Port of Gdynia – the Polish seaport located on the western coast of Gdańsk Bay Baltic sea in Gdynia. Founded in 1926. In 2008 it was #2 in containers on the Baltic sea. The port adjoins Gdynia Naval Base with which it shares waterways but is administratively a separate entity.
|Port of Gdynia|
dock of the port
|Operated by||Port of Gdynia Authority|
|Owned by||City of Gdynia|
|Type of harbor||deepwater seaport|
|Annual container volume||849,123(2014)|
|Value of cargo||19,405 (2014)|
Port of Gdynia Authority
Morski Związkowy Klub Sportowy Arka Gdynia (Polish pronunciation: [ˈarka ˈɡdɨɲa]) is a Polish professional football club, based in Gdynia, Poland, that plays in the Polish Ekstraklasa. The club was founded as Klub Sportowy Gdynia in 1929.Battle of Kępa Oksywska
The Battle of Kępa Oksywska took place in the Oksywie Heights outside the city of Gdynia between September 10 and September 19, 1939. The battle, fought by the Polish Army and the German Wehrmacht, was part of the Polish September Campaign during World War II. It was one of the bloodiest battles of the campaign, with Polish KIA losses reaching roughly 14% of all the forces engaged.CRIST
CRIST is a shipyard, located in the Port of Gdynia, Poland.
Founded in 1990 it now mainly produces ships for the offshore industry including wind turbine installation vessels .CRIST is a shareholder in a joint company with Bilfinger Construction to produce foundations for offshore wind farms.Customs war
A Customs war, also known as a toll war or tariff war, is a type of economic conflict between two or more states. In order to pressure one of the states, the other raises taxes or tariffs for some of the products of that state. As a reprisal, the latter state may also increase the tariffs.
One example of a modern tariff war occurred in the 1920s and 1930s between the Weimar Republic and Poland, in the German–Polish customs war. The Weimar Republic, led by Gustav Stresemann wanted to force Poland, by creating an economic crisis by increasing the tolls for coal and steel products developed there, to give up its territory. As a reprisal, the Poles increased toll rates for many German products. This led to fast development of the port of Gdynia, which was the only way Poland could export its goods to Western Europe without having to transport them through Germany.
In September 1922 the Fordney–McCumber Tariff (named after Joseph Fordney, chair of the House Ways and Means Committee, and Porter McCumber, chair of the Senate Finance Committee) was signed by U.S. President Warren G. Harding. In the end, the tariff law raised the average American ad valorem tariff rate to 38 percent.
Trading partners complained immediately. Those injured by World War I said that, without access by their exports to the American market, they would not be able to make payments to America on war loans. But others saw that this tariff increase would have broader deleterious effects. Democratic Representative Cordell Hull said, "Our foreign markets depend both on the efficiency of our production and the tariffs of countries in which we would sell. Our own [high] tariffs are an important factor in each. They injure the former and invite the latter."
Five years after the passage of the tariff, American trading partners had raised their own tariffs by a significant degree. France raised its tariffs on automobiles from 45% to 100%, Spain raised tariffs on American goods by 40%, and Germany and Italy raised tariffs on wheat. This customs war is often cited as one of the main causes of the Great Depression.
The World Trade Organization was created to avoid customs wars, which are considered harmful to the world's economy.French-Polish Rail Association
French-Polish Rail Association (Polish: Francusko-Polskie Towarzystwo Kolejowe, FPTK, French: Compagnie Franco-Polonaise de Chemins de Fer, CFPCF) was a Joint-stock company, established in 1931 to complete construction and then usage of the Polish Coal Trunk-Line. Its offices were in Paris, Warsaw, and Bydgoszcz. Its manager in chief was a Frenchman, Charles Laurent.
In the early 1920s, the Polish government decided to construct a rail line connecting Polish part of Upper Silesia with Baltic Sea coast. The Polish Coal Trunk-Line was one of the biggest investments of the Second Polish Republic, and its construction, until 1930, was funded by the government. However, the Great Depression caused growing budget problems for the Polish State Railways, and completion of the line was questioned. Under the circumstances, the Polish government decided that the newly created French-Polish Rail Association would take over construction of the middle sector of the line.
