20.6
(69.1)
20.8
(69.4)
19.5
(67.1)
16.4
(61.5)
13.0
(55.4)
10.7
(51.3)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.9
(42.6)
7.8
(46.0)
9.1
(48.4)
11.6
(52.9)
14.5
(58.1)
15.9
(60.6)
15.9
(60.6)
14.7
(58.5)
12.2
(54.0)
8.9
(48.0)
6.9
(44.4)
10.7
(51.3)
Record low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−2.8
(27.0)
−1.6
(29.1)
0.1
(32.2)
3.3
(37.9)
5.6
(42.1)
9.5
(49.1)
8.0
(46.4)
5.5
(41.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.3
(31.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
−3.3
(26.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 147.1
(5.79)
110.5
(4.35)
95.6
(3.76)
117.6
(4.63)
89.6
(3.53)
39.9
(1.57)
20.4
(0.80)
32.9
(1.30)
71.9
(2.83)
158.3
(6.23)
172.0
(6.77)
181.0
(7.13)
1,237
(48.7)
Percent possible sunshine 40 42 52 55 55 61 66 68 63 54 46 44 54
Source: IPMA[42]
Climate data for Porto (Fontaínhas), elevation: 100 m or 330 ft, 1961-1990 normals and extremes
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.3
(72.1)
22.7
(72.9)
26.5
(79.7)
27.5
(81.5)
34.7
(94.5)
38.7
(101.7)
38.3
(100.9)
38.2
(100.8)
36.9
(98.4)
32.2
(90.0)
27.7
(81.9)
24.8
(76.6)
38.7
(101.7)
Average high °C (°F) 13.5
(56.3)
14.3
(57.7)
16.2
(61.2)
17.5
(63.5)
19.6
(67.3)
22.7
(72.9)
24.7
(76.5)
25.0
(77.0)
24.0
(75.2)
20.9
(69.6)
16.7
(62.1)
13.9
(57.0)
19.1
(66.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.3
(48.7)
10.1
(50.2)
11.5
(52.7)
12.9
(55.2)
15.1
(59.2)
18.1
(64.6)
19.9
(67.8)
19.8
(67.6)
19.0
(66.2)
16.2
(61.2)
12.3
(54.1)
9.9
(49.8)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.1
(41.2)
5.9
(42.6)
6.8
(44.2)
8.3
(46.9)
10.6
(51.1)
13.5
(56.3)
15.0
(59.0)
14.6
(58.3)
13.9
(57.0)
11.4
(52.5)
7.9
(46.2)
5.9
(42.6)
9.9
(49.8)
Record low °C (°F) −3.3
(26.1)
−3.0
(26.6)
−1.8
(28.8)
0.1
(32.2)
2.6
(36.7)
5.6
(42.1)
9.0
(48.2)
8.0
(46.4)
5.5
(41.9)
1.4
(34.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
−2.1
(28.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 171.0
(6.73)
169.0
(6.65)
112.0
(4.41)
112.0
(4.41)
89.0
(3.50)
53.0
(2.09)
16.0
(0.63)
22.0
(0.87)
64.0
(2.52)
131.0
(5.16)
152.0
(5.98)
176.0
(6.93)
1,267
(49.88)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 14.0 13.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 6.0 2.0 3.0 6.0 10.0 12.0 12.0 108
Average relative humidity (%) 81.0 80.0 75.0 74.0 74.0 74.0 73.0 73.0 76.0 80.0 81.0 81.0 76.8
Mean monthly sunshine hours 124.0 129.0 192.0 217.0 258.0 274.0 308.0 295.0 224.0 184.0 139.0 124.0 2,468
Source: NOAA[43]
Climate data for Porto
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average sea temperature °C (°F) 14.3
(57.7)
13.8
(56.9)
13.8
(56.9)
15.2
(59.3)
16.5
(61.7)
17.3
(63.2)
17.2
(63.0)
17.6
(63.7)
18.1
(64.5)
17.7
(63.9)
17.0
(62.6)
15.5
(59.9)
16.2
(61.1)
Mean daily daylight hours 10.0 11.0 12.0 13.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 12.0 11.0 10.0 9.0 12.3
Average Ultraviolet index 2 3 4 6 7 8 8 8 6 4 2 1 4.9
Source: Weather Atlas [44]
Pt-prt1.png Porto
Municipalities of Porto District
Parishes of Porto municipality
Municipalities of Porto Metropolitan Area
Norte
Centro
Lisboa
Alentejo
Azores
Madeira

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