The Association was officially created on April 21, 1931, in Paris. Its shareholders were the Polish Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego and the French Banque des Pays du Nord, as well as industrial giant Schneider et Creusot, which since 1924 had been part of a French–Polish Consortium for construction of the port in Gdynia. Furthermore, Schneider et Creusot was a shareholder of some Upper Silesian coal mines and steel plants, and for these reasons, the corporation was vividly interested in completion of the line. Founder’s capital was 15 million French francs.
The French-Polish Rail Association took over construction of the following sectors of the line:
Herby Nowe - Inowrocław,
Nowa Wieś Wielka - Bydgoszcz Wschód Towarowa - Gdynia Port.Additionally, FPTK began construction of a line Chorzew Siemkowice - Częstochowa, which was finished in April 1939. It joined the Polish Coal Trunk-Line with the industrial city of Częstochowa.
The Association was granted the use of the line for 40 years; however, the Polish government assured the right to buy the line after 20 years. In the agreement, the Poles made sure that during construction, Polish workers would be employed, and Polish material would be used. Trains of the Polish State Railways were allowed to use the line without restrictions. Military and mail transports were granted the same privileges as they enjoyed on all government-owned lines. To finance all projects, the Association took a loan from a French bank, with the Polish government as a voucher.
On Wednesday, March 1, 1933, the 156-kilometer segment Zduńska Wola Karsznice - Inowrocław was opened, which resulted in immediate opening of rail cargo traffic along the whole line. The opening ceremony took place at the newly built rail station at Karsznice, and it was broadcast by the Polish Radio. The line, with double track along its route, was not completely ready until 1937. Due to a lack of finances needed to buy rail engines and cars, from 1933 to 1937, FPTK allowed Polish Railways to temporarily use the Trunk Line, until January 1, 1938, when the line was handed back to the Association. The national budget of Poland yielded an annual profit of 12 million zlotys from taxes and dividends from use of the line. In August 1938, in order to assure closer cooperation with authority of the port of Gdynia, FPTK became part of The Council of the Port. In the 1930s, general manager of the Association was a Frenchman Charles Laurent, and his deputy - Julian Piasecki. Since 1936, general office of FPTK was located in the office building in Bydgoszcz, which had been the headquarters of the Prussian Eastern Railway.Gdańsk
Gdańsk (, Polish: [ɡdaj̃sk] (listen); Kashubian: Gduńsk; German: Danzig [ˈdantsɪç] (listen)) is a Polish city on the Baltic coast. With a population of 466,631, Gdańsk is the capital and largest city of the Pomeranian Voivodeship and one of the most prominent cities within the cultural and geographical region of Kashubia. It is Poland's principal seaport and the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city is located on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay (of the Baltic Sea), in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population approaching 1.4 million.
Gdańsk is the capital of Gdańsk Pomerania and the largest city of north Poland. The city's history is complex, with periods of Polish rule, periods of Prussian or German rule, and periods of autonomy or self-rule as a "free city". In the early-modern age Gdańsk was a royal city of Poland. It was considered the wealthiest and the largest city of Poland, prior to the 18th century rapid growth of Warsaw. Between the world wars, the Free City of Danzig, having a German majority, was in a customs union with Poland and was situated between East Prussia and the so-called Polish Corridor.
Gdańsk lies at the mouth of the Motława River, connected to the Leniwka, a branch in the delta of the nearby Vistula River, which drains 60 percent of Poland and connects Gdańsk with the Polish capital, Warsaw. Together with the nearby port of Gdynia, Gdańsk is also a notable industrial center. In the late Middle Ages it was an important seaport and shipbuilding town and, in the 14th and 15th centuries, a member of the Hanseatic League.
In the interwar period, owing to its multi-ethnic make-up and history, Gdańsk lay in a disputed region between Poland and the Weimar Republic, which later became Nazi Germany. The city's ambiguous political status was exploited, furthering tension between the two countries, which would ultimately culminate in the Invasion of Poland and the first clash of the Second World War just outside the city limits, followed by the flight and expulsion of the majority of the previous population in 1945. In the 1980s it would become the birthplace of the Solidarity movement, which played a major role in bringing an end to Communist rule in Poland and helped precipitate the collapse of the Eastern Bloc, the fall of the Berlin Wall and the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
Gdańsk is home to the University of Gdańsk, Gdańsk University of Technology, the National Museum, the Gdańsk Shakespeare Theatre, the Museum of the Second World War, Polish Baltic Philharmonic and the European Solidarity Centre. The city also hosts St. Dominic's Fair, which dates back to 1260, and is regarded as one of the biggest trade and cultural events in Europe.Gdynia
Gdynia [ˈɡdɨɲa] (listen) (German: Gdingen, 1939-1945 Gotenhafen; Kashubian: Gdiniô) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and a seaport of Gdańsk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. Located in Kashubia in Eastern Pomerania, Gdynia has a population of 246,309 making it the twelfth-largest city in Poland and the second-largest in the voivodeship after Gdańsk. It is part of a conurbation with the spa town of Sopot, the city of Gdańsk and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the Tricity (Trójmiasto), with a population of over a million people.
For centuries, Gdynia remained a small farming and fishing village on the Baltic coast. At the beginning of the 20th-century Gdynia became a seaside resort town and experienced an inflow of tourists. This triggered an increase in local population. After Poland regained its independence in 1918, a decision was made to construct a Polish seaport in Gdynia, between the Free City of Danzig (a semi-autonomous city-state under joint League of Nations and Polish administration) and German Pomerania, making Gdynia the primary economic hub of the Polish Corridor. It was then that the town was given a more cosmopolitan character with modernism being the dominant architectural style and emerged as a city in 1926.
The rapid development of Gdynia was interrupted by the outbreak of World War II. The German troops refrained from deliberate bombing. The newly built port and shipyard were completely destroyed during the war. The population of the city suffered much heavier losses as most of the inhabitants were evicted and expelled. The locals were either displaced to other regions of occupied Poland or sent to Nazi concentration camps throughout Europe. After the war, Gdynia was settled with the former inhabitants of Warsaw and lost cities such as Lviv and Vilnius in the Eastern Borderlands. The city was gradually regenerating itself with its shipyard being rebuilt and expanded. In December 1970 the shipyard workers protest against the increase of prices was bloodily repressed. This greatly contributed to the rise of the Solidarity movement in Gdańsk.
Today the port of Gdynia is a regular stopover on the itinerary of luxurious passenger ships and a new ferry terminal with a civil airport are under realisation. The city won numerous awards in relation to safety, infrastructure, quality of life and a rich variety of tourist attractions. In 2013 Gdynia was ranked as Poland's best city to live in and topped the rankings in the overarching category of general quality of life. Gdynia is also highly noted for its access to education. There are prestigious universities such as the Polish Naval Academy nearby.
Gdynia hosts the Gdynia Film Festival, the main Polish film festival, and was the venue for the International Random Film Festival in 2014.Lwów (ship)
Lwów was the first officially registered Polish sailing-ship. Launched in 1869 in Birkenhead, England, as frigate Chinsura, from 1883 she was named Lucco; then until 1920, Nest. Since 1920 she was under the Polish banner. Named Lwów, after the third biggest city of the Second Polish Republic, she cruised the whole world in the 1920s, being the first ship under Polish banner to have crossed the Equator, during a cruise to Brazil in 1923. She was also the first Polish training ship. Her notable captains included Mamert Stankiewicz.
She was eventually replaced as the Polish training ship by the newer Dar Pomorza. She was briefly used as a hulk by Polish Navy; retired in 1938, and was scrapped soon afterwards in the Baltic Sea port of Gdynia. Captain and marine writer Karol Olgierd Borchardt named Lwów "The cradle of navigators of the Polish Navy".MS Chrobry
MS Chrobry was an ocean-going passenger ship, so far the last such newbuilding for the Polish merchant marine. She was built for the Poland – South America Line to replace the aging SS Kościuszko and the SS Pulaski. Built in Denmark as the younger and bigger ship of a pair of consorts, she was named in honour of the first Polish king Bolesław I Chrobry. The name of the King means "Braveheart".
The ship was in the middle of its maiden passenger voyage to South America when World War II broke out. Among the Polish personalities on board were senator Rembielinski, minister Mazurkiewicz, author Bohdan Pawłowicz, and the young writer Witold Gombrowicz, who had been invited to advertise the trip During the war the ship was rebuilt in Britain to become a troop transport. As a transatlantic liner she made only one transatlantic voyage, never coming back to her home port of Gdynia.
The ship was used as a transport during the Norwegian Campaign, in the area around Narvik. On 14 May 1940 she sailed from Tjeldsundet transporting British troops to Bodø. Just before midnight German dive bombers attacked the ship three times in the middle of the Vestfjorden, setting the ship on fire, exploding ammunition, and killing several army officers and men. One of the escorts, the destroyer HMS Wolverine, took off 700 survivors from the ship, while the other escort, the sloop HMS Stork, stood on guard and drove off other German aircraft, then took off the remaining survivors. Both escorts, loaded with survivors, sailed for Harstad. The abandoned Chrobry was scuttled by aircraft from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal on 16 May. A considerable amount of equipment went down with the ship.ORP General Haller
ORP General Haller was a Filin-class guard ship originally built for the Imperial Russian Navy. She was later acquired by the Polish Navy and served until sunk during the Invasion of Poland on 6 September 1939.ORP Gryf (1957)
ORP Gryf was a school and hospital ship of the Polish Navy, a second vessel to bear that name. She was built in German-occupied Denmark as a cargo ship in 1944, shortly before the end of World War II and initially named Irene Oldendorff. Soon after the capitulation of Germany, she was taken by the United Kingdom, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Contees, but in 1946 it was given to the Soviet Union as part of that country's war reparations from Germany. Renamed Omsk (Омск), she served in the Soviet merchant fleet until 1947 when she was sold to Poland.
In 1950, she was acquired by the Polish Navy and rebuilt as a school and hospital ship. Initially named ORP Zetempowiec (after the Union of Polish Youth), in 1957 she was renamed Gryf after the notable WWII minelayer. In 1976 she was decommissioned and sold to the Port of Gdynia, where she served as a heating barge. Her role of a school ship was taken by a new ORP Gryf.Polish Coal Trunk-Line
The Coal Trunk-Line (Polish: Magistrala Węglowa) is one of the most important rail connections in Poland.
It crosses the central part of the country, from the coal mines and steelworks of Upper Silesia in the South to the Baltic Sea port of Gdynia in the North. The line is used mostly by freight trains: passenger connections on it are few. Constructed in the late 1920s and early 1930s, it was one of the biggest investments of the Second Polish Republic.Robur (company)
Związek Kopalń Górnośląskich Robur (English: Association of Upper Silesian Coal Mines Robur), was a wholesale coal merchant, which cooperated with a number of mines located in Second Polish Republic’s Silesian Voivodeship. Its main office was located in Katowice.
Robur was founded in 1921 by a company named Emanuel Friedländer Co. Since 1928, it was turned into a limited partnership, which belonged to three companies: Alfred Falter, M. A. Goldschmidt-Rotschild and F. Oppenheimer. Robur cooperated with several Upper Silesian coal mines and coal associations, such as:
Rybnik Coal Mining Consortium,
Charlotte Coal Mining Consortium from Rybnik,
mines and steelworks of the Donnersmarck family,
East Upper Silesian Works of Count Nicolas von Ballestrem (since 1931: Ruda Slaska Coal Mining Consortium),
Godulla S.A. from Chebzie,
Waterloo Coal Mining Consortium from Zaleze,
Pokoj Steel Mill from Nowy Bytom,
Wirek S.A. from Wirek.Robur was the wholesale coal merchant of interbellum Poland. Its managers were very active in international markets. After the German–Polish customs war, the company found new markets in Scandinavia. In 1927, Robur signed and agreement with Polish Ministry of Industry and Commerce, in which it rented for 35 years a wharf in a Baltic Sea port of Gdynia. At the same time, Robur pledged to export 125,000 tons of coal monthly, to fund four cranes for the port, and to purchase six bulk carriers.
In 1932, Robur’s share in Polish coal sales reached 26%, and in export sales - 30%. The company had two general managers, Stanislaw Wachowiak and Jerzy Kramsztyk. Robur ceased to exist in September 1939 (see Invasion of Poland).SS Olza
SS Olza was the first dry cargo freighter built in Poland after the country regained independence in 1918, and the only large commercial ship built before World War II. Owned by the Żegluga Polska company, she was named after the Olza River which flows through Cieszyn Silesia.
In 1918 Poland regained independence and based on President Woodrow Wilson's promise to grant Poland access to the sea the newly formed Polish Republic obtained the Polish Corridor and a tiny strip of Baltic Sea coast. However, Poland was not granted the port of Danzig (Gdańsk) and the city was turned into the Free City of Danzig. Thus, despite retaining some rights and limited sovereignty over the city, Poland had no port of her own - nor any shipyards. To ensure its foreign trade and shipping were independent the port of Gdynia was built, mainly due to the efforts of Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, along with several shipyards serving both the Polish Navy and the merchant marine. Simultaneously, various Polish universities started to teach a cadre of future naval engineers. Among them was Henryk Giełdzik, a young engineer and a graduate of the Danzig university of technology. Within a relatively short time of some years Gdynia became a flourishing sea port and a serious competitor to the Free City.
The shipyards at Gdynia initially focused on smaller vessels, suitable for off-shore duty of Baltic Sea cruises, but not for the high seas. However, by the late 1930s the shipyards gathered enough experience and a decision was made to build a large dry cargo ship for the Polish merchant marine, the first such vessel built entirely at home. Designed by Henryk Giełdzik, the ship was named SS Olza, after an eponymous river flowing through Cieszyn Silesia.
The keel was laid 28 August 1938 in the Gdynia Shipyard. Most of the elements were produced by Świętochłowice-based Zgoda Steel Works, while minor parts were purchased from other contractors in Poland and the United Kingdom. The works continued as planned and launching was scheduled for mid-September 1939. However, on 1 September 1939 Germany invaded Poland starting World War II. As the Polish-German border was only a dozen-or-so kilometres from Gdynia, the shipyard was almost on the front-line. Because of that, it was decided to launch the ship prematurely on 8 September 1939, in order to block the slipway in case the shipyard got under German control.
Following the German takeover of Gdynia, the ship was remodelled and drafted into the German marine, eventually renamed in May 1941 to "Westpreussen". The ship was being moved from port to port eventually being docked in Königsberg, where it has been seized by the advancing Red Army.
The further fate of the ship was unknown since then. She was not returned to Poland after the war and no trace of her has been found in German archives. The investigation, intended to find the ship, was carried out in the 1980s by the Polish Television. It has been discovered that the ship has been reworked by the Soviets in 1958 to be a part of Kaliningrad fishing fleet, and renamed "Ingul (Russian: ИНГУЛ)". The ship has been in operation until June 1970, when it was recalled and eventually scrapped.Sea Towers
The two-tower skyscraper Sea Towers is a mixed-use complex on the Gdynia waterfront, Poland, 50 metres from the main port of Gdynia developed by Invest Komfort SA. Tourist attractions such as the beach, boardwalk and retired Polish WWII naval ship ORP Błyskawica (lightning) are all within walking distance. Construction commenced on 10 May 2006 and was completed on 28 February 2009. At 143.6 meters, Sea Towers is the 12th tallest building in Poland and the second tallest residential building in the country. Apartments are for sale, and the complex can double as a hotel. There is a viewing terrace on floor 32, the top floor of the tallest tower of the two.Stocznia Gdynia
Stocznia Gdynia is a shipyard, located in the Port of Gdynia, Poland. It was founded in 1922. Since 2009, in liquidation - does not conduct production activities.
In 1970, workers of Gdynia Shipyard rose up against the ruling Polish Communist Party. About 20 people died fighting with army and police in the streets of Gdynia during the Polish 1970 protests. That had a great influence on creating the Solidarity movement in 1980. In 1998 it bought the Gdańsk Shipyard. The current name is Stocznia Gdynia S.A.Trasa Kwiatkowskiego
Trasa im. Eugeniusza Kwiatkowskiego (Trasa Kwiatkowskiego) – is a highway in Gdynia named after Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski linking the Port of Gdynia to the Tricity beltway (Obwodnica Trójmiejska) and therefore A1 motorway. It is currently 5.4 km long and was completed after 34 years of construction.Vice admiral
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.Zduńska Wola
Zduńska Wola [ˈzduɲska ˈvɔla] is a town in central Poland with 42,698 inhabitants (2016). Situated in the Łódź Province (since 1999), previously in Sieradz Province (1975–1998). It is the seat of Zduńska Wola County. The town was once one of the largest cloth, linen and cotton weaving centres in Poland and is the birthplace of Saint Maximilian Kolbe and Maksymilian Faktorowicz, the founder of Max Factor cosmetics company.